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Neuroscience Presentation

Transcript: 18 children (8 male, 10 female) between 6 and 16 years old day care center 10- infantile CP 8- other neurodevelopmental disorders Clinical data GMFCS level handedness IQ level clinical diagnosis brain lesions Inclusion impaired motor function with some movement no piano experience good attention Piano training 30-45 minutes twice a week for 18 months 88-key MIDI controller keyboard exercises: pentatonic scale played with right hand repeated with left hand repeated with both hands Experimental tests of motor function Piano tests Box-and-Block test Hand dynamometer test Statistical analysis Box-and-Block test CP group: 5.1 blocks for nondominant hands 3.4 blocks for dominant hands GRMDC group: 0.94 blocks for nondominant hands -0.17 blocks for dominant hands Hand dynamometer test no significant changes Future improvements for the study: use a homogenous group shorter periods of training Conclusions of the study: interaction of different brain areas manual tasks requiring good hand dexterity are improved more than ones requiring hand force Infantile cerebral palsy (CP) Hand motor impairment corticospinal tract other neurodevelopmental disorders impacts quality of life Rehabilitation improvements in: finger movement accuracy keystroke speed timing accuracy Presented by: Tiffany Mathis Results Piano tests average time interval between consecutive strokes remained unchanged mean deviations decreased repeated-measures model two between-subject factors interaction factor two within-subject factors results: significant effect of session no significant effect of group, age, or interaction group x age similar model no significant effect on mean stroke interval Introduction Piano playing fine motor skills audio-visual information with motor control finger and hand movements brain plasticity Study can learning to play the piano improve finger movement in children with hand motor impairments due to brain injury during development? Reference Results Discussion Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain Introduction Discussion regularity improved between consecutive finger strokes during piano exercises study limitations manual skill development heterogeneous origin low number of participants Methods Methods Lampe, R., Thienel, A., Mitternacht, J., Blumenstein, T., Turova, V., & Alves-Pinto, A. (2015). Piano training in youths with hand motor impairments after damage to the developing brain. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 1929-1938. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S84090

Cognitive Neuroscience Presentation

Transcript: Thank You! High activation of DLS in fMRI studies in humans References Muskens et al., 2012 Future Studies & Improvements Diamler Vadlamuri We Know Ethanol disrupts cognitive processes of the Prefrontal Cortex (DePoy et al., 2013). Higher activations of the dorsal striatum in heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers via fMRI studies Long lasting change in DLS? DLS could be responsible for addictive behavior Chronic Intermittent ethanol increases DLS dendritic hypertrophy & synaptic plasticity Higher activations of the dorsal striatum in heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers via fMRI studies Dorsal Striatum (DLS): Regulates initiation & timing of movements Skilled motor behaviors Chronic Alcoholism causes DLS dendritic hypertrophy and altered DLS synaptic plasticity Chronic Alcohol Exposure Increases DLS Neuronal Activity observed through Neuronal dendritic expansion in rodents and higher activation of DLS in humans via fMRI studies. DePoy, L., Daut, R., Brigman, J. L., MacPherson, K., Crowley, N., Gunduz-Cinar, O., & Holmes, A. (2013). Chronic alcohol produces neuroadaptations to prime dorsal striatal learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(36), 14783-14788. Chicago Fanelli, R. R., Klein, J. T., Reese, R. M., & Robinson, D. L. (2013). Dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum exhibit distinct phasic neuronal activity during alcohol self‐administration in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience,38(4), 2637-2648. Fanelli, R. R., & Robinson, D. L. (2014). Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability. Brain and Behavior. Muskens, J. B., Schellekens, A. F. A., de Leeuw, F. E., Tendolkar, I., & Hepark, S. (2012). Damage in the dorsal striatum alleviates addictive behavior. General hospital psychiatry, 34(6), 702-e9. Chicago Vollstädt-Klein, S., Wichert, S., Rabinstein, J., Bühler, M., Klein, O., Ende, G., ... & Mann, K. (2010). Initial, habitual and compulsive alcohol use is characterized by a shift of cue processing from ventral to dorsal striatum. Addiction, 105(10), 1741-1749. Zorumski, C. F., Mennerick, S., & Izumi, Y. (2014). Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on learning-related synaptic plasticity. Alcohol, Thesis DePoy et al., 2013 Effects of Chronic Alcoholism on the Dorsal Striatum (DLS) Vollstädt-Klein et al., 2010 Goals: Connection between DLS and addictive behavior Parallel changes in PFC and DLS with CIE? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the ischemic lesion in the caudate–putamen complex Summary Larger sample size, stronger link towards addiction CIE causes DLS dendritic hypertrophy and altered DLS synaptic plasticity Why do we care?

Neuroscience Presentation

Transcript: Neuroscience Presented by Kierra Rudd Cognitive-Develpmental Cognitive-Developmetal Social interaction activates various neural areas, leading them to become more connected over time Social interaction during learning leads to greater neural activation than learning alone In order for cognitive growth to occur , children should engage in play and social interactions. (Pearson 3.68) Piaget believes children learn through expeirneces. Piaget believes children learn through expeirneces. Research shows when children are social active certain parts of their brain grow and develop. Research shows when children are social active certain parts ... Focuses on how the brain processes language, social interaction and culture. Vygotsky mentions that adult interaction and language promote social learning and make connections to new information. Baby Adam was used in an experiement to show that children need to be introduced to new words and language in order to make connections with their actions. Sociocultural Sociocultural Studies have shown that there are certain parts of the brain that regulates two important learning processes which are memory and attention. This is important because chidlren have to learn to focus there attention on social situations such as facial expressions, and they must learn to remember what they mean. (p.70 ) Inormation Processing Inormation Processing Some theorists believe that the enivornment affects how a child's brain develops. For example, microsystem influences like child abuse and and drug abuse during pregnancy can be harmful to the child's brain development. Macrosystem factors such as lack of nutrion programs for pregnant mothers and infants, and poverty also affect a child's brain developement because the child is either always under stress or does not have all the services and nutrtion it needs to develop properly. Ecological Systems Ecological Systems

Cognitive Neuroscience Presentation

Transcript: Terms This practice involves holding the focus of attention on an internally generated image of a deity surrounded by his or her entourage. The content of DY is rich and multimodal, requiring generation of a colorful three-dimensional image (e.g., the deity’s body, ornaments, and environment), as well as a representation of sensorimotor body schema, feelings, and emotions of the deity (3). An OP meditator aspires to achieve awareness devoid of conceptualization. OP involves evenly distributed attention that is not directed toward any particular objects or experiences. Although various aspects of experience (e.g., thoughts, feelings, or images) may arise spontaneously, one is instructed to let them subside on their own accord, without letting the mind dwell on or analyze them (Goleman, 1977; Wangyal, 1993). The participants were administered two computerized tasks assessing different aspects of visuospatial processing: a mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) that assessed their ability to dynamically transform and compare two spatial objects and a visual memory task (VMT) that assessed their ability to maintain images of complex static objects in visuo-spatial working memory. MRT On each trial of the MRT, participants viewed a pair of two-dimensional pictures of three-dimensional forms. The forms in each pair were rotated relative to each other around the x-, y-, or z-axis. Across trials, the amount of rotation ranged from 40°to 180°, in 20° increments. Participants judged whether the forms in the pair were the same or mirror-reversed. There were 36 test trials. VMT The VMT (MMVirtual Design, 2004) consisted of two parts. There were six test trials in the fifirst part of the VMT. On each trial, participants were exposed to a single image that appeared for 5 s. This display was replaced by an array of six images: fifive distractors and the previously shown image. Participants were asked to determine which image in the array was the previously shown image. There were 18 test trials in the second part of the VMT. On each trial, participants viewed an array of seven images that appeared for 8 s. This array was replaced by another array of seven images: six of the previously studied images and one novel image. Participants were asked to judge which image in the second array was not present in the firest. Intervening Imagery Tasks The participants in both imagery control groups completed the Embedded Picture Test (EPT; Kozhevnikov, Kosslyn, & Shephard, 2005) and the Perspective Taking Test (PTT; Kozhevnikov, Motes, Rasch, & Blajenkova, 2006). In the EPT, participants viewed line drawings of common objects (e.g., a piano) for 4 s. After each drawing was presented, participants were given a 4-s period during which to imagine the drawing and then had to decide whether an orally presented property (e.g., ‘‘symmetry,’’ ‘‘arrow junction’’) was present in that drawing. There were 16 test trials. On each trial of the PTT, participants viewed a map on a computer screen. The map showed a starting location (a character’s head or an arrow) and five other locations (university, airport, etc.). Participants were to imagine transforming their actual perspective to that of the character and then click on a button indicating a target location from the on-screen character’s perspective. There were 58 test trials. Topic Importance Hypothesis Methods Accomplished Buddhist meditation practioners were recruited in: the Shechen Monastery in Kathmandu, Nepal ; the extended communities of the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries Karma Triyana Dharmachakra and Padma Samye Ling in upstate New York ; and the Nyingma Institute and Rigpa Fellowship in San Francisco, California. Ultimately, seventy-one participants completed the study between meditators and nonmeditators. Results Long-Term Effect of DY Versus OP on Imagery The interaction between the length of DY experience and the length of OP experience was not signicant for VMT or MRT accuracy or RT. Short-Term Effect of DY Versus OP on Imagery Summarize "DY combines the engagement of selective visual attention with active maintenance of an image of a deity; thus, we hypothesized that DY would lead to enhancement of visuospatial working memory, resulting in improved performance on imagery tasks" (4). The results of this study indicate that there is no baseline difference in imagery skills between meditators and non-meditators, or between long-term practitioners of different styles of meditation. However, DY practitioners demonstrated a dramatic increase in performance on both image-maintenance and spatial tasks in the posttest (after they had meditated), in contrast to the other four groups. Therefore, DY specifically trains one’s capacity to access heightened visuospatial memory resources via meditation, rather than generally improving long-lasting imagery abilities. Returning back to the "lively exchange," the monks do appear to have access to states of heightened imagery capacity; but,

Neuroscience Presentation

Transcript: WARD ROUND ATTENDANCE Endless struggle in establishing the rationale behind a prescription Reduce pressure on junior clinicians in the decision making process Reduced HAN bleeps for drug prescribing Extra set of hands!! Frailty unit showed many benefits 100% of Medicines Reconciled Less pressure on junior clinicians Staff survey showing positive improvement 95% of TTO's completed on ward Vs 24% of TTO's prior to audit CHALLENGES So then... What's missing? WARD BASED PHARMACY TEAM WARD ROUND ATTENDANCE Patient facing role Front line healthcare professionals Reduce waste Educate Minimise domino effect prescribing Clinical interventions AWP Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust References: RBCHFT 2012; Early Discharge Project RBH 2015; Frailty unit Pharmacy /service Project Carter Review - final report and recommendations. Available at: http://www.nhsemployers.org/news/2016/02/carter-report (Accessed May 2018) Efficient discharges Advanced practitioners OPTIMISATION OF MEDICINES (RBH, 2015) Medicines optimisation Ward based pharmacy team Outpatient clinics Zarmina Anwar Bedside education Non medical prescriber pharmacists Ward round attendance Minimise delays in patient discharge as a result of TTOs with unanswered queries not being processed Lack of recognition Highly specialised area Funding Communication between primary and secondary care I HAVE A DREAM HPTP (EPMA) systems Outsource outpatients Education and training Clinical pharmacy services Collaborative working Optimising use of medicines PHARMACY DEPT. AT NBT FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR A NEUROSCIENCES PHARMACIST IN THE NHS Core areas: Dispensary / Stores / Procurement Chemotherapy services Clinical Ward Services Clinical Trials Antimicrobial Stewardship Medicines Information Education & Training THE CARTER REVIEW

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