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Transcript of OIL PALM
It is increasing in extent
There is evidence to suggest that it plays an important role in deforestation Fitzherbert et al. 2008; Wicke et al., 2011 The growing importance of oil palm in Indonesia and Malaysia Source: FAOstat (Accessed 23.11.12) We know oil palm production is increasing, and that this is happening mostly in Indonesia and Malaysia. The causes of oil palm expansion?
The pathways in which oil palm driven land cover change takes place?
Its impacts of this? So, How good are the data and the methods used to collect them? What exactly is oil palm? Two species of palm oil (one African, one American).
The African species (Elaeis guineensis) is grown commercially. Palm oil is extracted from the flesh of the fruit.
Palm kernel oil is extracted from the seed. Used for... Food products
Soaps, detergents and toiletry products and increasingly... Biofuels What are the Impacts? How can we try to understand... Other issues... Data collection issues Conclusions Causes of oil palm expansion Underlying causes.... Demographic Economic Policy and Institutional EU biofuel targets announced in 2003 raised economic incentive to grow palm oil Growing oil palm on recently felled areas Growing on 'degraded' areas and ex- rubber or cocoa plantations Expansion as part of a combined economic enterprise Indirect routes Carlson et al., 2012: Oil palm plantations directly responsible for 27% forest clearing in West Kalimantan, Indonesia 2007-2008 Different estimates as to the extent that oil palm cultivation directly causes deforestation: The FAO estimated that tropical regions lost 15.2 million hectares of forests per year during the 1990s. (Lambin et al, 2003; p.209) Direct Causes... The area under oil palm cultivation globally increased by 600% from 1990-2010 Carlson et al, 2012 References Brodie, J., Post, E., Laurance, W.F., 2012. 'Climate change and tropical biodiversity: a new focus'. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27(3): 145-150
Carslon, K., Curran, L. Ratnasari, D., Pittman, A., Soares-Filho, B., Asner, G., Trigg. S., Gaveau, D., Lawrence, D. and Rodrigues, H. (2012) 'Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia', PNAS, 109, 19, pp. 7559-7964.
DeFries, R.S., Pittman, K.W., Arunarwati, B., Stolle, F., Steininger, M.K., Carroll, M. and DiMiceli, C.,
EU: 'An EU Strategy for Biofuels' 2006. Available from www.ab.gov.tr/files/ardb/evt/1.../1.../ec_biofuels_2006.pdf. [Accessed on 26.11.2012]
FAOStat. Available from: http://faostat.fao.org/. [Accessed: 24.11.2012]
Fitzherbert, E.B., Struebig, M.J., Morel, A., Danielsen, F., Bruhl, C.A., Donald, P.F., and Phalan, B., 2008. 'How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?'. TREE, 23(10) 538-545
Geist, H.J., and Lambin, E.F., 2002. Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation. BioScience, 52(2) 143-150
Hansen, M.C.,Stehman†, S.V.,Potapov, P.V., Loveland, T.R., Townshend, J.R.G., 2008. 'Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution'. PNAS, 105(27): 9439-9444remotely sensed data
Kartodihardo, H., and Supriono, A., 2000. 'The impact of sectoral development on natural forest conversion and degradation: the case of timber and tree crop plantations in Indonesia. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia [Accessed 24.11.2012]
Koh, L.P, and Wilcove, D.S. 2008 "Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity?." Conservation Letters 1.2 (2008): 60-64. There is evidence to suggest that oil palm expansion is a driver for deforestation, and has other ecological and social impacts Fitzherbert et al. 2008 why look at Indonesia and Malaysia? So, Deforestation rates in Indonesia and Malaysia are high
There is evidence that this is at least in part being driven by the expansion of oil palm
Oil palm also looks set to continue to grow as an industry.
Understanding the key drivers, impacts and patterns of expansion are therefore necessary in order to make informed decisions about the dual goals of conservation and development
The debate must be informed by the patterns of consumption that drive oil palm expansion, and raise questions as to where the responsibility for sustainable development lies. Key drivers of tropical deforestation What role is oil palm playing in this? The moral debate behind oil palm production? Ecological impacts Social impacts Source: FAOstat (Accessed 23.11.12) Source: FAOstat (Accessed 23.11.12) Aims.. What is being done to slow the negative effects of oil palm production? Source: Hansen et al, FAOstat Fitzherbert et al, 2008 In September 2009 the IFC announced a suspension of approval of any new palm oil development investments pending completion of a review of its practices in the sector. Global production of oil palm: land cover (%) Agricultural output in Malaysia and Indonesia Establishment of the Round table on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO)
Impacts on Biodiversity:
Previous land use change will affect the biodiversity loss
It has a direct impact on Orangutan populations
Biodiversity hotspot areas are compromised Demographic factors are likely to be a driver for oil palm expansion only in as much as they are shaped by policy and agribusiness agendas McCarthy, Gillespie and Zen, 2012 Population growth? Economic Impacts Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 Majority of oil palm production in Indonesia and Malaysia takes place on a large scale 'An EU strategy for biofuels', 2006 Incentive to pay national debt through agricultural expansion and exploitation of natural resources Corruption in allocation of tree crop concessions in Malaysia Colchester et al., 2007 Wicke et al., 2011 Koh and Wilcove, 2008 What efforts are being made to stem the negative impacts? EU was drafting a ban on import of biofuels that had been grown on certain kinds of land (Kanter, 2008) Cultural The role of shifting cultivation Early 1990s:
'Smallholder agriculture' identified by EU and World Bank as being primary cause for agricultural expansion and deforestation in Indonesia However, Failed to distinguish smallholder agriculture from shifting cultivation- former far more damaging than latter. Transmigration and spread of smallholder agriculture (including oil palm) is likely to have more important impact on deforestation than shifting cultivation. However, Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 So, Transmigration? Indonesia:
Since early 20th century: policy to encourage transmigration to outer islands.
Forest loss due to need for space and tree crops are planted to mark property Inverse correlation between population and deforestation, and positive correlation with agricultural expansion but, Logging may be primary drive and agriculture fills degraded land? Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 EU report, cited in Sunderlin and Resosudarmo, 1996 McCarthy, Gillespie and Zen, 2012 Potential to provide a pathway out of poverty
'Vulnerable rural actors are disadvantaged in terms of access to power and representation in increasingly integrated global market chains' Other variables are not considered To what extent is it justified to expect Indonesia and Malaysia to curb deforestation by reducing impact of oil palm when many developed countries have cut most of their forests? Forest concession rights given to private sector interests based on categories in 'Agreed Functional Forest Classification' (TGHK), and Provincial Land Use Planning (RTRWP). Intended to stem deforestation from plantation expansion but in reality encourages it: Classification of selectively logged forests as 'degraded' allows their conversion to oil palm, but have been found to still hold high amounts of diversity Koh and Wilcove, 2008 Companies gain right to fell a forest in order to plant oil palm, but then fail to do so. Logged area is frequently larger than that granted by concession Koh and Wilcove, 2008 Sandker, Suwarno and Campbell, 2007 Indonesia Policy drives, and is driven by, economic and development processes... (Roberts, 2012) Introduction of the Best management practice (Tan et al, 2009) Oil palm Due to classification of forests that have been degraded, these areas may subsequently be planted with oil palm and other agricultural products Koh and Wilcove, 2008 oil palm logging oil palm Indonesian government claim that all oil palm cultivation takes place in this kind of area Koh and Wilcove, 2008 Especially when Large numbers of people employed in sector
Most of demand for oil palm comes from developed nations Ethics of conservation efforts... Data is available from a number of sources and there are issues over the use of satellite imagery. How reliable are these data? Are there biases in national reporting, for example? Patterns of oil palm related land- use, land- cover changes... The direct causes of oil palm expansion also illustrate the different patterns through which LUC takes place There are debates taking place between the conservation community and the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia as to the degree that oil palm is directly responsible for deforestation. From Fitzherbert et al., 2008 oil palm other crops logging Indonesian government: oil palm is not directly responsible for deforestation Whatever the pathway that oil palm expansion takes place through, a number of case studies have shown that it still has significant impacts on biodiversity... However, Fitzherbert et al, 2008; Koh and Wilcove, 2008 Palm oil contributes about 5-6% of Malaysian GDP; it reached an export value of 80.30 billion RM in 2011. Carbon release through deforestation
Removal of carbon sinks
Peatland destruction Biophysical impacts Mol, 2007 Cited in: McCarthy, (2010); p.822 Large numbers of people are employed in the oil palm industry, either directly or in derivative industries Logging an area can provide capital to support the establishment of oil palm plantations However, frequently not subsequently planted with oil palm Sandker, Suwarno, and Campbell, 2007 Wakker, 2006; Sandker, Suwarno, and Campbell, 2007 Fitzherbert et al., 2008 Oil palm cultivation may open up access to previously inaccessible areas for further development and logging Cultivation of oil palm may displace other crops into forested areas Koh and Wolcove, 2008: Oil Palm directly responsible for 55-59% deforestation in Malaysia and at least 55% in Indonesia Koh and Wilcove, 2009 Sandker, Suwarno and Campbell, 2007 Koh, L.P, and Wilcove, D.S, 2009 "Oil palm: disinformation enables deforestation." TREE, 1051 (2009): 1062.
Lambin, E., Geist, H. and Lepers, E. (2003) 'Dynamics of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Tropical Regions', Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 28, pp. 205–241
Langner, A., Miettinen, J. and Siegert, F. (2007) 'Land cover change 2002-2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery', Global Change Biology, 13, pp.2329-2340.
McCarthy, J. (2010) ‘Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia’ The Journal of Peasant Studies, 37, 4, pp. 821-850.
Mccarthy, J., Gillespie, P. and Zen, Z. (2012) 'Swimming Upstream: Local Indonesian Production Networks in “Globalized” Palm Oil Production', World Development, 40, 3, pp.555-569.
Nantha, H. and Tisdell, A. (2009) 'The orangutan–oil palm conflict: economic constraints and opportunities for conservation' Biodiversity Conservation, 18, pp.487-502
Roberts, J. (2010) 'World Bank’s Palm Oil Development Strategy Should Focus on Economic Freedom' Available from: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/06/world-banks-palm-oil-development-strategy-should-focus-on-economic-freedom [Date accessed: 27/11/2012]
Sunderlin, W.D., and Resosudarmo, I.A.P., 1996. Rates and Causes of Deforestation in Indonesia: Towards a Resolution of the Ambiguities. CIFOR, Occasional Papers, 9. [Accessed: 24/11/2012]
Tan,K., Lee, K., Mohamed, A. and Bhatia, S. (2009) 'Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development' Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, pp. 420-427
Wicke, B., Sikkema, ,R., Dornburg, V., Faaij, A., 2011. 'Exploring land use changes and the role of oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia'. Land Use Policy 28: 193-206 References continued... can also be grown on areas that had other crops