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Transcript: Nick Stordahl Alibek, Ken, and Handelman, Stephen. Biohazard. Random House, New York, 1999. Biohazard Summary Ken Alibek came from a military training institute in the Soviet Union to the Omutninsk Scientific and Production base to start working in biological defense. Alibek soon became Deputy Chief of Biopreparat, and oversaw many biological weapons facilities. He worked on many successful weapons for Biopreparat. The Soviet Union collapsed but Biopreparat stayed active. Alibek fled to the United States after quitting Biopreparat. He then helped the U.S. by giving them insights about Russian threats. Ken Alibek Ken Alibek was born in 1950 in The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. He went to school at Tomsk Medical Institute and then started working for Biopreparat. He started climbing the ranks quickly by performing the best out of everyone he worked with. By 1988, he was First Deputy Director, which meant he oversaw biological weapons facilities but also pharmaceutical facilities. The book is told through his eyes describing all of the things he experienced while working for Biopreparat. Perhaps his signal accomplishment was the creation of a new "battle strain" of anthrax, known as "Strain 836." This is Ken Alibek's offical army photo taken in 1982. Purpose The purpose of this book was to inform the reader about what was happening in the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The Soviet Union had so many secrets that nobody knew about. Ken Alibek knew that the right thing to do was share these secrets with the reader and inform people about what running the largest covert biological weapons program was like. This book describes in detail how big of a threat the Soviet Union was to the United States. The implications of this weapons program are likely still having an impact on the world today. "I felt a certain relief in speaking for the first time about the things I had kept secret for so long." (page 258). Quote "Now I had found myself struggling to persuade them how far the science of germ warfare had come." (page 262). Quote "I wondered if I would ever be free of my past." (page 267). Quote Grade The grade I would give this book is a B. In the beginning of the book, the flow of the story is slow and difficult to follow. I kept finding myself lost while reading because the author would bounce from topic to topic. My suggestion to the author would be to find a better way to organize the facts and storyline in the beginning of the book. After the first section of the book, it was more exciting and kept my interest. The author was able to share his experiences in a way that allowed me to visualize what he did and the intensity of the subject matter. Works Cited BioScience, Volume 50, Issue 8, 1 August 2000, Pages 716–719, https://[0716:BTBS]2.0.CO;2 Wikipedia contributors. "Ken Alibek." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 14 Nov. 2018. Web. 9 Dec. 2018. Miller, Judith. Biohazard. Random House, Inc. 1999 Photograph of Ken Alibek. Biohazard. Random House, Inc. 1999 Thank You! Questions?


Transcript: Bioterrorism agents are a concern to laboratories. These agents are divided into categories A, B, and C. The United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorizes various diseases in levels of biohazard, Level 1 being minimum risk and Level 4 being extreme risk. Laboratories and other facilities are categorized as BSL (Biosafety Level) 1-4 or as P1 through P4 for short (Pathogen or Protection Level). Biohazard Level 3: Bacteria and viruses that can cause severe to fatal disease in humans, but for which vaccines or other treatments exist, such as anthrax, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, SARS virus, tuberculosis, typhus, Rift Valley fever, HIV, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellow fever, and malaria. Among parasites Plasmodium falciparum, which causes Malaria, and Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes trypanosomiasis, also come under this level Category A Pathogens that are rarely seen in the US. These agents have the highest priority; organisms in this category pose a risk to national security because they; • Can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person • Result in high mortality rates and have the potential major public health impact • Might cause public panic and social disruption • Require special action for public health preparedness Biological Hazard Safety Submitted By: OSHA requires laboratories to have a personal protective equipment (PPE) program. The components of this regulation include: • A workplace hazard assessment with a written hazard certification • Proper equipment selection • Employee information and training, with written competency certification • Regular reassessment of work hazards Biohazard Level 2: Bacteria and viruses that cause only mild disease to humans, or are difficult to contract via aerosol in a lab setting, such as hepatitis A, B, and C, influenza A, Lyme disease, salmonella, mumps, measles, scrapie, dengue fever. "Routine diagnostic work with clinical specimens can be done safely at Biosafety Level 2, using Biosafety Level 2 practices and procedures. Research work (including co-cultivation, virus replication studies, or manipulations involving concentrated virus) can be done in a BSL-2 (P2) facility, using BSL-3 practices and procedures. It is used in the labeling of biological materials that carry a significant health risk, including viral samples and used hypodermic needles. $1.25 Thursday, March 13, 2014 Avoiding transmission of infectious diseases Medical Technologist Hazel Mae D. Molejon Kimberly Ann D. Aiko Hand washing Vol XCIII, No. 311 Description: Category C These agents have the third-highest priority and includes emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of: • Availability • Ease of production and dissemination • Potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact 1. Educate and train all healthcare workers in Standard Precautions and preventing blood-borne infections. 2. Provide proper equipment and supplies (e.g. gloves) 3. Monitor compliance with the protective biosafety principles Category B These agents have the second-highest priority and include pathogens that: • Are moderately easy to disseminate • Result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates • Require specific enhancements of the CDC’s diagnostic capacity and enhanced disease surveillance Biological hazards, also known as biohazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can affect human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals. Frequent Handwashing is an important safety precaution. It should be performed after contact with patients and laboratory specimens. • Gloves should be used as an adjunct to, not a substitute for handwashing. • At the very minimum, hands should be washed with soap and water or hand antisepsis with an alcohol-based handrub ( if hands are not visibly soiled) "Until politics are a branch of science we shall do well to regard political and social reforms as experiments rather than short-cu ts to the millennium." ~J.B.S. Haldane Biohazard Level 4: Viruses and bacteria that cause severe to fatal disease in humans, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available, such as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever virus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and other hemorrhagic diseases. Variola virus (smallpox) is an agent that is worked with at BSL-4 despite the existence of a vaccine. When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a positive pressure personnel suit, with a segregated air supply, is mandatory. The entrance and exit of a Level Four biolab will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomous detection system, and other safety


Transcript: Alimony it comes to vehicles in which the parasites can actively change the milk and its derivatives can transmit bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, cholera, dysentery, typhoid infections paratiche scarlet fever, meat and eggs possible responsible for the transmission of salmonellosis,seafood paratifiche transmission of typhoid and viral hepatitis type A. BIOLOGICAL AGENT Bleed the wound and disinfecting the interested part if the source patient is identified him performed health checks requiring an address in writing,sure of his bodily anti situation and possible prophylaxis The transition of the infective agent complise a relationship between the two. Trought sexsual contact of with the skin or for example sneesing or coughing. The parasite stay for a period more or less long in the environment before to penetrate in the body. For example throught the animal like mosquito. It is a radical environmental remediation as it aims to kill any living form,sterilization processes are: physical:dry heat or wet, ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, chemical:ethylene oxide glutaraldehyde mechanical:filtration. The method of choice for the chirurgche m aanche operations tools for tattoos manicure pedicure is the autoclave which allows you to confirm that the sterilization occurred, where it is not possible sterilize must be used disposable instruments Gloves:should always be worn before coming in contact with the patient or perform a vascular procedure. Washing hands:after removing gloves must wash your hands thoroughly Masks,glasses,coprifaccia: they must be worn during the procedure since they can be emitted drops of blood. PATHWAYS OF MICROORGANISM ACCES PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND RULES OF CONDUCT The soil subject to contamination especially in case of in an irrational realized expulsion of the waste materials.Transmission of certain infectious diseases despite being equipped with a remarkable power of self purification due to the action of certain groups of bacteria which provide for the mineralization of all organic matter.Soil can spread the parasites so,direct tetanus anthrax whose agents remain active for long periods of time so vegono ingested by humans and animals,mediated contamination of deep water by agents of intestinal diseases DISINFECTIONS The air is an important veichels especiallyrespiratory deseasessuche as pneumonia and influence. Water is one of the most important veicheles for both the severity of the desease that can trasmit both the entity of epidemics that can originte, for example cholera,typhus,amoebic dysentery,infectious hepatitis PREVENTIONS AND PROTECTIONS MEASURES Carries are living beings generally insects that after taking the parasites from the source disperse them in the outside world or injecting them directly into a healthy organism,all that come into conatatto with a carrier can be a vehicle of infection so individual diseases can be transmitted by linen cutlery glasses cutlery belongings tableware toys. Other sporadic cases of infectious diseases, it simply recommends the respect of hygiene rules. Skin infections and other implications, allergic reactions due to inks for tattoos especially the red can cause allergic reactions to the skin causing a rash itchy area tattooed,tattoos can also cause local bacterial infection characterized by redness, swelling and pain with pus,in some cases around the ink formed small bulges said granulomas. If the equipment used to make the tattoo is contaminated with infected blood is tthe risk of contracting blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B and C and HIV. The porpouse is the destruction of pathogenic flora in a given environment,the main disinfectant substances are the sodium peroxide alcohols aldehydes hypochlorite chlorine iodine idofori polyphenols quaternary ammonium salts of chlorhexidine. The selection criteria of disinfectants, effective action spectrum use user safety for those who employ high efficiency penetrating power. OTHER VEICHELES INFECTIVITY : Capacity to surviveto the host immune system PATHOGENICITY:Capacity to produce a desease after an infection TRANSMISSIVITY :Capacity to be sent by a person bearer by ahealty person. NEUTRALITY: Availability of effective therapies and preventing mesures VEICHELES OFIBFECTIONS Technical prevention measures of procedural organization of health surveillance and personal protection information and training deviceswash hands frequently to avoid sgfregarsi eyes with dirty hands always avoid ussre the same rag er the cleaning to air out the assicurazrsi environments that environmental surfaces are regularly cleaned and disinfected.Wash hands frequently to avoid sgfregarsi eyes with dirty hands always avoid ussre the same rag er the cleaning to air out the assicurazrsi environments that environmental surfaces are regularly cleaned and disinfected Any microrganism or colture or human endoparassites, which may cause infections allergies or poisoning . The biological risk isthe probability of


Transcript: Evidences of evolution JT, Ekrem, and Martha Evolution Theory of Evolution Evolution is proven to exist due to slight changes in species' physiques. Darwinn was a biologist who came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection Involves mutations/mistakes in the rewriting of genetic code. Can become a dominant gene depending increase of survivability near mutation A brown bunny, will be more common in a forest because the brown allows camouflage which increases survivability. Evidences There are many evidences that support the theory of evolution by natural selection. Fossils have shown constant changes in species Evidences Stromatolites are extremely interesting and we can learn a lot from them. They were first the life form to photosynthesize. As Mr. Bentley says, when you see one, make sure to thank them. Their formation adds on to evidence that proves the theory of natural selection. TSW 4 A Level TSW What are the Patterns of life forms? Patterns in life forms Crap Rude Natures include: Symmetry, branching, sprials, cracks, spots, stripes, chaos, flows, meanders, waves, dunes, bubbles, form, foam, arrays, crystals, and tilings. Symmetry, in biology, the repetition of the parts in an animal or plant in an orderly fashion. Branching patterns occur throughout nature – in trees, ferns and coral, for example – but also at a much finer scale, where they are essential to ensuring that organisms can exchange gases and fluids with the environment efficiently. Humans can't help but look for patterns and find structure in the information coming their way. The neocortex, the outermost layer of the brain, is only found only in mammals and is responsible for humans' ability to recognize patterns. Although computer algorithms can spot patterns, an algorithm has not yet been developed that outperforms the human mind. When people found the patterns, they take plants and put them in their houses to make science porjects. A-level TSW Physical Ressemblances Similar developed features in species over time Same ancestors proved by these similarities Physical ressemblances Ms. Jones Website Ms. Jones Website A Level TSW A Level TSW A level TSW species adapt to different environments Uneffective features are disposed of - vestigial structure left in its place Conclusion Darwinn came up with the Theory of Evolution This impacted how researchers view the world of fossils There are many hypotheses on fossils based on the information found. Fossils rock! Conclusion

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