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Transcript: How is Palm Oil Extracted? The End Where did Palm Oil Originate? PALM OIL Fruit bunches are cut off by a motorized or manual sickle. The fruit is sterilized, threshed and crushed. The largest palm plantations and areas of mass deforestation are in Borneo and Sumatra. Environmental Impacts Linked to deforestation, habitat degradation, climate change, animal cruelty, and indigenous people's rights abuses. 300 football fields of rainforest is cleared each hour worldwide. Palm oil is a major contributor to climate change as burned & felled trees release masses of green house gases. This industry is the biggest threat to orangutans. 1000-5000 are killed each year. What is Palm Oil? Palm oil is extracted from the fruit (flesh and kernel) of the oil palm tree. The oil from the flesh is edible but the kernel oil is not. Kernel oil is used as fuel or livestock feed. Palm oil can be found in margarine, cereals, crisps, sweets, baked goods, soaps, confectionery, washing powders, toothpaste and cosmetics. Social Impacts Indigenous people that live in places of mass deforestation are being forced to move out. This is due to lack of necessities such as clean drinking water and fertile soil. This oil is mass produced so it is cheaper to buy and use than other oils. It is used in almost 50%of packaged supermarket goods. Products That Use Palm Oil Oil Palms originated in West Africa. Palm oil has been an essential ingredient in traditional West African cuisine for thousands of years. 50% of packaged products in supermarkets have palm oil in them. 65% of vegetable oil used is palm oil. By 2020 use of palm oil is expected to double.

Oil Palm

Transcript: Pest Management Phylogeny Breeding (UNEP, Environmental change hotspots, 2011). Forms of Palm Oil we SHOULD use Less land use What are current farming practices like? (Ngando-Ebongue, et al., 2012) Not an efficient or effective bio fuel Ecological limits Bred to produce more oil. Large investment- life span of palm, land. (Singh, et al., 2013) Oil Palm Sustainable vs Unsustainable Agriculture Berger K.G., Martin S.M. (2000). The cambridge world history of food. [Cambridge University.]Retrieved from Chao C.T., Krueger R.R. (2007). The date palm (Pheonix dactylifera L.): Overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. Hort Science, 42(5), 1077-1082. Retrieved from: Ngando-Ebongue G.F., Ajambang W.N., Koona P., Firman B.L., Arondel V. (2012). Oil palm. Technological Innovations in Major Oil Crops, 1, 165-200. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0356-2_7 Plants for the Future. (n.d.). Retrieved from: Singh R., Ong-Abdullah M., Low E.L., Manaf M.A.A., Rosli R., Nookiah R., Ooi L.C., Chan K.L., Halim M.A., Azizi N., Nagappan J., Bacher B., Lakey N., Smith S.W., He D., Hogan M., Budiman M.A., Lee E.K., DeSalle R., Kudrna D., Goicoechea J.L., Wing R.A., Wilson R.K., Fulton R.S., Ordway J.M., Maritienssen R.A., Sambanthamuthi R. (2013). Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of infertile species in old and new worlds. Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science, 500, 335-339. doi: 10.1038/nature12309. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. (2009). Indonesia: Palm oil production growth to continue. (Commodity Intelligence Report). Retrieved from United Nations Environment Programme. (2011). Oil palm plantations: Threats and opportunities for tropical ecosystems. (Report written by Moran L.S.) Retrieved from Is it sustainable? Less than one hundred years of selective breeding produced 12 tonnes/hectare/year Food Security Early 20th Century popular world wide. Large Scale relocation of farming to Asia 1848. (USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, 2009). Sustainable Zingiber officinale- ginger root Musa acuminata- dwarf/edible banana Habitat loss Curcuma longa- turmeric - Should endorse healthy alternative of palm oil. Summary Deforestation (Singh, et al., 2013) (United Nations Environment Programme, 2011). Questions? Does palm oil agriculture harm the environment? Job creation Reduce carbon clearance (fixation) Palm Oil Uses Genus Elaeis Unbleached (United Nations Environment Programme, 2011). Cultivated/ Traded Is it healthy/ useful? (Singh, et al., 2013) Genetic Modification Family Arecaceae Does it have to? Could practices be changed? Species guineensis and oleifra WWF Message: Bio fuel References Control disease Decrease carbon clearance, alternative fuel NOT more eco-friendly Higher oil yield than any other edible-oil crop. Trading dates back to 3000 B.C ( found in Egypt) RSPO Should you endorse palm oil? Agriculture and Ecology Loss of ecological services from rainforest ("Plants for a Future", n.d.) (Berger & Martin, 2000) -Should know what you are eating so you can make an informed decision. - Should pressure companies to produce using sustainable palm oil. History and Biology 2007 (Singh, et al., 2013) unhydrogentated Should Oil Palm be endorsed? Pheonix dactylifera- date palm Closest Relatives


Transcript: Breathing Problems The Hazardous levels of haze from forest fires all over Malaysia and Indonesia have been an irritating to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. The haze originates from the from the forest fires burning, from palm oil companies who use illegal burning tactics in order to clear forest land quickly and cheaply. Since carbon dioxide is the major source of global warming, tropical rainforest deforestation is an also a contributor to global warming. Because trees take in carbon dioxide when you burn the forrest it emits the carbon dioxide back into air increasing the risks of the global warming The destruction of large quantities of tropical rain forest for palm oil plantations is bound to have disastrous consequences because the burning of the tropical rainforests produces smoke. The smoke can affect the air quality and peoples health. Most people recover quickly from exposure to smoke and do not suffer long-term effects but others that are more prone to suffer include: people suffering from existing cardiac or respiratory conditions, such as asthma those with complications from diabetes smokers, as smoke increases the risk of reduced lung function infants and very young children frail older people. Burning of the rain Forrest Inconvenience Global Warming Irritating neighboring countries PALM OIL Air Quality The toxic haze has caused many inconveniences such as school and office closing, delayed/canceled flights and is still continuing to cost neighboring countries millions of dollars in productivity and efficiency.

Palm oil

Transcript: - Extinction Palm oil strategies for a sustainable use and production of palm oil 15%-30% of global greengas - from peat forest fires Biodiesel Fotos 3. Anforderungsbereich (Tim und Fin) - Less space to live Processing produce of biogas with wastewaster The oil palm - Ecosystem , Species and Genes 80 % - from deforestation and forest fires composting the ashes land utilization mostly woman ashes as natural fertilizer total population -> 230 mio Indigenous population -> 45 mio - 30% decreased and another 38 % will fall General information plant itself production harvest Palm kernel oil Cultivation Harvesting - to litte food -less air pollution/greenhouse effect with particle filters and natural fertilizer -subsidies for non-polluting projects (composting method) financiers (banks/investors/customers) The RSPO prduces 1,9 Million tons of Palm Oil Only 5% of the world usage people often heard of Palm Oil Aim to use only sustainable Palm Oil 1% palm oil PROBLEM: not enough food for own population PFEIL needs to be imported PFEIL high prices PFEIL harder to play for own population Harvesting high profit expectations: -big companies invest in Oilpalms and processing facilities -2011 cirka 15 Mio. tonnes exported -prices are rising PFEIL very good economy -work for rural population and high wages Palm kernel oil knowledge about soil profiles need to improve processing systems(oil mills) Bild wasteland hast to be preferred Production Economy Plant needs about 26Grad Warm, humid climate Plantation needs fertilizers Economy/ disparities promises weren`t kept forced to work for 30% less genetic technology needs to be further developed for a better desease resistance of crop -> less use of pesticides Current situation Bild Sustainabitlity attempt from WWF Certificates RSPO,the roundtable on sustainable Palm Oil -non-profit Organisation -328 Members,180 german companies -Companies and NGO´s (Smallholders) 8 hours, 20 days = 70 USD GRAFIK Palm oil 0,5% day labourer Konklusion usage of leftovers Bundles being carried into big containers Drying process Fruits need to be opend Many possibilities to use could not chance the situation Social disparaties subsidies: -every vegetable oil gets subsidized -subsidiesed plant vs. Nahrungsmittelpflanze -subsidiesed plants more lucrativ Origin: Golf of Guninearopical climate Can grow up to 30m 3rd year -> fruits Malaysia and Indonesia are biggest planting Expulsion of the Orang-Utan was kann ich machen? StichPUNKTE gleichsetzen RSPO The impact of palm-oil - is the variety of life Request and sustainable Palm Oil in Germany -financiers have a tremendous impact on the development of sustainability ->demand of sustainable products has to increase Attempt for a certificated sustainable palm oil production Carbon dioxide and emissions palm branches contain many nutritions and protect the soil from erosion Fruits after three years No harvsting periods 80% of over all harvest -need to get further support (education/subsidies) -in danger of getting excluded from the export marked -"oil mill sharing" for independence -taking less risk, by growing different crops Who takes advantage from palm oil and how do we harm ourselves with the tremendous demand? Smallholder mostly men 1,5-2 t per day Standstill Agreement of 2011 Planting Biodiversity Film von Kitkat? - 80% of the world´s terrestrial species are native to forests -indigenous population getting dislodged and forced to leave -much chemical fertilizer and pesticides are used, even though workers are poorly protected -labour unions are not allowed to be build and minimum wages are neglected -waste and debris get burnt/and released in the local water system improved harvest leads to less production cost and reduces the need of land Emissions/Greenhouse effect use of particle filters Ecology - rainforests are biodeverse ecosystems further assistance for smallholders to improve economy Palm oil Planting -minimum wages have to be set -welfare and proper handling with chemicals -children need education -governement has too much authority -further establishments of laws -attractive financial support for environment-friendly productions (import/export countries) Pressed pulp as fuel Solid palm fat High heat resistance and durability Used to produce, softeners etc. (Festangestellte) - Poacher and killers Labour conditions Verbesserungen: 110 mio 27% unemployment 44% are working in agricultural sector


Transcript: Classification of selectively logged forests as 'degraded' allows their conversion to oil palm, but have been found to still hold high amounts of diversity Oil palm cultivation may open up access to previously inaccessible areas for further development and logging Expansion as part of a combined economic enterprise Other issues... Forest concession rights given to private sector interests based on categories in 'Agreed Functional Forest Classification' (TGHK), and Provincial Land Use Planning (RTRWP). Especially when There are debates taking place between the conservation community and the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia as to the degree that oil palm is directly responsible for deforestation. Intended to stem deforestation from plantation expansion but in reality encourages it: Colchester et al., 2007 Source: FAOstat (Accessed 23.11.12) So, EU biofuel targets announced in 2003 raised economic incentive to grow palm oil why look at Indonesia and Malaysia? Causes of oil palm expansion Other variables are not considered (Roberts, 2012) Corruption in allocation of tree crop concessions in Malaysia logging Koh and Wilcove, 2008 How can we try to understand... Fitzherbert et al, 2008 Fitzherbert et al., 2008 Early 1990s: 'Smallholder agriculture' identified by EU and World Bank as being primary cause for agricultural expansion and deforestation in Indonesia Sandker, Suwarno and Campbell, 2007 EU report, cited in Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 What efforts are being made to stem the negative impacts? Key drivers of tropical deforestation Economic Fitzherbert et al. 2008 Different estimates as to the extent that oil palm cultivation directly causes deforestation: Carlson et al, 2012 There is evidence to suggest that oil palm expansion is a driver for deforestation, and has other ecological and social impacts oil palm What role is oil palm playing in this? Majority of oil palm production in Indonesia and Malaysia takes place on a large scale Koh and Wilcove, 2009 Indirect routes Wicke et al., 2011 However, frequently not subsequently planted with oil palm Koh and Wilcove, 2008 Large numbers of people are employed in the oil palm industry, either directly or in derivative industries Growing oil palm on recently felled areas EU was drafting a ban on import of biofuels that had been grown on certain kinds of land (Kanter, 2008) (Tan et al, 2009) Carbon release through deforestation Removal of carbon sinks Peatland destruction McCarthy, Gillespie and Zen, 2012 Inverse correlation between population and deforestation, and positive correlation with agricultural expansion Infrastructure development Policy and Institutional Failed to distinguish smallholder agriculture from shifting cultivation- former far more damaging than latter. Source: FAOstat (Accessed 23.11.12) oil palm Oil palm is a major component of agriculture in Indonesia and Malaysia It is increasing in extent There is evidence to suggest that it plays an important role in deforestation Source: Hansen et al, Ecological impacts but, Incentive to pay national debt through agricultural expansion and exploitation of natural resources Introduction of the Best management practice The direct causes of oil palm expansion also illustrate the different patterns through which LUC takes place Economic Impacts Deforestation rates in Indonesia and Malaysia are high There is evidence that this is at least in part being driven by the expansion of oil palm Oil palm also looks set to continue to grow as an industry. Understanding the key drivers, impacts and patterns of expansion are therefore necessary in order to make informed decisions about the dual goals of conservation and development The debate must be informed by the patterns of consumption that drive oil palm expansion, and raise questions as to where the responsibility for sustainable development lies. logging Sandker, Suwarno, and Campbell, 2007 Indonesia with a focus on Malaysia and Indonesia Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 From Fitzherbert et al., 2008 McCarthy, Gillespie and Zen, 2012 Underlying causes.... Establishment of the Round table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 Fitzherbert et al. 2008; Wicke et al., 2011 What exactly is oil palm? Sandker, Suwarno and Campbell, 2007 (Lambin et al, 2003; p.209) Palm oil is extracted from the flesh of the fruit. Palm kernel oil is extracted from the seed. Cultural The FAO estimated that tropical regions lost 15.2 million hectares of forests per year during the 1990s. Oil Palm and Land-use Land-Cover Change Oil palm Aims.. Koh and Wilcove, 2008 and increasingly... Timber extraction FAOstat 'An EU strategy for biofuels', 2006 Indonesia: Since early 20th century: policy to encourage transmigration to outer islands. Forest loss due to need for space and tree crops are planted to mark property Demographic factors are likely to be a driver for oil palm expansion only in as much as they are shaped by policy and agribusiness agendas can also be

Palm Oil:

Transcript: When the palm trees are cut and burned, the carbon being stored into the ground is released as CO2 into the atmosphere. Conclusion: The continuation of deforestation of the African oil palm will cause mass extinctions, and an exponential increase in greenhouse gasses. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil has created some guidelines to limit the amount of deforestation because of palm oil. People think about replacing palm oil with other vegetable oil, but it would be the same. The evidence against the effects of plowing down acres of palm oil has shown us that this road will definitely lead to destruction. The greenhouse gas levels have already risen. Animals are losing their lives and homes. People are being displaced and forced to work in dangerous conditions What is palm oil? Choose products that are palm oil free Become aware of the issues around the world Let our leaders know that we care OVERVIEW In addition By Researchers at the University of Bath Elaeis guineensis 40 to 50 percent of all household items are made with palm oil. IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENT More commonly know as the African oil palm. It has been used in medicinal practices since 19th century. Regulations Human life violations Child labor in Indonesia and Malaysia Forced migrations Land grabs Why is it used now? Brown, E. & Jacobson, M. (2005, May). Cruel Oil: How Palm Oil Harms Health, Rainforest, & Wildlife. Center for Science in the Public Interest, 3-26. Chachavalpongpun, Pavin. (2013, September 17). The Politics of Palm Oil. Yale Global Online. Web (2015, November 11). Environmental and social impacts. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2015, from McClanahan, Paige. (2013, September 11). Can Indonesia increase palm oil output without destroying its forest? The Guardian. Web (2015, November 9). Mosbergen, Dominique. (2015, July 23). Palm Oil is in everything — And it is destroying Southeast Asia’s Forest. The World Post. Web (2015, November 9) Palm Oil. (2015). Retrieved November 8, 2015, from Wang, L. & Waltenberger, B. (2014, November 1). Natural agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARy): A Review. Biochemical Pharmacology, 73-89. More than 300,000 species in the jungle Borneo and Sumatra. They are injured, killed and displced during deforestation Orangutans have been found in horrible ways. Other animals What can we do to make a difference? Whats the big deal? 50 million tonnes produced per year The soil under the forest of oil trees store 35 billion tonnes of carbon (Mosbergen) 15% of all known plants, mammals, and birds are found in the forests of Indonasia and Malaysia ( What is ¨Palm Oil¨ Why is it important to us? How will it effect our future? The problems it brings Our Conclusions What can we do? REFERENCES Sustainable Alternative IMPACTS ON ANIMALS Loss of forest One third of all mammal species in Indonesia are endangered Loss of key ecosystem services Biodiversity loss, including loss of rare and endangered species Pollution of soil, air, and water Palm Oil: Nicole Cheney Karla Gabriela Cano Developed a chemical engineer oily yeast. It can mimic palm oil in most properties They use Metschnikowia pulcherrima that has been being used in the South African wine industry. Scientists are hoping can develop a truly versatile and planet friendly version of palm oil based on Metschnikowia pulcherrima. IMPACTS ON PEOPLE If we continue to keep palm oil as a resource, how will it effect our future?

Palm Oil

Transcript: Market Competition Aim: to reduce Norwegian palm oil consumption and to expose the link between deforestation and the production of this vegetable oil. was developed in collaboration with the organization Green Living, targeted all major food producers in Norway. The campaign asked major food companies to disclose their palm oil use and whether palm oil was certified under the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), an eco-certification initiative. Producers were asked to disclose details about their use of palm oil, and whether the palm oil was sourced from sustainable sources. Did you know We need to do something now before it's too late and we lose some of the most unique and beautiful species our planet has ever seen. We have the right to chose whether or not we want to be a part of an industry that is condemning illegal activity on a global scale. Campaign regarding environmental issue: large percentage of products in your household will contain palm oil no laws on the mandatory labeling of palm oil Consumer are blinded because its hidden under the name of vegetable oil high in Omega 6 fatty acid, which is associated with arthritis, inflammation, and even breast and prostate cancer. These can be further classified into: Palm Oil Strategies against threats large percentage of products in your household will contain palm oil no laws on the mandatory labeling of palm oil Consumer are blinded because its hidden under the name of vegetable oil high in Omega 6 fatty acid, which is associated with arthritis, inflammation, and even breast and prostate cancer. In the 1980s, American Soybean Association (ASA) smear campaigns on tropical oils- anti-tropical oil campaigns because tropical oils were competing with the U.S. soybean oil market as an alternative vegetable oil, yet they were higher in saturated fat, which had become the target of the health promotion community for its theoretical association with coronary heart disease risk. Caused palm oil prices to suffer a big discount to soybean oil Strategies employed to diversify the market away from US investing in refineries in consuming countries nutritional studies were carried out to refute the health insinuations Short video clip posted by Greenpeace ad on youtube History The "killer" logo used by supporters as a profile picture WWF commenced exploring the possibilities for a Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil-2001 Result-informal co-operation among Aarhus United UK Ltd, Migros, Malaysian Palm Oil Association and Unilever together with WWF-2002 Constituted as an Organizing Committee-to organize the first Roundtable meeting and to prepare the foundation for the organizational and governance structure for the formation of the RSPO Inaugural meeting(21 - 22 August'03), attended by 200 participants from 16 countries. Key output from this meeting-adoption of the Statement of Intent (SOI)-(non-legally binding expression of support for the Roundtable process.) "Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)," was formally established under Article 60 of the Swiss Civil Code with a governance structure that ensures fair representation of all stakeholders throughout the entire supply chain-8th April '04 Growing global concern that products are produced without undue harm to the environment or society is a seal of approval that the palm oil used in the product is indeed so produced and volumes are traceable. Producers are certified through strict verification of the production process, to the stringent RSPO P&C The certified sustainable palm oil (RSPO Oil) is traceable through the supply chain Palm oil is high in saturated fat and low in polyunsaturated fat. Consumption of food high in saturated fat will lead to promotion of heart disease, increases of cholesterol levels, raises blood pressure which are the main causes of one of the world's biggest killers; cardiovascular disease Palm oil not a healthy substitute for trans fats held at 17th May 2010 goal: complete protection of Indonesia's rainforests and carbon-rich peatlands the palm oil and paper supply chain of Nestle Company- Sinar Mas, was involved in owning or managing 'high risk' plantations or farms linked to deforestation Sinar Mas- has repeatedly caught destroying the rainforest habitat of orang-utan lost my home... T.T Mission market competition Palm Kernel Eight major producers have cut their consumption with some 9 600 tons – a reduction of nearly two thirds of the total consumption of 15 000 tons. The Norwegian company Stabburet used to be one of the largest buyers of palm oil, but has now established a policy to avoid all use. The largest buyer, Mills, has reduced its use by 95 per cent as of June this year. -edible oil -derived from the fruits (mesocarp) of oil palm -reddish in color due to the presence of high carotene content -different from palm kernel oil which is derived from the kernel of the same fruit-palm mesocarp oil is 41% saturated -Malaysia: is one of the biggest producer and exporter for

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