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Research proposal presentation

Transcript: The perceived value of PE Aims: To identify the current research regarding PE and academic performance To propose a research idea that addresses some of the limitations highlighted in previous research PE is under threat Time allocated to PE Looming cuts in curriculum time for PE Stereotypical view - PE takes time away from academic subjects Research Question and how it builds upon current knowledge and understanding The Question... Does time allocated to Physical Education affect academic performance in UK secondary school children? Research Hypothesis This study hypothesises that the more time allocated to PE the higher pupils academic performance will be (due to an increase in physical activity). What do we know already? Evidence is starting to suggest that PA could be linked with improvements in brain function and cognition (Thomas et al, 1994). Shephard (1997) - PA increases cerebral blood flow; enhancing nutrient intake, changing hormonal levels and increases arousal Linder, (1999) – PA increases concentration and reduces boredom in lessons Hervet, (1952) – PA increases attendance and improves behaviour Cotman, Berchtold &Christie (2007) - PA promotes healthy neurons = increased memory For Coe et al. (2006) 55 minute reduction in classroom based time, reallocated to PE = no difference in Maths English and Science scores over two semesters Shephard (1997) – 14% reduction in classroom time = 15.5% increase in academic performance in Maths, English Science and French grades Tremarche, Robinson and Graham (2007) - extra time can be allocated to PE successfully at the expense of academic classroom time, without a negative effect on academic performance Dwyer et al. (2001) - 210 min a week reduction in classroom time no difference in maths and reading scores Against Carlson et al. (2008) – 5 year study, recorded mins per week students were active, no relationship between time active and academic performance Yu et al, (2006) Girls have lower participation rates but achieve more academically Daley & Ryan (2000) no significant relationship existed between academic performance in Maths, English and Science scores and the amount of PE. – Negative correlation therefore more PE would have a detrimental effect Research has lacked a PE focus Many studies focus on PA levels as well as PE which can undermine the value of PE. Hervert (1952) a heavily cited article – added vitamin supplements and looked at other factors Many interventions conducted over a short period of time. Etnier et al., (1997) suggest that effects are only sustained over a long period of PA. Research unable to exclude other factors Keinänen et al. (2000) many studies do not take into account other factors for PE and effect of academic performance Such as attendance and gender Bailey et al (2006) – The research comes from small-scale studies, based on self-administered and self-evaluated designs Our research... Will build upon existing research that exists from outside of the UK Can easily be spread out over a wide range of schools Allows for high amounts of detail in any one school Uses predetermined measures removing self-administered designs, methods and bias Focuses specifically on time allocated to PE and academic performance (GCSE performance) Removes underlying factors that have been identified as reducing the validity of other studies Approaches to the question Research Paradigm Positivistic view Achieving direct knowledge Directly observable Population and Sample Case Study All year 11 pupils (males and females) within one school Minimises the effect of confounding variables Ethical Considerations Ethical Clearance Consent Confidentiality Data Storage Right to withdraw Data collection Retrospective view of the number of hours pupils participate in PE per week Core PE + GCSE PE (if applicable) Data on all pupils’ grades in Maths, English and Science will be received from the school In addition, if each pupil achieved 5 A*-C grades will be noted Data analysis Comparison of the amount of time allocated to PE and the GCSE grades pupils achieve. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Individual letter grades will be converted to numeric data: A*=8, A=7, B=6, C=5, D=4, E=3 F=2, G=1 U/X=0 GCSE PE (Yes=0 & No=1), and gender (Males=0 & Females=1) Use an ‘independent t test’ to find the differences between means of the two experimental conditions Limitations Lacks generalisability Changing time for lessons; lessons lost to exams etc. and days off not considered Intensity of physical activity in lessons/ effort levels not considered Involvement in extra-curricular PE was not taken into account No consideration for CVA – do those taking GCSE PE have more CVA in all subjects? Self-administered questionnaires of pupils’ participation in PE An interpretivistic approach Frazer and Lawley (2000:8) state; ‘If the problem is well-defined and specific, and information on attitudes and opinions are required, then a questionnaire with many closed

Research Proposal Presentation

Transcript: Online Counselling: The demographics, motives and experiences of people who use Mobile-Instant-Messenger counselling instead of telephone or face to face counselling No health without mental health (WHO, 2005). Large 'treatment gap' and numerous access barriers. mHealth (mobile phones for health) encouraged by WHO, can take advantage of high phone penetration in developing world, can circumvent certain barriers. Mobile-Instant-Messenger counselling has been offered by (at least) 5 service providers in South Africa already. Key research questions (of semi-structured interview): The experience of communication in the MIM-mediated environment. The differences between MIM-mediated and telephone or face to face counselling (for those with relevant experience). The motivation for selecting MIM-based counselling over telephone or face to face counselling. Data analysis: Thematic Analysis, secondary researcher analysing two randomly-selected interviews. Recursive process until consensual agreement on themes. The online counselling literature focuses mainly on email-mediated counselling and the perspectives of counsellors and prospective clients. Under-examined areas of online counselling research: factors that 'promote and inhibit' motivations. reactions of actual online counselling service users. demographics of service users I.e. The demographics, motives and experience of clients who use MIM-counselling over telephone or face to face counselling. Motivation Method (continued...) Suggested Title Ethical Considerations Aims In South Africa, MXit is very popular: 49 million registrations, approximately 10 million active users. JamiiX facilitates a one-to-many relationship: 1 counsellor, logged in to JamiiX, as an 'exchange' member, via PC. Many clients accessing 'exchange' via their mobile phone or PC. Many counsellors auto-assigned clients by the 'exchange'. Conversations can be passed between 'exchange' members. Mobile-Instant-Messenger (MIM) Request for waiver of handwritten consent Adjusted consent (recorded via synchronous chat). Signed consent would break from the online setting and introduce confidentiality and anonymity issues which are central to the medium and ethos of the service. Possibility of minors as participants (without dual consent). Risk to participants is very low, possibly upsetting questions can be removed without jeopardising the aims of the study. Has been approved in international research (King, Bambling, Reid and Thomas, 2006). Individual interviews, conducted via synchronous chat. Sample population are people accessing the Drug Advice Support service via MXit (and PCs?) as offered by RLabs. Incentivised recruitment by counsellors, who can transfer client to new 'exchange member', post-counselling. n = approx. 100 for Basic Information Section. n = 12-15 for Semi-Structured Interview. A sample of 12-15 that matches the sample population of 100 (as closely as possible) would be ideal. Method The demographics, motives and experiences of Mobile-Instant-Messenger counselling service users.

Research Proposal Presentation Proposal Research

Transcript: Created by: Samuel Minkin November 2nd 2017 CREATIVITY InTRO InTRO Modern-Day Education resembles traditional education It has only marginally evolved over time Rote memorization and efficiency are still the main skills taught in school Technology could change things Technology-Based Learning Technology-Based Learning Learning based on collaboration on websites The Internet has potential to be an educational tool The Internet is dispersed and decentralized. Information flows from many different kinds of sources. Access to information Interdisciplinary Learning Things that Occur on the Internet Things that Occur on the Internet Communities Interaction Feedback Mash-Up PICTURES PICTURES Traditional education Traditional education Rote memorization and efficiency are still the main skills taught in school An expert lectures students Problem-solving methods are dictated by instructors Specialization over interdisciplainary studies Statistics Statistics Why This topic/Conversation? Why This topic/Conversation? The Conversation/Topic: Modern-day education Education has many implications both on the individual and societal level There are many different types of learners in school Technology-based learning can appeal to a wide variety of learners On the Societal Level: 1. It can lead to a more productive society 2. It can lead to a stronger public commons On the Individual Level: 1. Better problem-solvers 2. Better Students Finding a specific website - limited sources talking about its positive and negative effects Figuring Out the Functionality of the Website Focusing on a specific age-group. Would it even work for elementary school students? Would starting with high school students be too late? Challenges Challenges creativity as an emergent property creativity as an emergent property Research Question: How has Evernote, a website that promotes collaborative-based learning, led to the formation of a more enhanced and evolved creativity known as group creativity? Technology Based Creative- Problem Solving Has Two Phases: 1. The Divergent Phase - Exploring, characterized by messiness - Evaluating Data 2. The Convergent Phase - Honing onto specific things. Extracting important information out of clutter. - Focusing on specific solutions Terms for Interaction and Collaboration: Synchronic Interactions - Interactions that occur simultaneously Diachronic Exchanges - Interactions that occur over a longer period of time "Recent models of group creativity (Sawyer, 2003) argue that collective creative work has to be understood as the synergy between synchronic interactions (i.e., parallel and simultaneous) and diachronic exchanges (i.e., interaction over long time spans and mediated by ostensible products)" (Sarmiento, Stahl 503). Quote Quote Potential Conclusions Potential Conclusions Online collaborative-based learning can lead to a greater extent of creativity People would be better suited to solve modern problems If I'm wrong: Technology will be a distraction. Students will find ways to cheat. Ultimately, a case should be made for using a specific website - being more technology dependent - because it can lead to creativity Sarmiento, Johann W. and Gerry Stahl. "Group Creativity in Interaction: Collaborative Referencing, Remembering, and Bridging." International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 24, no. 5, June 2008, pp. 492-504. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/10447310802142300. Works cited Works cited

Research Project Proposal Presentation

Transcript: Research Project Proposal Presentation Banu Oral 21903454 Eng102.107 Outline OUTLINE Works Cited Main Arguments Counter Argument Thesis Statement Conclusion Research Question Any Questions Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 1 Research Question To what extent environmental factors affect happiness? Research Question Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 Why did I choose this topic? 2 Thesis Statement Thesis Statement Despite the opposing views, environmental factors, which are ecological; political, and socio-cultural factors can affect happiness positively. Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 3 Counter Argument Counter Argument Some argue that people are born happy or unhappy since the level of life satisfaction alters depending on the genes rather than the environmental factors. Based on the 'World Value Survey' reports, the authors state that those with more A allele genes are happier than others (Minkov and Bond 330). Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 Clifford Sosis advocates that although identical twins have similar tendencies towards positive and negative emotions, their happiness levels can also change with the change of non-genetic factors (5). 4 First Reason The first point as to the extent to which environmental factors affect happiness in terms of ecologic determinants is that ideal geographical conditions can enhance life satisfaction. First Reason Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 5 Sub Argument 1 Using proximity measures and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), it was determined that ideal environmental conditions have a positive impact on well-being (Brereton et al. 394-395). Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 5) a. “The coefficient of CO2 indicates that with 1 percent increase in carbon dioxide emissions decreases happiness up to 0.46 units…. The results show that with one percent increase in protection of species the level of happiness increases by 0.06 units.” (Majeed and Mumtaz 759-760). Sub Argument 2 Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 5) b. Second Reason Besides the idea mentioned before, another point to consider about how environmental factors affect happiness in terms of political determinants is that a high quality of government may lead to a high life satisfaction level. Second Reason Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 6 Sub Argument 1 Jörg Ott : “There is a high correlation between the quality of government and average happiness in nations, with technical quality as the leading aspect.” (13). Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 6) a. According to The World Values Survey covering 75 countries, the quality of government has an independent influence on citizens' life satisfaction in poor countries and the rich ones (Samanni and Holmberg 11). Sub Argument 2 Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 6) b. Third Reason The last point to examine about the extent to which environmental factors influence happiness in terms of socio-cultural determinants is that stereotyped cultural judgments in terms of individuality and gender equality can increase life satisfaction. Third Reason Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 7 Sub Argument 1 Dezhu Ye, Yew-Kwang Ng, and Yujun Lian revealed that in countries with individualistic cultures, people have a more substantial self-identity consistency, a more consistent self-view (521). Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 7) a. The cross-country culture survey indicates that gender egalitarianism can contribute to the well-being level with 37.1 % (Ye et al. 519). Sub Argument 2 Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 7) b. Conclusion Conclusion To summarize, notwithstanding the opposing views, environmental factors, which are ecological, political, and socio-cultural factors, positively can influence happiness. Body 1 Body 2 Body 3 Body 4 Based on the twin study, which observed changes in the subjective well-being of genetically identical twins due to non-genetic factors, it can be realized that happiness does not come from genes. It is claimed that life satisfaction may increase in ideal geographical conditions such as temperate climate, species conservation, and water quality. It is asserted that the high quality of government in terms of technical quality, impartiality, the rule of law, and absence of corruption may cause a rise in happiness level. As revealed by some, stereotyped cultural judgments regarding individuality and gender equality may improve subjective well-being. Banu ORAL 21903454 Eng102.107 8 References References: Brereton, Finbarr & Clinch, J. Peter & Ferreira, Susana, "Happiness, geography and the environment," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 386-396, April, 2008. Commer, Pak & Sci, Soc & Majeed, Muhammad & Mumtaz, Shaista. “Happiness and Environmental Degradation: A Global Analysis”. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences. 2017. 753-772. 2017. Minkov, Michael, and Michael Harris Bond. "A Genetic Component to National Differences in Happiness". Journal of Happiness Studies 18.2 (2017):

Research Proposal Presentation

Transcript: Effects of Obesity-Related Media on Eating Behaviors, Body Dissatisfaction, and Thin Ideal Internailzation Specific Aims 72% of images depicting obese people were negative heads cut out of photos shown eating/drinking less likely to be shown fully clothed less likely to be wearing professional clothing neutral news + flattering/unstereotypical or unflattering/stereotypical image of obese person participants in ALL conditions exhibited moderate fat phobia participants who viewed unflattering/stereotypical images expressed significantly more negative attitudes than those in other condition so... obesity-related media = fat phobia but... will this fat phobia lead to disordered eating? repeat initial measures a.Anschutz, D., Engels, R, & Van Strien, T. (2008). Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles. Body Image, 5, 70-79. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.06.008 b.Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354. c.Darby, A., Hay, P., Mond, J., Quirk, F., Buttner, P., & Kennedy, L. (2009). The rising prevalence of comorbid obesity and eating disorder behaviors from 1995 to 2005. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42, 104-108. d.Derenne, J., & Beresin, E. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30, 257-261. doi:10.1176/appi.ap.30.3.257 e.Fairburn, C., Cooper, Z., Doll, H., & Davies, B. (2005). Identifying dieters who will develop an eating disorder: A prospective, population-based study". The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 224955. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2249. f.Holmes, B. (2009). Media coverage of Canada's obesity epidemic: Illustrating the subtleties of surveillance medicine. Critical Public Health, 19, 223-233. doi:10.1080/09581590802478048g.Heuer, C., McClure, K., & Puhl, R. (2011). Obesity stigma in online news: A visual content analysis. Journal of Helath Communication, 16, 976-987. Doi: 10/1080/10810730.2011.561915. h.Levine, M., & Murnen, S. (2009). 'Everybody knows that mass media are/are not [pick one] a cause of eating disorders': A critical review of evidence for a causal link between media, negative body image, and disordered eating in females. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 9-42. doi:10.1521/jscp.2009.28.1.9 i.Loeb, K., Wilson, G. T., Gilbert, J., & Labouvie, E. (2000). Guided and unguided self-help for binge eating. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 259-272). j.McClure, K., Puhl, R., & Heuer, C. (2011). Obesity in the news: Do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes? Journal of Health Communication, 16, 359-371. doi:10.1080/10810730.2010.535108 k.Morley, B., Wakefield, M., Dunlop, S., & Hill, D. (2009). Impact of a mass media campaign linking abdominal obesity and cancer: A natural exposure evaluation. Health Education Research, 24, 1069-1079. doi:10.1093/her/cyp034 l.Paxton, S., Eisenberg, M., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2006). Prospective predictors of body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys: A five year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 42, 888-899. doi 10.1037/0012-1649.42.5.888. m.Rich, E. (2011). ‘I see her being obesed!’: Public pedagogy, reality media and the obesity crisis. Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine, 15, 3-21. doi:10.1177/1363459309358127 n.Stice, E., & Bearman, S. K. (2001). Body-image and eating disturbances prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms in adolescent girls: A growth curve analysis. Developmental Psychology, 37, 597-607. o.Stice, E. & Shaw, H. (2002). Role of body dissatisfaction in the onset and maintenance of eating pathology: A synthesis of research findings. Journal of Psychometric Research, 53, 985-993. [antifat attitudes] McClure, Puhl, & Heuer, 2011 To identify individuals most at-risk for negative impact but... what about media related to the "obesity epidemic"? Specific Aim #2 1. negative effects References problem-focused Heuer, McClure, & Puhl, 2011 high risk for negative impact healthful & unhealthful eating Problem-focused media three Methods + high risk for ED Hypotheses The eating behaivors of viewers Initial Measures (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr 2 1 strengths (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr To determine whether problem-focused articles have different effects on viewers than solution-focused articles Strengths & Limitations viewing obesity-related media= control Week 1: video 2 one Specific Aims 5+7= 1 Future Directions (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Body dissatisfaction (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Week 2: questions? + solution-focused Specific Aim #1 parental involvement in education Background Outline 3. Methods 1 two (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr [obesity stigmatization] Hypothesis #3 Type of Media Solution-focused Media 2. 4. Future Directions Hypothesis #1 Groups Hypothesis #2 meal skipping loss of control extreme calorie

Presentation Research Proposal

Transcript: Group Theoretical Framework Online Dreamstime Cards. (2014) Online Magazine Telematics Wire. (June 18,2014). During our research we will get a better understanding of what the shareholders from the port really want. Theoretical Framework References Environmental Engineering: Considering the current environmental scenario it’s possible to think what are the best alternatives for the transport infrastructure (Shiliang Su, 2014). Sustainable Energy is empirical to the maintenance of our way of life in Earth (Anne E. Egelston, 2006). Hypothesis The best alternative would be to use electric trucks to move the containers. Self-driven truck. Bram Popkema (Human Geography): 10269061 João Luca Horta (Environmental Engineering): 10855637 Maarten van Lieshoud (Economics): 10291253 Wietske van der Kamp (Business): 10281819 The Core Problem What are the investment feasible improvements for truck transportation of materials and products through the Rotterdam harbour to reduce CO2 emissions? The literally road to a better air quality; a case study of the Rotterdam harbour Economics: Formally, in economics externalities exist when the activities of one group affect the welfare of another group (kenneth button, 2010). Because of depleting resources prices will rise and in turn decreases efficiency (Blauwhoff, 2012). The private market is able to decide the price for private goods with competitive prices. The private market might undersupply the desired public good (Hindriks & Myles, 2013) . Overall Research Question Environmental Engineering: - Anne E. Egelston. (2006). “Sustainable Development” - Shiliang Su, Rui Xiao, Delong Li and Yi’na Hu. (2014). “Impacts of Transportation Routes on Landscape Diversity: A Comparison of Different Route Types and Their Combined Effects” Human Geography: - Ivanova, G. & Tranter, B. (2004). "Willingness To Pay For “the Environment” in Cross-National Perspective. " - Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-96 It is better to improve the already existing infra-structure than implementing other options. The growing port of Rotterdam is the biggest in Europe 20 to 25% of the world energy consumption and CO2 emissions is due to transport systems. The harbour is also planning an expansion to the Maasvlakte. Theoretical Framework Images Human Geography: Everybody agrees that we should protect our environment, and therefore restrain the amount of pollution (Ivanova & Tranter, 2004). However, not everybody agrees at what costs. What is the WPT of the Dutch an Rotterdam population(NCDO, 2013). Theoretical Framework Businness: Ghazinoory, S., Abdi, M., & Azadegan-Mehr, M. (2011). "SWOT methodology: a state-of-the-art review for the past, a framework for the future." Kolk, A., & Van der Veen, M. (2002). "Dilemmas of Balancing Organizational and Public Interests: How Environment Affects Strategy in Dutch Main Ports." Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard business review, 73(2), 59-67. Economics: Blauwhof, F.B. (2012). "Overcoming accumulation: Is a capitalist steady-state economy possible?" Button, K. (2010). "Transport economics third edition." Business: Make use of a SWOT framework (Ghazinoory, 2011) A theory of eight steps for transforming your organization (Kotter, 1995) A model that looks at the dilemmas at the interface between public and private management. (Kolk, 2002) The business model concept of Boons (2012); provides firms with a holistic framework to envision and implement sustainable innovations References

Research Proposal Presentation

Transcript: What effect does high-stakes testing have on schools and student achievement? High-stakes testing has a negative effect on schools and student achievement. Forty-Day Dash Sad Teachers Sad Students "Teachers say the Most Interesting Things" - Buck, Ritter, Jensen, and Rose (2010) "How [does] the existence of the Arkansas state exams influence teaching and learning in teachers' classrooms?" Small Teacher Focus Groups - Tests provide useful data - Testing and standards help create a road map for the year's instruction - Test-prep does not necessarily sap creativity - Testing can lead to collaboration - Accountability is useful "One important limitation was that teachers in our focus groups were not serving in extra-ordinarily low-achieving schools. While these educators were well aware of AYP and were concerned about their schools being on or near alert status, they did not work in schools that were under constant accountability pressure from day one. Thus, teachers in such low-achieving schools could feel different pressure from the testing system and view the influence of testing quite differently than do the teachers in our sample" (p. 54) "Producing Commodities or Educating Children? Nurturing the Personal Growth of Students in the Face of Standardized Testing" - Barrier-Ferreira (2008) "As pressure mounts for all students to meet a specific standard on these assessments, more emphasis is placed on the preparation needed to meet this goal at the expense of all else" (p. 138). Intellectual Growth v.s. Social Growth "When students are able to see their teachers as people and share in experiences with them that reach beyond skills and standards, they are more receptive to the instruction given in the classroom" (p. 140). "Paradoxes of High-Stakes Testing" Madaus and Russell (2010/2011) "Using test scores to classify students and schools reshapes our conceptions of student attainment and school quality. Attainment no longer focuses primarily on skills and knowledge. School quality ceases to focus first on teaching, resources, and opportunities for learning. Instead, student attainment and school quality become defined by individual and group test scores" (p. 22). Formative vs. Summative "This analysis found that single-parent families, parents reading to a child every day, hours a child spends watching television, and the frequency of school absences collectively explained two-thirds of the differences in reading scores" (p. 23). "The presentation of an item or the directions can cause some examinees to get the item wrong even though they have the necessary knowledge, skill, or ability, while other students without the knowledge, skill, or ability get it right" (p. 23). "Roundup on Testing! Testing! Testing!" - Kuehn (2009) All teachers and principals in "failing" schools would be fired and replaced. Those schools were mostly in impoverished areas. Merit-based pay "Financial incentives may indeed reduce intrinsic motivation and diminish ethical or other reasons for complying with workplace norms such as fairness. As a consequence, the provision of incentives can result in a negative impact on overall performance" (p. 7). Coatesville Area School District Urban 75 Square Miles Chester County 2213 Students 53% Caucasian 34% African American 13% Other Teacher Survey Likert with comments SAT 1999 - 56% Verbal - 470 Math - 464 2010 - 56% Verbal - 459 Math - 460 "During the PSSA, I have been overworked and overburdened. My students are on edge because they know that they are being pushed into a test that they do not feel adds any value to their lives. As a result, I become more of a motivator in the classroom than an instructor....I work overtime with my colleagues becasue we are passionate about our jobs- but at what cost? I truly feel that my students were as prepared for this test as they possibly could have been. However, anything can affect their states of mind while testing; a parent might not have come home the night before, he or she may have been reprimanded before starting the test, he or she may not have eaten, etc. When the teachers are working harder than the students, as we are doing now, something is severely amiss. The stakes are not high for the students; the stakes are high for the teachers." Methods Population and Setting: CASD Systematic Sample: All Juniors High Internal Validity Low External Validity Proposal: Modify Assessments Student Accountability Formative Alternate Forms of Assessment - Compare SAT scores and NAEP Scores - Same Likert/Comments Survey - Graduation and Retention Rates - Focus Groups Conclusion It seems that one cannot complete a single day in public school without some reference or mention of high-stakes testing. It has assumed the role of authoritarian parent to the extreme, always waiting to catch "failures" and penalize them accordingly. Testing has a role in education, but that role must be one of strengthening students and schools, rather than tearing them down. The

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