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Chinese Calligraphy

Transcript: Today, people refer to the chinese characters as Han Zi and the words to read them are called Pin Yin, Han Zi is the one that is generally used worldwide when it comes to studying the Chinese Language. 5 Chinese calligraphy is an art to write a language in different signs, it is marked with originality and richness from the Chinese language. One of the most famous ways to write calligraphy is using the calligraphy brushes, but now people have created calligraphy pens where they fill in the pen with specific calligraphy ink and change the tip with a brush-like material. Han Zi Kai Shu The chinese characters of language had went through a lot of stages throughout thousands of years and many various dynasties to get where it is today. Li Shu History In ancient times, chinese characters would be carved onto cow's bones, turtle shells and bronze materials. Afterward, they started making books out of bamboo which sometimes they still use today. But now, they mostly use paper rice or silk to write on 1 What is Chinese Calligraphy? Chinese Calligraphy Jia Gu Wen Kai Shu, was introduced in the Han dynasty, it is also referred to as the Regular Script because it is the the one that resembles the most with today's chinese characters. Xiao Zuan 2 6 Jin Wen is the second progress that came from the Zhou dynasty, the way words were written weren't very different from the first one. It can also be called the official script. Li Shu is more recognizable by the citizen because it is the most similar to today's writing. It is more used and recognized compare to Jia Gu Wen or Seal Script. 3 The Xiao Zhuan was also under the Zhou dynasty, here the characters are more distinguished and begins to look like the words today. It is also known seal script Papers of background In writing calligraphy, there are four essential tools you would need: Calligraphy Brush Special Calligraphy Paper Calligraphy Ink Ink stone TOOLS 4 Jia Gu Wen is the term for chinese character during the Shang Dynasty. Most of the characters did not have a definite meaning and it wasn't a traditional chinese language, it was mostly used by painters Jin Wen THANK YOU

Chinese Calligraphy

Transcript: Famous Calligraphists Running Style Ouyang Xun: Calligraphy is a unique form of expression, revealing the artist's emotions and thoughts through the style and font of letters. Calligraphy & Health • two forms: liquid or stick • grinding ink from sticks can be difficult and time consuming o reddish-brown tinge, quality depends on the stick o important to maintain the hard and soft balance of the ink • liquid ink is much easier to obtain from an arts supplies store o if liquid ink is used, it is recommended to dilute with water due to its thickness • Eastern Jin Dynasty • Known as Sage of Calligraphy • Styles known for include: o Regular "Huang Tingjing" o Cursive "Seventeen Tie" o Running "Tie Aunt" o Regular + Running "Orchid Pavilion Preface" Small Seal Style • first established and standardized writing style for the empire of China (221 BC) • round contours • lines of even thickness • elongated like the shape of a rectangle Developed almost at same time as clerical style, during the Han Dynasty Simplifies the left sidepiece (radical) of a character and focuses on the right sidepiece Looks more smooth, connecting and faster with abrupt turning and dramatic effects this style allows for more freedom and fluidity in movement Strokes and dots that are written separately in the Regular Style are joined together in a single sweep of the brush The End Stroke 4: The Left-Slant Stroke 3: The Dot Calligraphy may have therapeutic effects on certain diseases. It relaxes the user, heightens concentration, and may improve the mood. A legend exists, stating that during the time of the Yellow Emperor, Chang Jie invented the Chinese language and calligraphy soon followed. Huai Su: Types of Strokes in Calligraphy Stroke 1: Horizontal • coarse-textured, absorbent paper • traditionally, rice paper is used • for beginners, blank newsprint is recommended as it is much cheaper Chinese calligraphy has impacted not only Korea and Japan, but European artists such as Picasso and Matisse. Chinese Calligraphy Oracle Inscriptions Running Style/Cursive Script began in the Han Dynasty but was perfected in the Jin Dynasty by Wang Xizhi the last of five major styles to appear natural result of everyday handwriting understood as bridge between cursive script and regular script allows for more fluent brush movements, merging certain lines, and creating a “softer” image of characters than in regular script Stroke 2: Vertical • Tang Dynasty • Script called "Rabid Cursive Script" o Strong vigorous strokes, complete in one go • Known with Zhangxu in terms of calligraphy as "Maniac Zhang and Rabid Su" •Master of running script • Han Dynasty (207 BC – 220 AD) • Written more quickly and easily than Small Seal • Found on official documents such as government records of taxes, censuses • the upward tilt at the end of the horizontal strokes which gives each character a fluid quality • Tang Dynasty • Known for having the Yan Form • Worked with Lin Guongquan as a pair called Yan Liu o Their calligraphy style is known as "Yan’s tendon and Liu’s bone" • Representative works: o Wuxing Set o Luzhou Set o Iinchuan Set Regular Style • Preserves the Clerical Style’s precision and modulation of line width • Less formal and heavy in appearance • Horizontal lines slope upward, but don’t tilt at the end like the Clerical Style • Vertical lines remain vertical and do not tilt inward like the Clerical Style Part of Yan Qinli Stele, Yan Zhenqing's masterpiece Semi-Cursive Script Tools Yang Zhenqing: Small Seal Style Cursive Script Stroke 6: The Hook Oracle Inscriptions Calligraphy & Job Advancement • bamboo handles, but can be made of hardwood, ivory, and porcelain • stiff tips made from hair of wolves Styles of Calligraphy Regular Style Influences Clerical Style Stroke 8: The Up-Slant Wang Xizhi: Clerical Style Calligraphy was once used to evaluate a person for a position at the Chinese imperial court. Calligraphy today is composed of an evolution of learning styles. • Considered the best calligraphist of the Tang Dynasty • One of the 4 best regular script calligraphists • Yu Shinan and he are known for their calligraphy known as "Ou and Yu" • Known for having the Ou Form o Strict and vigorous o Easier to learn for beginners • Earliest examples of Chinese writing written on animal bones and shells • 13th century BC during the Shang Dynasty • Composed of straight lines with sharp ends What is Calligraphy? Brushes: Ink: An image of the "Preface to the Orchid Pavilion" Calligraphy & the World Stroke 5: The Right-Slant Calligraphy is an Oriental art with no specific date of origin. Megan, Talya, & Misha Stroke 7: The Down-Slant Styles Chinese calligraphy has a vast history, between 4,000 to 5,000 years of age. Paper: Cursive Style

Chinese Calligraphy

Transcript: •Two categories •Simple characters have very few strokes •Composite characters can have as many as three parts •The parts of a composite character can be structured in different ways such as o Upper part and lower part o Left part and right part o Inner part and outer part o Upper pat, central part, and lower part o Left part, central part, and right part •The parts of a character that show up often in different characters are used as a key or cataloging system used to find characters easily in a dictionary. Also known as the bushou. 6 Types of Characters (Liushu) • 3 sub categories o Elemental/atomic o Compound o Other •Xiangxingo Means pictograph o Driven from drawings of animals and other objects •Zhishi o Ideogram formed from an abstract idea •Huiyi o Created with multiple components o Semantic and Semantic •Xingsheng o Created with multiple components o Semantic and Phonetic •Zhuanzhu o Deals with the pronunciation of a character •Jiajie o Created by taking many characters and creating new ones that had nothing to do with the original meaning, but had a phonetic resemblance. •“Writing inscribed on bones and shells” •An old mandarin named, Wang Yirong, and his doctor, when he was sick, in 1899, discovered it •4,568 different pictographic signs were found on 154,600 pieces of bone and shell, only 1,700 of those signs have been translated •1999, Li Yun, came up with an accurate way to translate all of the signs using a numerical system, which he later used to make a computer program that translated it. •Probably the first form of Chinese writing, although many would disagree •May have been different variations of some characters such as the character for dragon. •King Tang started this when he wanted a way for everybody to remember his accomplishment forever.•Chief advisor gave the idea that there should be something inscribed on all the things the king just purchased.•Chief advisor bumped up to prime minister and head of the project, had to get the characters made by him and his helpers approved throughout the process. •Many kings afterwards had wanted this done for them as well.•Majority of Jinwen has been translated•Many Chinese don’t know how to read or write it•Some artists have learned in order to sell their work at very high prices. •Qin Shihuangdi was the first Chinese Emperor and he had control over all of ancient China. •He wanted to have a common language among all of the people, so he had a scholar named Zhao Yunshao, who specialized in Jiaguwen and Jinwen to come up with a language that combined the two forms of writing. •A simpler version of the two •Made common characters for o Weights and measurements o Numbers o Means of transport o Ceremonial protocols o Sacrificial rites o The cardinal directions o Agriculture o Domestic animals •A base for modern Chinese •Decoration in reception rooms and cultural meeting places. •The next emperor, Liu Bang, thought that it should be simplified even further. •Held a meeting with a hundred calligraphers at a Taoist monastery with a feast.•He picked people to come up with this new version by having them write as much as they could as fast as they could. •Wang Qikun then came up with Lishu•Years afterwards a dictator took over and decorated the pavilions in the Imperial Palace with Lishu calligraphies. •Empress started a tradition of having symbols put on a jade bracelet or necklace as well as plaques put in the bedroom, for a new borne to display the concern of all parents and their wish of good health for their child.•Next emperor, Liu Che, tried to get everybody to read and write with Xiaozhuan and Jinwen again, but he was unsuccessful. •200BCE, people still thought that Lishu was too complex so they simplified the characters even more •Created the official standard Chinese characters called Kaishu •Uses horizontal and vertical lines •Han then became the official name for Chinese •Emperor, Liu Xie, came up with many basic words/characters that would be incorporated in many other characters •Emperor wasn’t ever officially classified as a linguist or calligrapher •He helped come up with eight kinds of basic lines and nine additional compound lines for Chinese characters •Published manual with examples of ideal Chinese calligraphy •Doesn’t have rules•Follows the symbols of Kaishu•Artist named Zhou Yuguang came up with a cursive method of writing the characters, because he didn’t want to follow the rules of Xiaozhuan•Many people liked the style of writing•Very hard to read •Still used today•Said to exhibit the author’s mood at the time of writing •Combination of Caoshu and Kaishu •Somewhat of a semi-cursive script •Fashioned by a well-known poet named Qiu Yanlian, although he refused to accept any form of acknowledgement for it. •Children today are still taught how to write using Xingshu. •Not every Chinese person practices calligraphy•Considered a fine art and is therefore taught in the first year of art, at schools•Calligraphotherapy is a form of therapy

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