Transcript: 18 children (8 male, 10 female) between 6 and 16 years old day care center 10- infantile CP 8- other neurodevelopmental disorders Clinical data GMFCS level handedness IQ level clinical diagnosis brain lesions Inclusion impaired motor function with some movement no piano experience good attention Piano training 30-45 minutes twice a week for 18 months 88-key MIDI controller keyboard exercises: pentatonic scale played with right hand repeated with left hand repeated with both hands Experimental tests of motor function Piano tests Box-and-Block test Hand dynamometer test Statistical analysis Box-and-Block test CP group: 5.1 blocks for nondominant hands 3.4 blocks for dominant hands GRMDC group: 0.94 blocks for nondominant hands -0.17 blocks for dominant hands Hand dynamometer test no significant changes Future improvements for the study: use a homogenous group shorter periods of training Conclusions of the study: interaction of different brain areas manual tasks requiring good hand dexterity are improved more than ones requiring hand force Infantile cerebral palsy (CP) Hand motor impairment corticospinal tract other neurodevelopmental disorders impacts quality of life Rehabilitation improvements in: finger movement accuracy keystroke speed timing accuracy Presented by: Tiffany Mathis Results Piano tests average time interval between consecutive strokes remained unchanged mean deviations decreased repeated-measures model two between-subject factors interaction factor two within-subject factors results: significant effect of session no significant effect of group, age, or interaction group x age similar model no significant effect on mean stroke interval Introduction Piano playing fine motor skills audio-visual information with motor control finger and hand movements brain plasticity Study can learning to play the piano improve finger movement in children with hand motor impairments due to brain injury during development? Reference Results Discussion Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain Introduction Discussion regularity improved between consecutive finger strokes during piano exercises study limitations manual skill development heterogeneous origin low number of participants Methods Methods Lampe, R., Thienel, A., Mitternacht, J., Blumenstein, T., Turova, V., & Alves-Pinto, A. (2015). Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 1929-1938. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S84090
Transcript: Neuroscience Presented by Kierra Rudd Cognitive-Develpmental Cognitive-Developmetal Social interaction activates various neural areas, leading them to become more connected over time Social interaction during learning leads to greater neural activation than learning alone In order for cognitive growth to occur , children should engage in play and social interactions. (Pearson 3.68) Piaget believes children learn through expeirneces. Piaget believes children learn through expeirneces. Research shows when children are social active certain parts of their brain grow and develop. Research shows when children are social active certain parts ... Focuses on how the brain processes language, social interaction and culture. Vygotsky mentions that adult interaction and language promote social learning and make connections to new information. Baby Adam was used in an experiement to show that children need to be introduced to new words and language in order to make connections with their actions. Sociocultural Sociocultural Studies have shown that there are certain parts of the brain that regulates two important learning processes which are memory and attention. This is important because chidlren have to learn to focus there attention on social situations such as facial expressions, and they must learn to remember what they mean. (p.70 ) Inormation Processing Inormation Processing Some theorists believe that the enivornment affects how a child's brain develops. For example, microsystem influences like child abuse and and drug abuse during pregnancy can be harmful to the child's brain development. Macrosystem factors such as lack of nutrion programs for pregnant mothers and infants, and poverty also affect a child's brain developement because the child is either always under stress or does not have all the services and nutrtion it needs to develop properly. Ecological Systems Ecological Systems
Transcript: Recommendations The Results Use of Brain-Based Strategies in Guided Reading Brittany Snyder EDCI 561 Areas of Strength - Implementation of closure activities - Providing time for body movement - Incorporating music, rhythm, or patterns - Increase of time spent in peer interaction The Observations - 3 thirty minute observations - Second grade classrooms - Guided reading instruction - Changing attention state - Use of visual aids, graphic organizers or imagery - Use of questioning strategies Critiques High Five Hustle - Use of closure or summarizing strategy - Provision of time for peer-to-peer interaction The Indicators Let's CLOSE This Up and Give It a Try!
Transcript: Elsa and Harriet Biology Neuroscience Can we use AI research instead of research on animal and human subjects to study processes in the brain? Our question Our question We chose this topic because it is an area we haven't covered in detail in this course, it is relevant in todays news and it poses interesting ethical questions and new ways of study in the scientific field. We believe this topic can be broken down by exploring two key questions... Is it possible for AI systems to develop beyond algorithms and inputted programming? Can AI think? Question 1 Is the way AI works a good enough representation to allow us to generalise to humans without needing research on human subjects? Are AI processes representative of that of the brains? Question 2 Supporting Evidence For Critical Evidence Against Analysis Analysis Source reliability Source reliability Benefits Benefits Problems Problems Conclusion Conclusion What’s next What’s next Thank you Thank you
Transcript: WARD ROUND ATTENDANCE Endless struggle in establishing the rationale behind a prescription Reduce pressure on junior clinicians in the decision making process Reduced HAN bleeps for drug prescribing Extra set of hands!! Frailty unit showed many benefits 100% of Medicines Reconciled Less pressure on junior clinicians Staff survey showing positive improvement 95% of TTO's completed on ward Vs 24% of TTO's prior to audit CHALLENGES So then... What's missing? WARD BASED PHARMACY TEAM WARD ROUND ATTENDANCE Patient facing role Front line healthcare professionals Reduce waste Educate Minimise domino effect prescribing Clinical interventions AWP Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust References: RBCHFT 2012; Early Discharge Project RBH 2015; Frailty unit Pharmacy /service Project Carter Review - final report and recommendations. Available at: http://www.nhsemployers.org/news/2016/02/carter-report (Accessed May 2018) Efficient discharges Advanced practitioners OPTIMISATION OF MEDICINES (RBH, 2015) Medicines optimisation Ward based pharmacy team Outpatient clinics Zarmina Anwar Bedside education Non medical prescriber pharmacists Ward round attendance Minimise delays in patient discharge as a result of TTOs with unanswered queries not being processed Lack of recognition Highly specialised area Funding Communication between primary and secondary care I HAVE A DREAM HPTP (EPMA) systems Outsource outpatients Education and training Clinical pharmacy services Collaborative working Optimising use of medicines PHARMACY DEPT. AT NBT FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR A NEUROSCIENCES PHARMACIST IN THE NHS Core areas: Dispensary / Stores / Procurement Chemotherapy services Clinical Ward Services Clinical Trials Antimicrobial Stewardship Medicines Information Education & Training THE CARTER REVIEW
Transcript: (RL6SO4)3 lateral r. C6, superior o. C4, All other C3 Superior O. Superior R. Medial R. Lateral R. Inferior R. Cranial Nerves of the Eye* Specifically it's movement Inferior O. By Karen Rios Oculomotor Function Cranial Nerve 3 2 Fibre Types: motor only 1. GSE supplies 4/6 extraocular muscles - superior rectus - medial rectus - inferior rectus - inferior oblique --> Also innervates the levator palpebrae superioris ( muscle of the upper eyelid). 2. GVE; innervates the pupilary sphincter and cilliary muscles Location? MIDBRAIN Pathway: Midbrain → interpeduncular fossa → cavernous sinus → superior orbital fissure → supplies the eyes Trochlear Function Cranial Nerve 4 GSE fibres innervates 1/6 extraocular muscles; - superior oblique muscle. Pathway: Midbrain → dorsal aspect → around to ventral →cavernous sinus → superior orbital fissure → supplies the eyes Location? MIDBRAIN Abducens Function Cranial Nerve 6 GSE fibres are responsible in supplying 1/6 extraocular muscles; - lateral rectus Pathway: Motor nucleus in caudal pons → emerge medially between pons & medulla → cavernous sinus → superior orbital fissure → supplies the eyes PONS Location? note: ignore blue line (facial nerves that wrap abducens) Movement extra info on movements: leftward: -lateral rectus (left eye) - medial rectus (right eye) Rightward: - lateral rectus (right eye) - medial rectus (left eye) Rotational: superior and inferiorioblique
Transcript: Vestibular neuritis Sophie Connell SID: 500717435 Causes Figure (1) Figure (3) Figure (2) Symptoms Figure (4) Duration of symptoms 2 Three weeks 1 A couple of days 3 Several months Diagnosis Figure (5) Figure (6) Figure (7) Anatomical pathology The auditory pathway Figure (8) Structures involved Auditory cortex Inner ear 2 3 Vestibulocochlear nerve 1 Treatment/ management strategy When it develops the focus is to reduce symptoms. Drugs taken to reduce nausea include ondansetron and metoclopramide, if these symptoms do not subside hospitalisation may be necessary. Parts of the body that impact balance The ears: How well inner ear functions to maintain balance The legs: How well the legs sense balance when attempting to walk or stand The eyes: How well sense of vision interprets body’s position in relation to its surroundings The body as a whole: How well interprets center of gravity Works Cited Works Cited "The ascending auditory pathway (Figure 8)." Open Learn, www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/biology/hearing/content-section-7.1. Accessed 1 May 2022. AUDITORY PATHWAYS TO THE BRAIN. University of Minnesota, pressbooks.umn.edu/sensationandperception/chapter/auditory-pathways-to-the-brain-draft/#:~:text=The%20auditory%20pathway%20starts%20at,projected%20to%20the%20auditory%20cortex. Accessed 29 Apr. 2022. Hatton, Kelsey. "TESTS FOR DIAGNOSING VESTIBULAR DISORDERS." VEDA, vestibular.org/article/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/#:~:text=More%20than%20one%20hearing%20test,in%20a%20sound%2Dtreated%20room. Accessed 29 Apr. 2022. Left Vestibular Neuritis. Youtube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=THhcZhobVYs. "Nystagmus." Opthamology Center Barcelona. Accessed 1 May 2022. "Special Considerations Affecting Audiometry Interpretation (Figure 7)." www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p41.html. Accessed 1 May 2022. "Tympanometry (Figure 6)." link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-642-23499-6_742. Accessed 1 May 2022. "Vesitbular Neuritis (Figure 1)." lmhofmeyr.co.za/conditions/dizziness-and-balance-disorders/vestibular-neuritis/vestibular-neuritis-2/#iLightbox%5Bpostimages%5D/0. Accessed 1 May 2022. "Vestibular Neuritis." Cleveland Clinic (Figure 4), 31 May 2019, my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15227-vestibular-neuritis. Accessed 29 Apr. 2022. "VESTIBULAR NEURITIS (Figure 2)." National Dizzy & Balance Center, 31 Oct. 2018, www.nationaldizzyandbalancecenter.com/vestibular-neuritis/. Accessed 1 May 2022. The Vestibular System (Figure 2). www.griffinot.com/vestibular-system/. Accessed 1 May 2022. Vestibulocochlear Nerve. 2022, www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/vestibulocochlear-nerve#:~:text=The%20vestibulocochlear%20nerves%20originate%20in,the%20pons%20and%20medulla%20oblongata.%20(1). Accessed 29 Apr. 2022. "Vestibulocochlear nerve (Figure 3)." teachmeanatomy.info/wp-content/uploads/Origin-of-the-Vestibulocochlear-Nerve.jpg. Accessed 1 May 2022.
Transcript: Maternal Anxious Attachment Style is Associated with Reduced Mother-Child Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Azhari et al (2020) Amandeep Overview of study Overview of study Hypothesis Study aim The study aimed to test whether anxiously attached mothers are less able to attune to their child's emotional state during an everyday joint activity. Brain to brain synchrony between a mother and child varies as a function of maternal attachment styles. Two mentalisation processes are linked to this: 1. emotional mentalisation - processing other's emotions based on physical attributes such as facial expressions 2. cognitive mentalisation - consciously processing other's emotions based on internal attributes such as their own feelings - this is imaginative (Azhari et al, 2020) The study worked from two hypotheses: 1. Dyads with anxiously attached mothers exhibit reduced brain to brain synchrony as mothers face greater difficulty matching to their child's emotional state. 2. Reduced synchrony would be observed in the medial left cluster. Methods Participants: 34 child and mother pairings First, the mothers completed a attachment style questionnaire. Then, the mother and child's brain responses were investigated measured using tandem functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they were watching three cartoon videos Main outcomes The hypotheses for the study were met. Less synchrony was found in the frontal and medial left clusters of the prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex= predicting consequences of actions, managing emotional reactions, planning for the future and adjusting complex behaviours (GoodTherapy, 2019) There was less brain to brain synchrony in the prefrontal cortex for mothers who scored high on the anxious attachment scale Less brain synchrony Need for approval Need for approval - the parent may fear their child not liking them and not meeting their expectations Preoccupation for relationships - An adult may fear abandonment so would be apprehensive regarding relationships, however, may not fear her child deserting her Need for approval was associated with less brain to brain synchrony - but no effect for preoccupation for relationship Mothers who scored high on the need for approval on the adult attachment questionnaire displayed less brain synchrony Anxiously attached mothers Anxiously attached mothers engage in emotional mentalisation, where they rely on social cues, such as facial expressions to gather an understanding of other people's mental states The anxious attached mother may use her left prefrontal cortex to control and mentalise her behaviours so that she can match her child's behaviours, as the left prefrontal cortex deals with goal directed responses which again results in less brain to brain synchrony as the mother is focusing more on meeting goals and expectations within her child's care For example: changing nappies, feeding the child, helping them to speak Limitations The controlled test did not do enough justice as it did not help to investigate attunement with both mother and baby - they were not able to pick up each others cues - emotional mentalisation, because of the controlled test The child was facing away from the mother, so she could not pick up on their social cues The child's attachment style was not considered, as it would help to understand how they attune to their mother The therapist working with their client may have the need of approval so that they are acknowledged for doing positive work with the client. The need for approval for the therapist may be because of their anxious attachment. Here the therapist may have an uncertainty about their working relationship with their client (Huang, 2020). The therapist may have a sense of unworthiness, where they seek self-acceptance by gaining validation and approval from others (Huang, 2020). The therapist may also worry that their client may not like them and may quit working with them (Azhari et al, 2020). In the counselling room Reference list Reference list Azhari, A., Gabrieli, G., Bizzego, A., Bornstein, M, H. & Esposito, G. (2020). Maternal anxious attachment style is associated with reduced mother-child brain-to-brain synchrony. BioRxiv. Doi: 10.1101/2020.01.23.917641 GoodTherapy (2019) Prefrontal cortex. Retrieved: November 25, 2021, from: https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychpedia/prefrontal-cortex Huang, S. (2020). Secure attachment and other attachment styles. Retrieved: November 26, 2021, from: https://www.simplypsychology.org/attachment-styles.html
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