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Transcript: Causes, Reactions, Effects Fake News 1 1. Facts 2. Causes of Fake News 3. Policy Reactions 4. Effects on Politics 5. Tool-Kit Introduction 2 2 #1 Misconception #2 5 Top Fake News 2016 #3 THIS SHOWS Facebook #1 Source of Fake News 2016 Presidential Election as momentum Political Impact From objective journalism and accurate reporting to entirely fabricated stories: Where did fake news come from? 3 The New Media Landscape The New Media Landscape Mass Media Symbiosis and Mass Media Convergence Mass Media Symbiosis and Mass Media Convergence Thanks to the internet, providing the mass public with informative information is no longer a professional game. Thanks to the internet, providing the mass public with informative information is no long... More choice means more competition and greater resulting audience fragmentation More choice means more competition and greater resulting audience fragmentation audience members the power to decide what is deemed important, what gets redistributed and ultimately, what makes the news audience members the power to decide what is deem... When left unattended, the algorithms begin filtering-out relevant info from user’s newsfeeds and cause individual filter bubbles When left unattended, the algorithms begin filtering-o... Content providers are now engaged in what seems to be a race toward publishing the most bizarre and conflict ridden stories Content providers are now engaged in what seems to be a race toward publishing the most bizarre and conflict ridden stories So where has fake news come from? So where has fake news come from? An absence of professional standards and organizational constraints among new competition More audience control in creating content, gatekeeping and deciding what makes the news A new environment that places too high of a value on the bizarre and the immediate 4 Fake news everywhere - Political - Economical - Social - Entertainment How are countries handling the spread of fake news? Policy Reactions 5 Canada Canada "Kellie Leitch's (Conservative Party) campaign manager has posted fake news about the Trudeau government in an effort to draw out left-leaning voters". Policy Policy There have been laws against the spread of fake news for decades. Even though they're only enforced in extreme cases, there is an explicit law against the spread of fake news if it influences election outcomes, in contrast to the US. Instead of proposing laws, the government started a collaboration with Facebook and Google to educate younger generations in recognizing fake news and improving the online information system. Germany Germany The increased spread of fake news was considered a possible threat to democracy by Angela Merkel towards the German elections. Policy Policy This bill is a great example of the worldwide discussion between governments whether it's appropriate to use the law as a mechanism against the spread of fake news, because it may also be seen as a limit to the freedom of speech. India India Where other countries are mostly concerned about the threats to democracy, India faced violence and even deaths as a result of fake news. What makes India more vulnerable than other countries towards the consequences of fake news? Poor education Large cultural differences Declining mobile phone prices Fall in internet data prices 'News' isn't defined in the law, misinformation therefore isn't punishable. Social media companies are considered intermediaries Current governmental solutions: Internet shutdowns Counterspeeches Policy Policy Current solutions by individuals Fact-checking websites Fake news doesn't only influence public opinion, but also interferes in resolving the MH-17 attack that killed 200 people. Netherlands Netherlands Policy Policy Current governmental solutions: Collaboration between Facebook, Leiden University and (newssite) to take down fake news through factchecking website. No real policy proposes yet. Singapore Singapore Singapore government has a prominent role compared to other countries in the region with battling fake news. This is mainly to make sure there won't be any religious tensions. A recent government survey showed that 91 per cent of Singaporeans are supportive of stronger laws to "ensure the removal and correction of fake news". Policy Policy Tech companies such as Facebook, Google and Twitter also bear a "significant responsibility". Some of these platforms have committed to reporting hate speech and flagging disputed information, but these "voluntary commitments" may not be enough, Mr Shanmugam said, citing how Germany and Israel are considering laws to compel social networks to remove certain types of unlawful content. Effects on Politics 6 “Everything is true and nothing is true. An explanation of climate change from a Nobel Prize winning physicist looks exactly the same on your Facebook page as the denial of climate change by somebody on the Koch brothers’ payroll.” Effect of Partisan media ,

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Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. 2. 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week

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Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity

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