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Nursing 1111 Poster Presentation

Transcript: Charter BIELSKI, Z. (Jan. 29 2013). Why Teen Pregnancy Is On The Rise Again In Canada (and spiking in these provinces). The Globe and Mail “Teenage girls are more likely to get pregnant when they have fewer education or employment opportunities to postpone child-bearing for” (Bielski, 2013). “Young women who feel optimistic about their futures with respect to access to education and career tend not to get pregnant. Young women who are starting to feel discouraged about their employment and education opportunities are more likely to get pregnant” (Bielski, 2013). These two quotes above express one of the main reason's why teen pregnancy occurs. If teenagers do not understand the effects of having a child at such a young age, or if they feel unenthusiastic about their education, career, or future, they are more likely to become pregnant because if they don’t have a prospective goal in mind, teenagers have a tendency to focus on the present (Bielski, 2013). Some teenagers grow up in unstable environments and do not have hope for themselves in the future; therefore having a baby might seem appealing. It is important to create supportive environments for teens to educate them about the reality of being a teen parent, and to give them access to help before, during, and after pregnancy: • Before, so teen pregnancy is not glorified and that the truth about raising a child is exposed. • During, so teenage mothers- and fathers-to-be learn the preparation needed to raise a child. • After, so teen parents have somewhere to turn for support and advice. Creating Supportive Environments Relation to Nursing Calgary Board of Education . (N/A). Louise Dean Scool . Retrieved from Calgary Board of Education : *** -Nurses needed in schools for pregnant teens (Louise Dean School in Calgary) -Higher incidence of pregnancy, calls for a greater number of nurses in Labour and Delivery -Nurses needed to educate (sex Ed programs and the use of contraception) -Help in finding counseling and job fairs to encourage teens to see there are several job opportunities available to them -Provide information to teens thrown out by parents/guardians (Scholarships, places of residence) -Provide a therapeutic and open relationship- many of these young teens will have a lot of apprehensions and fears -Teen pregnancies notorious for premature babies- more nurses in neonatal care -Underdeveloped babies- living with permanent conditions, nurses needed for those areas (respiratory center, cardiac center) -Options for pregnant teens (abortion, midwives, baby classes) (BIELSKI, Jan. 29 2013) (R. Kaczowka, Feb. 4 2013) (Calgary Board of Education . (N/A). Louise Dean Scool . Retrieved from Calgary Board of Education : In this article written by Bielski and posted in the Globe and Mail on Jan. 29 2013 we are presented with the alarming fact that teen pregnancy rates are on the rise within Canada. The majority of these teen pregnancies are from the Eastern islands of Canada with a slight inclination in Central and Western Canada as well. Professionals are lead to believe the reason for the increased number of teen pregnancies stems from the lowered socio-economic status that Canada has been faced with over the past couple years. This article discusses how young females who have a future to look forward to, a university to attend, and employment opportunities waiting for them put off planning a family and generally sustain from unsafe sexual activity. The professionals suggest getting youth interested in their future, and the pregnancy rates in adolescent women should be significantly lower. (BIELSKI, Jan. 29 2013) Nursing 1111: Teen Pregnancy Determinante's R. Kaczowka, personal communication, February 4, 2013 Erika B, Adelle K, Sabina P, 2. Another determinant that was seen in this article is Education and Literacy. There seems to be a trend that young woman with no plan for furthering their education have babies at a younger age. To them their future's don't seem to be going anywhere, these woman who do not have any goals or plans for education, tend to lack responsibility when it comes to their sexual health. They aren't delaying intercourse and nor are they worried about contraceptives, because there isn't that need to finish school. Having a baby at such a young age makes it hard for a woman to go back to school and because of this, jobs can be hard to come by. This affects the overall health of the individual and her child in a negative way, as it is harder to choose healthier choices in such circumstances. (BIELSKI, Jan. 29 2013) Caroline S, & Murphy S Article Summary References 1. Income and social status is one of the determinants of health found in the article. The article states “experts pointing to a tough socio-economic climate as a key factor in the local spikes” (BIELSKI, Jan. 29 2013). Female teenagers who are struggling in school or are unemployed have a higher rate of pregnancy

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Transcript: Survivorship Curve Before and After Influenza Vaccine Cady Houghton Procedure Background Experimental Design Methods Research Question 1) A data base of cemeteries was looked up to find death dates and information. 2) From the data base information was put into a google drive document. 3) 40 people dying before the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into one chart showing the ages of death. 4) 40 people dying after the 1945 influenza vaccine were put into another chart also showing ages of death. 5) Both charts of groups of people were converted into a life history table. 6) From each life history table the data was put into another chart to make two survivorship curve charts. 7) The survivorship curve charts were put into one survivorship curve chart to show the difference in curves. A laptop was used for this lab. If the influenza vaccine works then if we compare the survivorship curve of before and after the vaccine it will show people living longer because the vaccine will be decreasing the death rate. The independent variable in this experiment is the influenza vaccine. The dependent variable is the death rate in this experiment. The exponential variables in this experiment are the other disease epidemics during the time period the data was chosen from. The control is the survivorship curve before the influenza vaccine and the experimental is the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine. The survivorship curves of before and after the influenza vaccine was created are both Type I survivorship curves. They also have the caracteristics for K-selected species. While they are both Type I and K-selected species, the survivorship curve after the influenza vaccine was created had a decrease in death rates between 20 and 70 years of age of about .5 #/1,000 surviving. Then, towards the 75 and 90 years range, the #/1000 surviving leveled out and became extremely similar in curves. Did people die younger before the influenza vaccine was created? In comparing survivorship curves a Log10 scale is used for its ability to show you greater numbers in a more readable way and to show same mortality with the same curve when two scales are put together. In a Log10 scale there are three Types of information. The first, Type 1, are mainly humans. Type I survivorship curves are characterized by high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life. Type 2 is mainly birds and Type 3 is mainly reptiles. Within these Types are two categories of species, K-Selected, or Equilibrium, species and R-Selected, or Opportunist, species. K-Selected species usually have stable resources and a stable environment, and this is usually what humans are categorized as. R-Selected species are usually whose population size tends to fluctuate greatly in reaction to variations in the environment. Comparing the survivorship curves, defined as a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species or group cohort, before and after the influenza vaccine was created will show if the vaccine helped increase the population. Before the 1940s when the influenza vaccine was created, the epidemic was particularly deadly in US Army training camps, where the death rate was as high as 80% in some camps. Death rate is usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year. The US military was getting hit with influenza the most forcing them to developed the first approved vaccine for influenza, which was used in the Second World War. Studying this specific survivorship curve will also help to tell if their were more survival rates in the US military during the time. Results With the original research question in mind, before the influenza vaccine was created people were dying younger. This question was answered by the survivorship curve graph comparing the curves before and after the influenza vaccine. As the graph shows between 20 and 70 years of age there is a significant difference in curves, meaning that the death rate before the vaccine in that time period was increased more than after the vaccine was created. From that specific area of the graph it can be concluded that people were dying younger before the influenza vaccine was created, thus the hypothesis was correct. For future study it would be interesting to see the survivorship curve in the US military before and after the vaccine not just the population in general. Because the US military was the one who invented it because they were the one being impacted with the death rate from the influenza epidemic the most, the survivorship curve would have a chance of being more predominant. Graph Clear Digital Media, Inc. (1997-2011). Cemetery Records Online. October 1, 2013, Genealogical Gleanings. (1997-2004). Plagues and Diseases. October 3, 2013, Introduction

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