Transcript: The who wants you! The World Health Organization seeks biostatisticians for work in epidemiology research. How does the flu spread? What is the connection between smoking and lung cancer? How drunk do you actually have to be to get alcohol poisoning? An epidemiologist could answer these questions. So, what is an epidemiologist? Epidemiologists design studies and collect and analyze statistical data. This includes outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, biomonitoring, and clinical trials. It's pretty mathy, but in a good way. Epidemiologists need knowledge of statistical tools and techniques to help doctors, researchers, and other people in the health care field understand the development and spread of disease. They use data from clinical trials and lab studies to calculate how fast a disease spreads, who is at risk, and what the risk factors are. Does this sound like fun? Well, stay in school. Most epidemiological biostatisticians are physicians with degrees such as: Master of Public Health Master of Science Doctor of Pharmacy Doctor of Medicine Get some experience. This can include volunteer work with nonprofits like the Red Cross, internships at pharmaceutical companies, or work in hospitals. Cha-Ching! epidemiological biostatisticians can make between 39 and 100 thousand dollars per year. Interested? Contact the World Health Organization at their office or see the representative here today.
Transcript: Biostatistics Tori Maneen About Biostatistics Analyze data and statistics on living things Draw conclusions and make predictions on medical research Work with other biostatisticians to write research proposals related to new research (New York State departement of labour,Environmental science) The Science Skills Critical thinking - being able to think on your feet complex problem solving -multiple math and sciences used at once writting and reading comprehension (New York State departement of labour) Show & Tell Interests math- statistics science - biology investigative- know how to solve problems conventional - be able to work with what is in front of you (New york state departement of labour) Atomic Ideas Workplace desired Office type setting collaborate with others must be very accurate with mathematics and sciences (New York State deparetment of labour) Contact Info Values Achievement- willing to reach your goals recognition- receiving awards for research discoveries independence- needing to be able to work by ones self and in a group setting (New York State department of labour) minimum requirement of a bachelors degree most receive a masters to a PhD takes around 4-8.5 years Education Education (New York State department of labour) Chapel Hill, North Carolina 659 miles from Frankfort,New York High academics,SAT,and ACT scores work/research experience (optional) letters of recomendation personal statement tuition is $15,981.50 additional fees are $979 University of North Carolina University of North Carolina (University of North Carolina) Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 245 miles from Frankfort, New york $75 registration fee transcripts must be sent directly from previous school one academic recomendation required one other recomendation from someone in the cominity SAT and Act tests are recomended to be submited tuition costs $50,224, living expenses cost $8,284, meal plan costs $4,916, textbooks cost $1,540, other fees cost $1,142 total program cost is $68,106 Brown University (Brown University) medical knowledge- biology and biochemistry environmental science physics Other degrees Other degrees (Environmental science) no extra training after college senior biostatisticians have more resposibility managing others requires work expierience to advance in the job starting salary is $56,000 in New York State per year top 10% ear around $88,940 per year nationaly and in New York the job is expected to grow 22% over the next 10 years The Job The Job (Environmental science) " Biostatistics ." Gillings school of global public health .University of North Carolina , n.d. Web. 16 May 17. < http://www.unc.edu/search-unc/search-results/?q=biostatistics> "Biostatistics home ." Home of Biostatistics . ;Brown university, n.d. Web. 17 May 17. <https://www.brown.edu/academics/public-health/biostatistics/>. "Occupation details for Statisticians." New York State Career Zone. New York state department of labour , n.d. Web. 9 May 17. <https://www.careerzone.ny.gov/views/careerzone/search/occupation/occupationProfile.jsf#.WRHCtO0rLrc>. " What is a biostatistician?" environmental science . N.p., 9 Nov. 15. Web. 10 May 17. < http://www.environmentalscience.org/career/biostatistician>. work cited work cited
Transcript: By Jason Schwarze Frankie Tierney VJ Sompalli Bethany Brockhoff Biostatistics Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n All 0.52 0.5002 3.6632 1988.803 103 The best model using Hispanic Females was found to be: Y= 146.449 + 7.107(AP classes) + 68.560(Current GPA) + -29.866(Cumulative GPA) + .787(Days absent) The best model using White Males was found to be: Y= 206.08 + 15.752(AP classes) + 27.341(Cumulative GPA) + 1.302(Days absent) Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n Black Female 0.844 0.7854 2.0863 624.3967 12 Hay Number of AP classes Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n Hispanic Female 0.913 0.8629 3.8062 261.2544 12 The number of days absent has little to no effect on the Reading FCAT score for Hispanic Females Current GPA The best model for using Black Females was found to be: Y= 19.038 + 58.823(Current GPA) + 21.305(Cumulative GPA) + 1.590(Days absent) This project attempts to predict what a student will score on the Reading portion of the FCAT based upon: Jason Schwarze The number of AP classes is not a factor in determining the FCAT score for Black Males and Females. Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n White Male 0.437 0.3861 0.5148 3377.407 25 GPA The best model using White Females was found to be: Y= 232.718 + -1.733(Study hours) + 15.994(AP classes) + 2.912(Current GPA) + 3.693(Days absent) So what can be learned from this data? Gender The best model for using Black Males was found to be: Y= -229.707 + 13.867(Average study hours) + 23.139(Age) + 43.821(Current GPA) + 6.206(Days absent) ANOVA Table for all students The number days absent The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is used to grade students, teachers and schools. and Ethnicity Jason Schwarze The best model for using Hispanic Males was found to be: Y= 146.449 + 7.107(AP classes) + 68.560(Current GPA) + -29.866(Cumulative GPA) + .787(Days absent) Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n Black Male 0.752 0.5534 3.2277 2692.016 10 Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n Hispanic Male 0.667 0.5553 1.4272 1157.653 13 Age is a major factor in determining the reading FCAT score for Black Males Age The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is used to grade students, teachers and schools. Model R^2 adj R^2 CP MSE n White Female 0.676 0.6242 3.5025 1200.676 31 This is 16 The best model for using all subjects was found to be: Y= 188.98 + 15.292(AP Classes) + 14.579(Current GPA) + 16.369(Cumulative GPA) + 2.258(Days absent) Average study hours per week
Transcript: STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES Observational study An example of an observational study is one that explores the correlation between smoking and lung cancer. This type of study typically uses a survey to collect observations about the area of interest and then performs statistical analysis. In this case, the researchers would collect observations of both smokers and non-smokers, perhaps through a case-control study, and then look for the number of cases of lung cancer in each group. There are four main levels of measurement used in statistics: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Each of these have different degrees of usefulness in statistical research. Ratio measurements have both a meaningful zero value and the distances between different measurements defined; they provide the greatest flexibility in statistical methods that can be used for analyzing the data. STEPS BIOSTATISTICS 1. Planning the Research 2. Designing the Experiments 3. Performing the Experiment 4. Further examining the data set in secondary analyses, to suggest new hypotheses for future study. 5. Documenting and presenting the results of the study An experimental study involves taking measurements of the system under study, manipulating the system, and then taking additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has modified the values of the measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Instead, data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated. Interval estimation 1 Experiments A common goal for a statistical research project is to investigate causality, and in particular to draw a conclusion on the effect of changes in the values of predictors or independent variables on dependent variables or response. - to define normally - to test whether the difference between two populations, regarding a particular attribute is real or a chance of occurence - to study the correlation or association between two or more attributes in the same population - to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, sera, etc. by control studies - to evaluate the achievements of public health programs - to fix priorities in public health programs USES Experimental and observational studies Because variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically, sometimes they are grouped together as categorical variables, whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative variables, which can be either discrete or continuous, due to their numerical nature. WHAT IS BIOSTATISTICS? Confidence intervals allow statisticians to express how closely the sample estimate matches the true value in the whole population. Often they are expressed as 95% confidence intervals. - statistics is the science of competing, classifying and tabulating numerical data and expressing results in a mathematical/ graphical data. - biostatistics is that branch of statistics concerned with mathematical facts and data relating to biological events. -is the application of statistics to problems in the biological sciences, health, and medicine. 3 Levels of measurement 2
Transcript: Harvard University Columbia University Duke University Georgetown University Northwestern University California-Berkeley University Johns Hopkins University Emory University University of South Carolina What is Bio-Statistis? Bio-statistics is the branch of statistics responsible for the proper interpretation of scientific data generated in the biology, public health and other health sciences (i.e., the biomedical sciences). University of Florida Boston University George Washington University Rutgers University Pre-requisites to Attain a BS Where can I go to study this? You don't have to be a math major but a strong mathematical background is recommended and usually required Chemistry isn't necessarily required but it is recommended to have credits in Physics Ex) Cornell University Calculus 1&2 Multivariate Calculus and Linear Algebra Biological Statistics or Statistical Methods II, Generalized and Mixed Linear Models Probability Models and Inference Statistical Computing Linear Models with Matrices Theory of Statistics Bio-Statistics Core Requirements for Bio-Stat
Transcript: Research Validity Internal External Reliability Cronbach's Alpha Research Design Random Assignment Control group Sampling Central Tendency mean, median, mode Variability Standard Deviation Standard Scores, Z-Score t-tests ANOVA Chi-square Correlation Regression ANCOVA Factor Analysis HLM Structural Equation Modeling The right tool yields the right outcome Questions? is important use overview to show relations is important too is important Inferential Statistics are tools for decision making Descriptive zoom in, ant add details to these Frames Biostatistics is here
Transcript: recognizing a new or increased pattern of disease Analytical Studies Types of studies The ability of the test to correctly identify people without the disease. Specificity = TN / (TN + FP) Positive Predictive Value Case reports Sensitivity Specificity Following a group of smokers and non-smokers and to find out how many of them develop lung cancer Measures: incidence, causality Measures of effect: Relative risk Clinical Observation Cross-sectional studies Predictive values The ability of the test to correctly identify people with the disease Sensitivity = TP / (TP + FN) Descriptive studies Screening tests Statistics testing for hypothesis exposure X -> Disease Y Negative Predictive Value Analytical Studies Sequence of epidemiologic studies Smoking and lung cancer describing distribution Epidemiologic studies Sensitivity, Specificity Predictive values Interpretation of p-value The probability of a getting a "negative" result in a screening test PV -ve = TN / (TN + FN) Recruiting lung cancer patients (cases) and patients without lung cancer (controls) Involves exploratory study of smoking behaviors among cases and controls Measures of effect: Odds Ratio Case-control Studies Ishan Lalani, MD MPH Cohort studies The probability of a getting a "positive" result in a screening test PV +ve = TP / (TP + FP) The science of collecting, summarizing and analyzing the data. Biostatistics Common presentation of a rare disease Rare presentation of a common disease A value obtained after running tests for statistical significance Mostly researchers set an arbitrary value of 0.05 as the limit p <0.05 means the results are not by chance and there is a significant statistical relationship A snapshot of the study sample Used to measure Prevalence among the community eg. nationwide surveys conducted by organizations like CDC p-value Descriptive Studies Topics for today
Transcript: Anatomy Atlas ATHRAA AWAD Does it make a difference? Introduction Introduction Medical school Biological science what is anatomy atlas? what is anatomy atlas? A Detailed Ilustrated Images of the Human Body. Netter Atlas heart chambers It helps medical students to understand organs, bones, muscles, arteries, veins and nerves better. It illustrates each part of the body from different views and its relations to other parts and organs. The survey The survey A survey was completed by 15 medical students to gather data. We asked whether they used an atlas or not and if they did, which one? Voluntary. Experimental. Targeted population are people in the medical field. If medical students used an anatomy atlas they would get higher grades than those students who did not use it. Hypothesis Used 2-proportion test. response Of the 15 medical students, 10 students used the atlas with a range of grades between A's and B's. response While the 5 students remaining had grades between B's at most and lower. Also, different atlases were used, Netter's atlas was mostly used by 8 students, the rest are gray's atlas, Prof. Gaballah's atlas, and sameh doss. results results Analysis showed that students are 58% more likely to get an A if they use an atlas with 17% margin of error, and 43% more likely to get a C without using an atlas with 11% margin of error. The precentage of margin of error can be explained due to the the small sample size. Which atlas is best? Among the four atlases used by students, using the 2-prop test between two similar atlases, and th pair wise test between those two groups, analysis showed that it does not matter which atlas you use, as long as you use an atlas you will get higher grades. Which atlas is best? what I would do differently? Gather more data to reduce the margin of error. what I would do differently? Thoroughly test the atlases and compare them to each other better.
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