Transcript: The Dreadnaughts actually cost so much money that once the war began, all of the countries possessing them were too afraid to risk losing them in battle and so they were relatively useless. Industrialization and conscription allowed for the mass mobilization of military forces. New: Belgium, Germany, U.S.A, Italy, Russia, Japan. The War Begins Formation of Alliances Interesting Info... Possession of Dreadnoughts by 1914 Tension and Arming The European Depression 1919-1939 This was good for North America because Canada and the USA were helping to rebuild Europe, providing both raw and manufactured materials. Many historians refer to this as a leading factor in the resulting American Age Wilhelm II (r 1888-1918), the last king of Germany, creates a large standing army during peace time and triggers a response from other european powers. Ottomon empire gives up-Sept 1918 Bulgaria in autumn -1918 Austria-1918 April 1917- The United States declares war on Germany for a number of reasons, one of the most important being the fact that the German navy was attacking American cargo ships. The U.SA had also financed a large portion of the war and so they could not afford to see the allies lose. Sarajevo crisis of June 28, 1914 War Theaters One of the best examples of the arms race can be seen in naval expansion. The Dreadnought, the largest battleship of the period, was developed by Britain in 1906. Immediately following its introduction, Germany began construction on its own Dreadnought. http://www.militaryfactory.com/ships/imgs/hms-dreadnought.jpg -Divide land gained through ware -Stripped Germany of its colonies -Germany could have no union with Austria -Military strength reduced -Article 231- war guilt clause. The Great War (WWI) Germany viewed France as the strongest opposition and expected Russia to retreat if France was defeated. They did not want to battle both countries at the same time. Germany had a standing army of around 2.2 million soldiers while France and Russia both had over 1 million. Germany expected Britain to remain neutral. Expansion and imperial motives (Africa and Asia) France and Russia implement peace time conscription. (Play clip from 0:46- 4:42 ) Germany was unified between 1866-1871 and its new borders as well as its ambitions created a sense of unease among neighboring countries. American Institute for History Education Trench warfare in wwi [Web]. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9iR0xJW-Fk The Triple Entante (1907) Britain, France, and Russia Sub-alliances: Belgium, Luxemburg, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro. The Schlieffen Plan (1905) The Battle of the Marne (Sept 1914) Arming July 28, Austria declares war on Serbia. July 30, Russia mobilizes its troops. August 1, Germany declares war on Russia August 3, Germany declares war on France August 4, Germany advances towards France through Belgium and Luxemburg, violating neutrality and bringing Britain into the war. Trench Warfare Occurs as a result of doing so poorly in the war Treaty of Versailles- June 1919 deals with how to punish Germany Influential Factors Leading up to WWI Russia pulls out of war in 1917 (Dec) Begin to negotiate with the Germans, they sign the treaty of BreastLotovisk March 1918. The Tides Change Russia lost much of the territory it gained during war such as Belarus and Ukraine, and becomes a communist state. Lenin leads the communist state, crushing any opposition. Western Front: Northern France saw few significant advancements. Eastern Front: Germany and Austria attacked an unprepared Russia, pushing the Russian forces back. Africa: British soldiers begin to invade German colonies. Asia: Japan and China declare war on Germany for economic and political reasons. The archduke Franz Ferdinand, the nephew of the Austrian Empire is assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, ethnically a Serbian, on June 28. Britain- 19 Germany-13 France-8 Russia- 2-4 Germany did not expect Britain to aid France based on their previous conflicts. However, Britain did assist France which brought Germany's advancement to a halt. 1917 Motives and Actions Consequences Both sides remained locked in trench warfare, with limited progression from either side. Trench warfare was in incredibly violent and slow means of battle. Russian Revolution 1870-1914 The Triple Alliance (1882) Created by Germany, the alliance consisted of Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Italy. Sub-alliances: Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria New colonial powers enter into competition with old colonial powers. Eastern and western Europe was particularly effected. Belgium was occupied by Germany which destroyed their economy and Russia lost fertile land. If there should be a war, Germany was aware that France and Russia would be the primary opposition, they would attack France first and then proceed to attack Russia. America joins the war Old: Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Portugal, Holland. The Marxist party emerges and promises to pull out of the war Germany remains
Transcript: Counters Charging Machine guns and pill box Trenches Tanks Artillery and Frag Grenades Dugout and Scrape hole Poison Gas Gas Mask Weapons of the Great War Propaganda FEARSOME German U-Boats Fokkers Maxim Machine Gun Weight: 1.92 Pounds Caliber: 9mm Howitzer Artillery German A7V Fail M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle and destroyed pillboxes Weight: 8.67 Pounds Rate of fire: 15 RPM Caliber: 30-06 Effective Range: 656 Yards weight: 15.98 Ib Caliber: .30-6 Effective range: 100-1,500 yds .45 Colt ACP Colt .45ACP (left) and Luger 9mm (right) Gewehr 98 tanks were the perfect charging weapon... .30-06 Same used in the BAR and Springfield 1903 Tanks were one of the biggest breakthroughs of the war... Zeppelins they plowed through barbed wire... Weight: 2.44 Pounds Caliber: .45 .303 Caliber. Same caliber as the Maxim and the Lee Enfield British Mk IV Lee Enfield and everybody had their own Rifle Mounted Bayonets Weight: 8.8 Pounds Rate of Fire: 15 RPM Caliber: .303 Effective Range: 550 Yards Weight: 60 Pounds Caliber: .303 Rate of Fire: 600 RPM Effective Range: 600 Yards Springfield 1903 Luger Weight: 9 Pounds Caliber: 7.65mm Effective Range: 500 Yards Russian "Tsar" American Mk VIII Colt Model 1911 German 7.65mm
Transcript: The Allied Powers Russia supported the Serbs and Germany supported Austria-Hungary. Russia sent troops to the borders of Germany and Germany demanded the russians to stop but the russians ignored it. On August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia. Convinced France would side with Russia. Germany also declared war on France. Then Great Britain declared war on germany. Austria-Hungary The united states supplied food, raw materials, and munitions to both sides. The British blockade of Germany tightened, Americans traded more with the allies. Stories about german atrocities angered Americans. Then german foreign ministry Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Germany offered to help Mexico regain Arizona, New Mexico, and Texasif they fought with them. The British intercepted the telegram and it was published in American newspapers. Also German U-boats sank many ships and many Americans died in the attacks. Then Russia over threw the czarist government and all major allied countries moved toward democracy. Americans did not want democracy and be safe from it so they declared war on Germany. Belgium The Balken "powder keg" came on June 28, 1914 and what caused it was that Archduke Franncis Fernidad and his wife were assinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian nationalist group. Germany opened it. They made trenches starting at the North Sea to the Swiss Frontier with France. It stood the same for most of the war. Each side had a long trench on both sides and lived there for a few years. Great Britain Bulgaria World War One By : Julian Rivera & Shania Gray Ottoman Empire Who were the Central Powers ? France Life in the Trenches Austria-Hungary were very angry with the assination and wanted to punish the Serbs. They sent an ultimatum and the Serbs accepted three of the four and Austria-Hungary declared war on the serbs. U-boats Machine guns Long-range artillery Airplanes Tanks Poison gas Turkish New Inventions Daily life in the trenches werehorrible. There were many random deaths in the trenches. When soldiers died they would leave the bodies in the trenches. Rats and many insects would come because of the dead bodies. Soldiers had tolive inthe trench and sleepin the mud. They would sleep during the dayand battle at night. Many infections because of the animalsthat came. Germany The Western Front Serbia Russia Why the U.S entered the war. The Cause These new inventions made World War two a new kind of war.
Transcript: World War I Britan and France promptly declared war on Austria-Hungary on August 12th. Austria-Hungary and their ally Germany declare war on Serbia on July 28th, due to Serbias lack of action with the Black Hand. World War 1 Pitted the navies of Britain and Germany against one another. However, the Germans had a new type of ship, the U- boats. The battle of the Somme was one of the first battles of the war. The soldiers lived in apalling trenches and the use of new weaponry caused hundreds of thousands of casualties on both sides. Lord Kitchener called for a draft of all able-bodied men to support the British army. the draft was very successful, with 33,000 men joining daily. The sinking of the Lusitania prompted the Americans to join the allied powers. They sent in the American Expeditionary Force. This action tipped the balance against the Central power's forces. By the end of August 1914, all the different countries had declared war on each other. Most of these declerations were due to the multitudes of alliances connecting the different countries. Armistice was declared on November 11th, 1918. The Countries met to discuss terms. Russia mobilizes to protect Serbia on the 29th of July. They tell Germany to back off. Austro-Hungary declares war on Russia, while Germany follows suit. On June 28th, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was shot and killed by a Serbian student by the name of Gavrilo Princip. The allied powers decided that Germany had to pay the bill for the entire war. They did this to keep Germany from ever rising up to threaten them again... on August third, Germany declares war on France. In response to the assassination, Austria invaded Serbia, inadvardently bringing Russia and Germany into the fray. They brought their alliess, and it went from there. Heres how it happened: Austria-Hungary demanded that Serbia arrest the leaders of the Black Hand. Serbia refused. The Germans, practacing unrestrained submarine warfare, sunk the Lusitania on May 7, 1915. The ship was carrying war supplies for the British millitary. However, there were several Americans on board the ship when it went down. ... but we all know how that went.
Transcript: Erich Remarque. Red Baron. A.K.A. Manford Von Richtoven. World War Ones top ace. 80 confirmed kills on allied aircraft. Got shot by who most believe, William "Snowy" Evans. Born May 2nd 1892. 1 sister, 2 brothers. Son of Albrecht Freiherr Von. Became leader of "Jasta II" in 1917. Blimps. Also known as "Zeppelins" used during the early stage of W.W.1. Used to bomb raids by the Germans. Abandon after a period of non-success because they were easy to shoot down. Machine Guns. When machine guns first came about, it took about four to six men to work them. They had the fire power of one hundred guns. Machine guns were used to fire shells which exploded on impact. Weaponry. Gas. Tear Gas: Formally known as "Lachrymatory agent". Non-lethal chemical weapon that stimulates the corneal nerves in the eyes causing possible blinding. Mustard Gas: Known as sulfur mustard's. Form large blisters on exposed skin and in lungs. Colorless so other forces wouldn't see anything coming. Have an odor of garlic, mustard, or horse radish. Poison gas was the most feared weapon in W.W.I. Mustard gas was first used by German army in September 1917. Mustard Gas stays active for several weeks. Causes excessive vomiting and internal bleeding. Tanks. Tanks were first used in the battle of "Flers" The first tank was named "Little Wille." and it's maximum speed was 3 mph. The tank was used with less success in the battle of "Somme" by the German empire. German born American author. Most famous book "All quiet on the western front" which he wrote about the life on W.W.1 soldiers. Son of Peter Franz Remark & Anna Maria Remark. Two siblings. Family was poor and moved at least 11 times. Drafted into the army at the end of the war. Planned to be an elementary school teacher.
Transcript: *Causes* Imperialism - When a stronger coutry takes over a weaker country and they go to war. *Money Spent* United States : $22,625,253,000 Great Britain : $35,334,012,000 Russia : $22,293,950,000 Germany : $37,775,000,000 Austria-Hungary : $20,622,960,000 Ottoman Empire0 : $1,430,000,000 *Causes* Nationalism -When peple love their country and think their country is the best so they don't get along. ~World War One~ Ashley Gibbs *When did America Enter World War 1?* America Entered World War 1 On April 2nd 1917 *Beginning and End* World War 1 started in 1914 and ended in 1918. America joined in 1917. The war was fought in mostly Europe and Africa. *Casualties* In the whole war there was about 37 casualties. 16 million dead. 21 million wounded. *Causes* Militarism - The army and military force is given tanks, guns, etc. by the government and they want to test them out. *Causes* Alliances - Many countries had signes agreements. If a country was in a fight with another county, the loosing country would have another country back them up (help them) *Allied And Central Powers* The allied countries were the Russian Empire, France, British Empire, Italy and The United States. The central powers coutries were Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
Transcript: Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assasinated Germany invaded Begium Austria and Hungary invaded Russia Allied troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula United Kingdom France Belgium (Luxembourg) Russia Serbia United Kingdom's colonies Australia New Zealand Canada French colonies November 11th 1918 August 4th-10th 1914 .480,000 allied troops had been dedicated to the failed campaign. British losses (including imperial forces) were approximately 205,000. French losses were estimated at around 47,000. Turkish losses were around 250,000 casualties. Anzac Day (25 April) remains the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in Australia and New Zealand, surpassing Remembrance Day. In Australia and New Zealand, the campaign was the first major battle undertaken by a joint military formation and is often considered to mark the birth of national consciousness in both of these countries. The campaign was a huge failure, the ANZACS never managed to get more than a few hundred meters inland. The invasion plan of 25 April 1915 was for the 29th Division to land at Helles on the tip of the peninsula and then advance upon the forts at Kilitbahir. The Anzacs were to land north of Gaba Tepe on the Aegean coast, from where they could advance across the peninsula, cutting off retreat from or reinforcement of Kilitbahir. Conditions for soldiers Australian Victoria Cross Recipient Lance Corporal Albert Jacka Unit - 14th Battalion Born - 10 January 1893 at Winchelsea, Victoria Date of action - 19-20 May 1915 Place - Courtney’s Post, Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey Details - On 19 May, the Turks launched a general attack to push the Australians into the sea. They seized ten metres of trench at Courtney’s Post, but Australians at either end stopped them from continuing to advance. At the northern end Jacka, with several others, tried to evict the Turks, but was beaten back. It was then decided that while a feint was made from the same end, Jacka would attack from the rear. The party waited long enough for Jacka to circle the rear and then threw two bombs and gave covering fire. Jacka leapt over the parapet, shot five Turks with his rifle, bayonetted two others and forced the rest to flee the captured trench. It was generally believed that Jacka should have been awarded two more VCs for his actions at Pozieres (which the Official Historian claimed was the single most successful individual action of the war), and at Bullecourt. A member of his Battalion wrote: ‘He deserved the Victoria Cross as thoroughly at Pozieres, Bullecourt and at Ypres as at Gallipoli . . . The whole AIF came to look on him as a rock of strength that never failed. We of the 14th Battalion never ceased to be thrilled when we heard of ourselves referred to . . . by passing units on the march as “some of Jacka’s mob”. Died - 17 January 1932 at Melbourne Buried or Commemorated - St Kilda Cemetery, Melbourne, with eight VC recipients as pallbearers Current location of the VC - Australian War Memorial Allied Powers April 25th 1915 The British fleet fought the German fleet in the Battle of Jutland Germany signed an armistice ending World War I The skin of victims of mustard gas blistered, the eyes became very sore and they began to vomit. Mustard gas caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. This was extremely painful and most soldiers had to be strapped to their beds. It usually took a person four or five weeks to die of mustard gas poisoning At the trenches, they had horrible conditions. Their hygiene was a really big problem. They had to go to the bathroom, but their wasn't any bathroom, only a small lavatory but this couldn't be used because of the enemies who could strike behind on you. Rats were a really big problem, they ate dead bodies and sometimes they knibbeled on the toe or ear of a sleeping soldier. Lice were a big problem too, they could make you sick and were annoying. The smell in the trenches was horrible because of the dead bodies, their body smell and all the other things made it worse. Their food wasn't any better, the soldiers thought that they would be back before christmas, so there was food enough until then. After that, they gained less and less food. Over 300,000 men were cooking for them, but the soldiers never got their food really hot. Diseases like trench foot were also common and most of the people who died at the war died from an injury or a disease. lots of men also suffered from a disease called shell shock, the really bad part is most men that suffered from shell shock were sent back out to the front line because everyone thought they are just being pussys or trying to get out of the war. Service number: 209 Rank: Private Unit: 7th Battalion (Infantry) Service: Australian Army Conflict: 1914-1918 Date of death: 7 June 1915 Cause of death: Died of wounds Cemetery or memorial details: Lone Pine Memorial, Turkey War Grave Register notes: BURNS, Pte. David,
Transcript: World War One Alliances An alliances is an agreenment with two different countries so that they can help each other if they needed help. These were important because they meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies declared war first. Some of the alliances: -1879:Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia -1881:Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia -1882:Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia. -1894: Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary -1904: Britain and France had an alliance but not a formal one -1907:Russia, France and Britain mad an alliance to counter the increasing threat from Germany. -1914:Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately. Imperialism When a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule is imperalism. France had control of some parts of Africa and the British Empire extended over five continents by 1900. The amount of lands that Britain and France owned increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa Militarism Militarism the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. Since the European divided it had led to an arms race between the main countries. France and Germany had doubled their armies and there was competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas. 'Dreadnought' was intriduced by the British. The German took an action that involved attacking France if Russia attacked them. Nationalism Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of one's country. After Napoleon's exile to Elba, aimed to sort out problems in Europe, The Congress of Vienna held this. The winning allies (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. Timeline of World War One Toondoo for World War One By: Jeannette Torres World War One Causes
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