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Vietnam War Background Presentation

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Vietnam War Background

Transcript: Wounded Statistics MIA and POW Statistics Some Service Statistics Americans who deliberately killed civilians received prison sentences. However, returning soldiers were frequently spit on, hit, kicked at, and even beaten because public opinion (based on media coverage) was that they all committed heinous acts and fought in a war many Americans opposed. War atrocities committed by American Soldiers produced outrage from anti-war critics and protestors. Though the United States made it a priority to minimize and prevent attacks on Vietnamese civilians, isolated incidents received unprecedented media attention. MIA: 2,338 POWs: 766 114 died in captivity As of January 2004, there were still 1,875 Americans unaccounted for from the Vietnam War By the numbers and public opinion Vietnam War Background Why was the war so unpopular? Casualty Statistics Total deaths = 58,202 61% of soldiers killed were 21 and younger 11,465 were under 20 5 of those were only 16 Highest state death rate: West Virginia = 84.1% National average was 58.9% for every 100,000 males in 1970) American wounded = 303,704 Severely disabled = 75,000 Amputation or crippling wounds to the lower extremities were 300% higher than in WWII 70% higher than in Korea Multiple amputations occurred at the rate of 18.4% v. 5.7% in WWII Total # military personnel who served in Vietnam Era (1964-1975) = 9,087,000 Total # American military personnel = 2,709,918 (roughly 9.7% of the Vietnam Era generation) Peak troop strength = 543,482 (April 1968) In contrast, Communist and Viet Cong atrocities were so common, they received very little media attention. Attacks on civilians were a key strategy of the North Vietnamese military. Communists who deliberately killed civilians received medals and commendations.

Vietnam: Background

Transcript: Background Vietnam Perla Background 1. What role has geography played in Vietnam's History? 2. Why have foreign powers been interested in Vietnam? Question 1 Climate offered many challenges to American soldiers Most of the Vietnam land was mountains and hills Only 20% of land was leveled. Question 2 Vietnam is ideal for farming climate soil rivers French wanted colonial possession Japan wanted the natural resources Andrea 3.) Summarize what happened in Vietnam after World War II. 4.) Why did the US refuse to support Vietnamese Independence from the French? Background Question 3 - Vietnam was divided at 17th parallel -Vietminh controlled North, French controlled South. -Ngo Dinh Diem became president of South in 1955 -National Liberation Front (NLF) formed by Southern Vietminh in 1960. Goal was to overthrow Diem. - NLF became known as Vietnamese Communists, or Vietcong. (VC) - many South Vietnamese join NLF, the countryside fell to VC control. 1.) Valued France as an ally against communism. 2.) Disliked Ho Chi Minh's affiliation with communist party. 3.) Feared Domino theory in Asia. Question 4 Aliyah Background 5.) Why did President Kennedy increase US involvement in Vietnam? 6.) What was the Domino Theory? Question 5 The fear of communism and the domino theory. It was the idea that if one country in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. Question 6 Jayla Background 7.) How did it affect the US's role in the Vietnam conflict? 8.) Considering everything you have learned, why should people today care about this? Question 7 - The government in Southeast Asia used the domino theory to justify its involvement in the Vietnam war. - also for its support for a non-communist dictator in South Vietnam - Communism failed to spread throughout Southeast Asia. Learning about the past will prevent past problems from repeating themselves. The domino theory can be incorporated in real life situations. People need to be aware of what it is and how it can effect others. Question 8

Vietnam Background

Transcript: The Vietnam War Vietnam was under foreign rule, notably the Chinese, but the Japanese and French also colonized many regions At the end of WWII in 1945, the Vietnamese pushed Japan out of the country, however, the French fought to control land until 1955 when the Vietnamese had finally taken back their country Time to step in Background information for your reading Beginning in 1950, Americans were overseas to help organize the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and provide leadership and guidance for the militia. American involvement escalated and in 1965, we were fully involved in the conflict. The war would continue until 1975, when the North Vietnamese would officially unite the country as a communist nation. The turmoil continues... Between 1955 and 1960, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong attempted to overthrow the south’s government November 1963: President Diem was finally overthrown and executed; the next year was marked by determination from the North Vietnamese to take over the rest of the country. They were now aided by China and Russia. The complexity of the landscape—American soldiers were unprepared for the physical conditions they would encounter in Vietnam The ability to acclimate—many soldiers became sick or infected because of the unfamiliar food and conditions. Morale—resistance back home and the difficulties the soldiers witnessed made many soldiers lose hope. Drug use became common among soldiers. The ability to find the enemy—guerilla warfare was a huge factor in the war. The enemy was no longer easily identifiable leading to climate of mistrust and fear. Thanks for the images to... North Vietnam followed the leadership of Ho Chi Minh and began to establish a communist regime Ngo Dinh Diem declared himself president of the Republic of Vietnam in the southern regions of the country. Communists from the north moved south and began an underground movement to spread communism—these people were the Viet Cong (VC) The reaction back home... Some problems... A Nation in Turmoil Overseas, Americans were growing more and more suspicious of the communist movement, a fear elevated by the climate of the Cold War. The fear of communism spreading further encouraged Americans to step in. Americans were outraged over the US’ involvement in the war. Protests and riots were organized nationwide as a way to speak out against American involvement in Vietnam. Draft resisters were no longer called unpatriotic; instead they were accepted Veteran’s returning from the war were treated poorly; some veteran’s became protestors themselves Historically...

Background of Vietnam War.

Transcript: Background of Vietnam War! From 1957 to 1965, the war was just between south and north vietnamese. The U.S. troops left Vietnam in 1969, March but fighting went on between North and South Vietnam. Who? This war happened because North Vietnam wanted both counties to be unified as one. South Vietnam disagreed with this option. North Vietnam also was a communist country, but south Vietnam wasn't. The vietnamese declared war because they weren't able to come to resolution. The red area shows Vietnam! Where? - Prezi Group : - Andrew Birkett - Sibani Ram - Emily Beecher - Lauren Miller What? Why ? When? Vietnam is a small country located in the continent of Asia. Vietnam used to be two different countries : North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The Vietnam War was between North and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by China and Soviet Union. South Vietnam was supported by the U.S.A. This war happened because North Vietnam wanted both counties to be unified as one. South Vietnam disagreed with this option. North Vietnam also was a communist country, but south Vietnam wasn't. The vietnamese declared war because they weren't able to come to resolution The first few years of the Vietnam war was fought just between North and South Vietnam. Them the U.S. joined in with Vietnam. Many people in the U.S. disagreed with the Vietnam War. U.S. troops left in 1969. However, the war only officially ended in 1975 when South Vietnam surrendered to North Vietnam.

Vietnam Background

Transcript: The Vietnam War End of the War The War at Home Former pentagon employee leaks documents to the New York TimesRevealed:Government officials questioned the war privately while publicly supporting it Decisions were being made without consent of congressThe public was being deceived about the situation in Vietnam Chemical Warfare My Lai Massacre(March 1968):An American platoon massacred possibly more than 200 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in My LaiVictims were women, children, and old men LBJ leaves presidential race and Nixon wins(1969)Nixon cuts back the number of troops in Vietnam North Vietnam and South Vietnam were being “ruled” by two opposing forcesThe Vietcong, a guerilla army, grew stronger and more powerful because of their terror tacticsThe constant redrawing of alliances and the constant political shift confused people Everyone wanted a piece of Vietnam U.S. Conflicted Context Immense antiwar movement Internal conflict: country, families, and generations still dividedIncreased immorality: drugs, STDs, post traumatic stress disorder Numbers to Know U.S. Involvement “…he would explain to her why he had let himself go to the war. Not because of strong convictions, but because he didn’t know. He didn’t know who was right, or what was right; he didn’t know if it was a war of self-determination or self-destruction, outright aggression or national liberation; he didn’t know which speeches to believe, which books, which politicians; he didn’t know if nations would topple like dominoes or stand separate like trees; he didn’t know who really started the war, or how, or when, or with what motives; he didn’t know if it mattered; he saw sense in both sides of the debate, but he did not know where truth lay.[…] He wasn’t stupid. He was uninformed. He just didn’t know if the war was right or wrong or somewhere in the murky middle. And who did?” -Tim O’Brien, Going After Cacciato Draft: selection for required military service At the beginning of the war, a college student was exempt from the draft Some professors gave their students A's just to keep them out of the war Minorities dominated death toll Draft increased, putting students at risk Students publicly burned their draft cards and evaded the draft in Canada Could not return to U.S. until official pardon in 1977 About 1/3 of the US soldiers who fought in Vietnam were drafted Conflict in Vietnam Increases U.S. Joins the War "No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now. Rarely have so many people been so wrong about so much. Never have the consequences of their misunderstanding been so tragic." -- President Richard Nixon The War in Vietnam Napalm: jellied gasoline that explodes on contact dropped from American planes Agent Orange: A chemical that strips the trees and shrubs turning farmland and forest into wastelands VC guerilla tactics: sudden unexpected attacks carried out by an unofficial military group or groups trying to change the government by assaults on armed forces VC blended in with the general population Americans had firepower and arms Americans used search and destroy missions to find enemy troops, bomb their positions, destroy their supply lines and force them into the open Americans sought to destroy the landscape Armistice Opposed to Imperialism Did NOT want France to take Vietnam Opposed to Communism Did NOT want Communist Party to take Vietnam Nixon admin conducted the Christmas bombings using b-52s for 12 days pausing only on Christmas Two sides met and agreed to end fighting and return prisoners after the war (1975) War lasted almost 8 years--longest war in US history Presidential Switch Anti-communism sentiment U.S. feared the Domino Effect Thought to protect U.S. from communism Wanted to unify North and South Vietnam U.S. troops sent into Vietnam From Tim O’Brien (notice syntax ;] ) Ho Chi Minh Operation Rolling Thunder Effect on American Society The Draft Japan surrendered control of Vietnam in 1945 Ho Chi Minh announced Vietnam was an independent nationFrance wanted to regain their colonial empire and troops returned in 1946 driving Vietminh forces into hiding Vietminh (Minh’s forces) fought the French and increased control over large areas of countryside Fighting escalated & French requested help from the US The Pentagon Papers Conflict over Control Bombing of Ho Chi Minh Trail Trail was difficult to see because of the thick jungleOver 1000 trails and pathsUS started to bomb it and wiped out supply line from Vietminh to Viet CongUsed a wide variety of technology and intelligence to penetrate the trail American Deaths: 58,220Average age of US soldier: 23 years oldYoungest US solider to die in Vietnam 16 years old (even though draft age was 18)Claimed 5+ million Southeast Asian lives Vietcong vs. U.S. Troops Born in 1890 in Vietnam Studied in Soviet Union where he became an advocate for communism Returned to Vietnam in 1930 and founded Communist Party

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