Transcript: Cross cultural relation between Malaysia and France Cross cultural studies: Ariane Sandoz Capucine Dien Hermine de Pardieu Tee Jin Lun Chung Yee Chen French Introduction french is a country consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe largest's city and commercial central is paris span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres total population 67.3 million Religion 51% Christian 40% Irreligious 6% Muslim 1% Judaism Malaysia s a country in Southeast Asia, consists of 13 states and three federal territories Population of over 30 million Ethnic group 68.8% Bumiputera 23.2% Chinese, 7.0% Indian, 1.0% Others Religion 61.3% Islam 19.8% Buddhism 9.2% Christianity 6.3% Hinduism Malaysia Malaysia Cultural dimensions Cultural dimensions Hofstede's cultural dimensions Hofstede Power distance -> people in social orders not equivalent. France = 68 Disparity acknowledged Upper social class dominate lower and middle Government dominates by laws Companies strict hierarchy + privilege for superior Malaysia= 100 Everyone has a place + accept control centralization + inequalities Hierarchy of importance essential Individualism : Take care of themselves and family Collectivist: collective decision + belong to a group Individualism Individualism France = 71 Individualist Freedom expression / Personal - Professional success Relations to achieve personal goal Particularity: really dependent of family more than other individualist countries. Malaysia= 26 collectivist Commitment to the group Loyalty is paramount Everyone takes responsibility all members Masculinity= rivalry - accomplishment - progress Feminine = thinking about others - personal satisfaction Masculinity - Femininity Masculinity France = 43 More feminine culture Welfare framework High society= Feminine Average workers = Masculine Malaysia= 50 Uniformity between the jobs Can't be resolved Manner in which that a general public manages the way that the future can never be known Uncertainly avoidance Uncertainly avoidance France= 86 Highest in the world Structured and organized No surprise certainty about future Less relaxed and enjoy life Malaysia= 36 Calendars adaptable - exactness + reliability not important norm More apt to take risks + to realize desires Relaxed - See positive side Need to keep up connections with past and managing the difficulties of present and future Long term orientation Long term orientation France= 63 True depend of the moment Easily adapt their tradition Always modernizes + evolution Malaysia= 41 Worried about absolute truth Respect for conventions Religion and traditions really important Hall's cultural dimension Hall Edward Twitchell Hall = American anthropologist Culture = mean of communication 4 criteria: High and low context culture: High or low context culture France and Malaysia = like face to face + close relationship with partners Trust Double click to edit Hall's Space Space Hall's Time Time Human interaction first Opposed to the motto of monochronic societies “time is money” To Hall: culture = communication system Speed of message = big part of this communication Malaysia and France = slow speed of message Take longer to be decoded and understood Related with the high context of culture Hall's speed of message Speed of message Verbal and Nonverbal communication Communications issues What is Verbal communication ? Verbal- communication Communication : process of interchanging information, ideas, feelings and opinions Verbal communication: all the elements of information transmitted by voice during a communication situation In general in general FRANCE MALAYSIA -Politeness -Respect -No direct -Take their time -Underestimate what they say - -Use of lexical registers -Use of expressions -More direct In Malaysia: Use many comparisons, similarities, proverbs or short poems E.g : critics are hidden into scenario or poems Speak indirectly Use figurative language: Meanings interpreted with imagination rather than literally Language style Language style French language counts many expressions: To make discussions more interesting : use of expressions and comparisons Allows to embellish sentences In France: In France In Malaysia: Answer very rarely negatively To always be polite and respectful ( very important values in Malaysia) Badly seen to say no Answer to questions: Will always be yes even if they want to say no The interlocutor must analyze the way of answering Negative answers negative answers Do not hesitate to answer negatively Answer frankly and honestly Not a question of politness In France: In France In malaysia: speak with a soft voice -> speaking with a loud voice is not well seen, it is rude (whatever the situation) In France: tend to speak with a loud voice express their joy, or dissatisfaction explicitly Intensity of the voice Intensity of the voice In Malaysia: they laugh a lot -> when it is funny, but also when they are embarassed laughter = a defence mechanism in an embarrassing or uncomfortable situation In France:
Transcript: Background Issues and Adaptation in France Strategy Analysis Acquisition Action Framework Conclusion Angwin, D. (2001). Mergers and acquisitions across European borders: National perspectives on preacquisition due diligence and the use of professional advisors, Journal of World Business, 36(1): 32-57. Cartwright, S. & Cooper, C.L. (1996) Managing Mergers, Acquisitions and Strategic Alliances: Integrating People and Cultures, 2nd ed, Reed Elsevier: Oxford. Charles Hampden-Turner, F. T. (2007). Riding The Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. London: McGraw-Hill; 2 edition. Fiedler, F.E. (1967). A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, New York, N Y: McGraw-Hill Gertsen, M., Soderberg, A.M. & Torp, J.E. (1998) Cultural Dimensions of International Mergers and Acquisitions, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin. Lajoux, A.R. (1998). The Art of Acquisition Integration: A Guide to Merging Resources, Processes, and Responsibilities, McGraw-Hill: New York. Larsson, R. & Risberg, A. (1998). Cultural awareness and national versus corporate barriers to acculturation, in Gertsen, Martine Cardel, Soderberg, Anne-Marie & Torp, Jens Erik, editors (eds.) Cultural Dimensions of International Mergers and Acquisitions: Berlin. Lubatkin, M., Calori, R., Very, P. & Veiga, J.F. (1998). Managing mergers across borders: A two-nation exploration of a national administrative heritage, Organization Science, 9(6): 670-84. Meschi, P.-X. and Roger, A. (1994) ‘Cultural context and social effectiveness in international joint-ventures’, Management International Review, 34(3):197-215 Rottig, D. (2007). Successfully Managing International Mergers and Acquisitions: A Descriptive Framework, International Business: Research Teaching and Practice 2007 1(1): 97-118. Very, P. & Schweiger, D.M. (2001). The acquisition process as a learning process: Evidence from a study of critical problems and solutions in domestic and cross-border deals, Journal of World Business, 36(1): 11-31. Wall, S.J. (2001). Making mergers work, Financial Executive, March-April: 34-35, 67. Weber, Y. (1996). Corporate cultural fit and performance in mergers and acquisitions, Human Relations, 49(9): 1181-202. Local Brand Identity Conclusion Independent local brands Jean Pierre Coubert Communication Greet-Hostede's Dimensions intergrated in CASE Greet-Hostede's Dimensions intergrated in CASE French Born Executive and General Manager of Group du Nord Executive for Inter HRC Executive and general Manager of Vechtel France Expertise in Frech breweries Industry Local Culture Adaptation Rebranding 5. Long Term Orientation vs. Short term Orientation Local Cultural Problems Vechtel Company Cross Cultural Leadership Problems 2. Situational favorableness Stereotyping Problems Cultural Transition Action Framework Dutch Born Executive and General Management of Vechtel France in the beggining Broad Memeber of Vechtel Culture Man Poliglot References France Cross Cultural Communication Problems Outline Relationship prevails over tasks Issues with Spain and Adaptation in France Leadership Problems National Cultures Organizational Cultures Jaap Hermelen Schaeffer Takeover Company Cultural Problems Assertiveness Greet-Hostede's Dimensions intergrated in CASE THANK YOU 1. Power Distance Index (PDI) Greet Hofstede's Dimension Accessible Managers Acquisition Culture Clash 4. Individualism vs Collectivism 3. Masculinity vs. Femininity Emotional Gap Spain Cross Cultural Management Rotterdamn Communication Gap 2. Uncertainty Avoidance Index CONTIGENCY THEORY Organizational Culture Adaptation International Acquisitions 1. Leadership Styles Organizational Gap Analysis of Five C's Framework Competitiveness Domestic Acquisitions Yaw ADOO Liu BOYA Paula LÓPEZ Shree NEVE Feng ZIPING Cross Cultural Communication Problems Anxiety
Transcript: * These people were so kind. Welcomed me with open arms. * Invited me to join them after for dessert and coffee. * The service was more fun than I had anticipated. What I Thought After. The Scripture Read From What I Initially Thought. * A lot of songs were sang. * New members were introduced and welcomed. * A bar mitzvah was taking place the following day. * Scripture was read. * Got to chat with a nice couple on the Temple board as well as someone designated to answer questions for college students observing * I was very nervous and thought I would be judged since I wasn't a member. * No disrespect... but I thought these people were going to be stuck up. * I thought they were going to be very stiff and boring, that the entire meeting would be boring. Reflection * Teach kids "don't judge a book by its cover." * Teach kids about the history of Jewish holidays. * Celebrate Jewish holidays with ALL students in the class. * Extend this to students of ALL religions (in the class). Classroom Implications Rabbi Adam F. Miller Inside the Temple Shabbat Shalom!! 10/10/14... Evening
Transcript: -ARTISTIC MECCA from ancient times to present -Fine Arts: museums with extensive and famous collections -foundation and center of the Renaissance -Fashion: international designers and brands -innovative and famous techniques -leather goods (Florence) -Moreno glass jewelery (Venice) -Architecture: impressively long lasting structures -invention of arches and domes leather market in florence http://whygo-eur.s3.amazonaws.com/www.italylogue.com/files/2008/03/leather1.jpg Italian Happiness By: Julia Della Torre "The School of Athens":Raphael https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Sanzio_01.jpg CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016 RELIGION FAMILY FOOD SPORTS PATRIOTISM "Italy: Family." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 12 July 2016. "Italy: Religion." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 13 July 2016. "Italy: The Arts." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. Luciano, Mario, et al. "The Family In Italy: Cultural Changes And Implications For Treatment." International Review Of Psychiatry 24.2 (2012): 149-156. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 12 July 2016. Taylor, Carl S. "Sports And Recreation: Community Anchor And Counterweight To Conflict." Peace And Conflict: Journal Of Peace Psychology 2.4 (1996): 339-350. PsycARTICLES. Web. 14 July 2016. "United States of America: General Attitudes." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. Cross Cultural Presentation: United States vs. Italy -RELIGIOUS UNITY -90% of the population is Roman Catholic -widely respected and has social/political influence nationally and worldwide The pantheon: 2000 yr old dome https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Pantheon-panini.jpg -American food includes cuisines of many different cultures -People introduce others to favorite foods native to their ethnic backgrounds -Italian, French, Mexican, Chinese, Japanese, Thai, etc. -Known for willingness to try new things -Mealtimes bring people together -Eating is for socialization as well as sustenance American Happiness THE ARTS -Most Americans believe America is the greatest country in the world -Sense of pride for their freedom, democracy, and national successes -Social experiences on American Holidays -Cohesive celebrations of the nation -4th of July Sources -STRONG FAMILY TIES -Old fashioned outlook -Family remains the premier social institution due to influence of the catholic church -It is common for multiple generations to live together -Grandparents often help with childcare -Mutual aid from all members CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2016. Web. 14 July 2016. -Teams and clubs = community -Positive social relationships -Keeps young kids out of trouble -"Involvement in sports and recreation diminishes the likelihood that youth will engage in self-destructive or illegal activities" -Carl Taylor
Transcript: How are Gimnasio Vermont's teachers and PSU student teachers, in a cross-cultural setting, able to identify differences and similarities in teaching practices? Perceptual and Psychomotor Skills Bilingual IB Mandarin Pruebas Saber 2005 - 2012 1,585 Students 56% girls and 44% boys classroom average of 25 students 85% will graduate from GV Personal Space "Student teacher 1: Right away we were all welcomed into the school, and began the day. The first thing I noticed was how affectionate the students were, right away was the swarm of all male students waiting for their teacher. Once they spotted their teacher, they ran towards her and hugged her, a form of affection that is commonly avoided in the States. Perceptual and Psychomotor Skills Journal I then observed the students practice writing lower and upper case letters. The students knew to write the uppercase letters with a red color pencil, and use a pencil to write the lowercase letters. I noticed that when the students wrote the letters, and copied a sentence the teacher was very particular about how the words were written. She circled or underlined parts that were written beyond or below the designated line. I feel that in the States we are not as particular as they are here, but the students then go back and correct it. I think that it is incredibly helpful to write the uppercase letters in a red color pencil, and lowercase letters in pencil. Focus Group “Colored pencils for CAPS + punctuation helps”. Perceptual and Psychomotor Skills Mentor presentation Student Teacher We talk about cultural proficiency in seminar every few classes, but you cannot be prepared for cultural proficiency until you are placed in the position to adapt to local culture. Co-Teaching What I thought it was very interesting was seeing how they work (student teacher and the mentor) together, because I had the opportunity to also have a mentor at the same time with other interns. To see how they work together and while I was explaining a topic they were not just observing but going though the places answering questions, helping me correct of helping the kids, so I can see how they work together at the school and may be get a little idea of how it works to have some else in the classroom. - I left the student teacher lead the class, - How did you feel about that?- It was very nice, she prepared a game, so she explained something before and then she did a game. The students liked it very much and I thought it was very useful. Maybe it opened my mind because some time we have so much topic to cover, so much to do that you that you think you never have time to do those things… you will be behind… again the game that she did was a short game, very useful and I could see how that helped them understood the topic. So I said ok… may be that is something that I can do next year when I cover this topic I can do that game again. I could divide the group for example in little groups of fours. While I was doing certain math exercises, the student teacher had another activity. The girls (students) design and interview, they wrote and interview for the student teacher, because we were… our next topic was yes no questions in simple present tense. So said this is the perfect opportunity to practice questions with the student teacher… so while a was doing math with the girls that were struggling, the student teacher was going group per group taking five minutes per group because I have 26 students, having five minutes and answering the questions… it was nice because we could do two things at the same time. Every body was on task and every body was happy. - I would like to have more than a week,- Why?- Because a week is not enough, because the student teacher was doing other activities, she was visiting schools and everything. And so here at school we have a seven-day week so I would like her to be the seven days that we have the whole week, for her to see how students advance during that seven-day week. Like for the assessments and everything, because they have the assessments on day seven. Gimnasio Vermont Student Teacher preparation Research Question Teachers Findings NEXT? Cross-Cultural Co-teaching Experience Opportunities Student Teachers Hands-on Unique opportunity Multicultural Classrooms Co-Teaching Teachers Professional Development Time Co-teaching Observation Colombia Classrooms Lunch Freetime USA Classroom PDS meeting Interviews Focus groups Journals Interviews Inquiry Project Data Collection Findings Time Alternative Teaching Rational One teach, One guide Findings Carlos Esteban Perez
Transcript: Our experience together was amazing. We both found out interesting aspects about each ones culture. We had come to realize that Indian and Greek culture have a lot of similarities. However, there were differences as well. What surprised us the most were the similarities in our culture. We both come from religious and cultural backgrounds. We had discussed what our initial reaction happens when we come across a difficult situation or when we feel like something wrong is about to happen. We turn to the Evil Eye expulsion in the hope that the negative energy will be rid of. Deciding The Topic By: Vishali G. and Eleana G. Thank You for Watching!!! Vishali's Prevention From The Evil Eye Cross Cultural Presentation Eleana's Prevention from the Evil Eye In Indian culture, we prevent the Evil Eye by: ~Putting a black dot behind our ears. ~ Tying a black thread around our wrists or ankles. ~ Taking a fistful of flour and circling it around our head eight times. ~ Getting long red cayenne peppers and burning them, after we circle them around our head eight times. We decided our topic to be based on the Evil Eye because of our interests in our cultural background. Once we had our cultural date, we realized that both families take in the influence of the evil eye immensely. The Experience We Had Together Greece India Egypt Turkey Iran Iraq Lebanon Morocco Southern Italy (Naples) The Levant Afghanistan and many more.. Our Families ! What the Evil Eye Means to us In Greek culture we prevent the Evil Eye by.. Placing a black dot behind your ear. Performing a ritual that includes a cup of water, three drops of oil, and a prayer, fallowed by yawns. The person who is believed to have the Evil Eye, drinks from three different areas of the cup. If the oil splits, then it confirms you have the Evil Eye. We know that the ritual is complete and the person did have the Evil Eye when the other person yawns uncontrollably, therefore releasing the bad tension from the Evil Eye. Evil Eye
Transcript: Country Characteristics Apartheid Nelson Mandela Brief History Three Capitals 56 million inhabitats 11 languages Rand CTICC Rondebosch Edmead highschool Protea Marriot Hotel Grote Schuur Hospital Cross Cultural Presentation Made by: Anne Gubbels, Kim Eijpe, Thom Henskens, Loes Westerveld and Babette Verkerke Cross Cultural awareness Similarities Introduction Bartolomeus Dias Jan van Riebeeck
Transcript: References Transportation Services Business Customs: Physical Business Customs: Social Friendly People Greeting Happy Emotional Crises Hospitality Language Paid National Holidays Language Currency Business Customs Staff/Management Behaviors Workdays/Holiday General Office Behaviors Transportation Environment Nonverbal Idiosyncrasies Religious Holidays Jacqueline Treat Happy Begum Rebekah Mills Sandra Flores Turkey Climate in Istanbul Beaches Restaurants Language Currency Business Customs Physical Social Workdays & Holidays General Office Behaviors Transportation Environment Non-Verbal Idiosyncrasies Work Life/Workdays Cross Cultural Presentation: Overview Turkish Lira (TRY), minor units is Kurus (Kr) About 0.34 US dollars Most popular exchange is TRY to the Euro Business dress is conservative Men's Attire Women's Attire During Summer months Airport Bombing Water Pollution Air Pollution Greenhouse Gases Land Degradation Bio Diversity Official language: Turkish AKA Istanbul Turkish Also the official language of Cyprus, North Cyprus, and a majority in 6 other countries 80 million speakers (2007 census) Spread by the Ottoman Empire Current Issues in Turkey Office Behavior: Respectful Environment Punctual Greetings May Avoid looking into your eyes in a display of humble behavior Small area of personal space DO's and DONT'S: Body Language Do not stand with your hands on your hips when talking to others, especially older people or superiors, or put your hands in your pockets Yes ( Slight downward nod) No ( slight upward nod while making a quick sucking sound through their two front teeth(tsk)) Never point the sole of their foot towards a person Thumb between your first two fingers is equivalent to raising your middle finger in the United States. The “O.K.” sign in Turkey means that someone is homosexual. Business Customs: Social Ramazan Bayrami 3 day festival As known as “Seker (sweets) Bayrami” because it’s customary to offer candies to family members and friends that are visiting. Environment Jan 1: New Year’s Day Apr 23: National Sovereignty and Children’s Day (anniversary of the establishment of Turkish Grand National Assembly) May 1: Labor and Solidarity Day (recently added in 2009) May 19: Atatürk Commemoration and Youth & Sports Day (the arrival of Atatürk in Samsun, and the beginning of the War of Independence) Aug 30: Victory Day (victory over invading forces in 1922). October 6: Liberation of Istanbul (celebrated only in Istanbul) Oct 29: Republic Day (anniversary of the declaration of the Turkish Republic) Business etiquette. Retrieved September 05, 2016, from http:businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-in-turkey/business-etiquette-in-turkey/ Cultural Etiquette. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2016, from http:www.ediplomat.com/np/cultural_etiquette/ce_tr.htm Doing Business in Turkey. Retrieved September 06, 2016, from http://www.turkey.doingbusinessguide.co.uk/the-guide/turkish-business-culture/ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs." Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2016. "Istanbul: Annual Weather Averages." Weather Averages for Istanbul, Turkey. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2016. Meeting etiquette. Retrieved September 06, 2016, from http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-in-turkey/meeting-etiquette-in-turkey/ Planet, Lonely. "Getting around Turkey on Local Transport - Lonely Planet." Lonely Planet. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2016 Second Language Acquisition of Turkish, Ayşe Gürel, Öner Özçelik, Despina Papadopoulou, 2016 Turkey. (n.d.). Retrieved September 05, 2016, from https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey Terms of Employement. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2016, from http://www.invest.gov.tr/en-US/investmentguide/investorsguide/employeesandsocialsecurity/Pages/TermsOfEmployment.aspx TRY - Turkish Lira rates, news, and tools. Retrieved September 05, 2016, from http://www.xe.com/currency/try-turkish-lira Work-life balance. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2016, from http://businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-in-turkey/work-life-balance-in-turkey/ Kurban Bayrami 4 day festival Sacrificial sheep are slaughtered and their meat is distributed to the poor. General Behavior Currency Transportations Major public transportation In Istanbul: Nonverbal Idiosyncrasies The importance of Family Domestic work (Men<Women) Law to provide day care Work Maximum of 45 hrs Instead of the overtime payment, employees may be granted 1.5 hours of free time for every overtime hour worked. Government Departments: Monday- Friday. 8:30am to 5:30 pm Shops: Monday - Sunday. 9am to 7pm During Summer: 7am - 2pm Decision making can be slow Prefer communicating visually and orally Communicating directly Conclusion Taxi Tram Metro (subway) Minibuses Private Cars Motorcycle Bus Service Airline Greet with handshake Greetings should be formal Schedule appointments in advance Five daily prayer times Punctuality Gift giving
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