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To Kill a Mockingbird: Background

Transcript: Atlanta was not the place for a race riot. However on Saturday, September 22 white men lined Decatur street (some drunk) and as someone chanted "Kill the niggers" the streets rumbled as crowds ran down the street. Unofficially over 100 might have died but officially 25 blacks died and one white. A play "The Clansman" by Thomas Dixon promoted the Ku Klux Klan and criticized the blacks. Many news articles were published accusing black men sexually assaulting white women which lead up to the riot. (Wormser) All the profiles contained someone that worked hard in life and stood up to what was wrong. These people worked hard in life to stand up for black rights such as creating associations. Image 1: Train Station Source: McBride Madam C.J. Walker became the first black lady to become a self-made millionaire. She was orphaned at seven years old and got married at fourteen. Moving to St. Louis having a two-year-old daughter and widowed she started her own line of hair-care products. Becoming married again then divorced the business became very successful. In 1916 the company had 20,000 male and female agents, various manufacturing plants and schools which operated in the United States, Central America, and Caribbean. Madam donated to the YMCA and NAACP. Booker T. Washington refused her to be on the program of the National Negro Business league convention in 1912. She gave the keynote speech at NAACP fund-raisers in 1918. Madam was a powerful supporter of black women's independence. In her speech she said "I want to say o every Negro woman present, don't sit down and wait for the opportunities to come...Get up and make them!" (Wormser) June 7, 1892 Homer Plessy who was 30 years old was jailed for sitting in the "white" car taking into account he was black but had a light skin complexion; Plessy was required to sit in a "coloured" car. In 1892 Louisiana passed a law legally separating the "coloured" from the "white" in train cars. Black civil rights challenged this law taking it all the way to United States Supreme Court. A 7-1 vote allowed the law to stay in order; stating segregation is allowed as long as each side gets equal accommodations. This law helped and enforced Jim Crow laws. In the laws "white" and "coloured" people were separate but treated with the same accommodations; therefore the laws could still be in place. (Wormser) Examples of Jim Crow Laws Works Cited Jim Crow Profiles Unfortunately the sound or video was not able to open when I tried to access it. However from reading and researching the background of Jim Crow I can just imagine the pain people went through. To have a family member pass away or get tortured I can just think about the pain, sadness, and how mad this would make people. Photographs of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination To Kill a Mockingbird: Background Image 5: Train Station Source: Photographs of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination: Documentation by Farm Security Administration-Office of War Information Photographers Alabama: Nurses - No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, public or private, in which negro men placed If I was having to obey by this law I would be very mad. This law would discriminate me for my colour. This also can not allow me to get the help I need from a hospital. Florida: Cohabitation - any negro man and white woman, or any white man and negro who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime in the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding 12 months, or by fine not exceeding $500.00 This law would restrict me from loving or being with someone that is the opposite colour than myself. I would react madly and upset if having to obey this law. 1903: - The Souls of Black Folk by W.E.B. Du Bois was published - the book helped to create an intellectual argument for the black freedom strain in the twentieth century 1909 May 31 - June 1 - National Negro Conference met in New York City & founded (NAACP) National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People 1913 - 1921 - Woodrow Wilson institutionalized segregation in federal civil service 1914: - southern states and numerous northern cities undergo Jim Crow laws that discriminated contrary to black Americans - Marcus Garvey created (UNIA) United Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica which promoted black nationalism and pan-Africanism - Later in the decade UNIA headquarters moved to New York City and became a large grassroots movement (Jim Crow Era) Marcus Garvey is a black nationalist who is advocated self-help and unity among black people. Before coming to America he learned printing trade, traveled across Central America, and studied in England. He learned the African culture and opposed impact colonialism on blacks. The only way to escape white exploitation and domination was throughout unity. Marcus began the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in August 1914 in Jamaica; leaving for the United

To Kill a Mockingbird Background

Transcript: Harper Lee Nelle Harper Lee Born April 28, 1926 in Monroeville, Alabama Born Nelle Harper Lee (Dropped first name when she published) Descendent of Robert E. Lee Youngest of four children Parents: Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Cunningham Finch [names used in the novel] Died in her sleep in an assisted living facility on February 19, 2016 in Monroeville, Alabama Studied law at University of Alabama Left in 1948 when she was one semester short of earning her degree She went from airline ticket agent to writer thanks to friends who gave her money to quit her job & write for a whole year [she did pay them back] To Kill a Mockingbird was published on July 11, 1960 Interesting Facts Approximately 40 million copies of To Kill a Mockingbird have been sold since 1960, and over 750,000 copies sell every year - hundreds of thousands more than The Catcher in the Rye, The Great Gatsby, or Of Mice and Men British librarians who were polled in 2006 were asked, "Which book should every adult read before they die?" They voted for To Kill a Mockingbird, which is the most widely read book in high school. Harper Lee as an Author More about Harper Lee. . . Setting Social Class (1930s) Maycomb, Alabama in 1930s –based on the small town of Monroeville, AL, where the author, Harper Lee, grew up Monroeville, AL is 60 miles west of Montgomery Story is set during The Great Depression - 1933 to 1935 Aftermath of Stock Market Crash of 1929 The Great Depression Popular song's refrain, "Brother, can you spare a dime?" Social Placement Based On: Education, Money, Color of skin She refused interviews since the mid-1960s (even with Oprah Winfrey) 1961: won Pulitzer Prize for distinguished fiction, and was 1st woman in 30 years to win it Reverend Thomas Lane Butts (friend) said, "I think she has led a happier life and certainly [a] more contented life [because] she has chosen how she has related to the public." Unexpectedly, the original manuscript newly titled Go Set a Watchman was published in July of 2015. Small-Town Life of 1930s Slow-paced lifestyle Good-natured within neighborhoods Small-town values existed Racism was a serious issue in the South Ch. 1, Part 1 To Kill A Mockingbird Ch. I Part II What was happening in the world when To Kill a Mockingbird was published? Language used There will be characters in the story who will do and say things you don’t agree with and who are meant to be seen as ignorant, prejudiced and cruel. Be careful of the vocabulary you use to talk about these characters. Summer of 1960. . . Elvis Presley recorded "It's Now or Never" U.S. military advisers were in South Vietnam The Kennedy-Nixon campaign was just starting During a sit-in at a Rich's lunch counter in Atlanta, Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested. There were no laws guaranteeing that African Americans could enter any restaurant or hotel Parallels between Lee's life and novel Main character Atticus Finch is a lawyer Lee's father was a lawyer Lee's mother's maiden name was Finch Main family's last name is Finch Main character Scout is a tomboy, indepedent, and curious Lee was a tomboy, independent, and curious Fictional town of Maycomb, AL is modeled after Lee's hometown, Monroeville, AL

To Kill A Mockingbird: Background

Transcript: At the beginning of the 1930s, more than 15 million Americans–fully one-quarter of all wage-earning workers–were unemployed The Dirty 30's Fact or Fiction Stock Market Crash Drought Banks Closed Millions of People had no work WWII ended the Depression The stock market crash of October 29, 1929, provided a dramatic end to an era of unprecedented, and unprecedentedly lopsided, prosperity. "The Roarin' 20's" ended with a Crash. Banks closed. People lost everything. Language: The N Word It is believed that this novel is a loose translation of Harper Lee's childhood. While the story itself is fictional, her own father was a lawyer and "Maycomb" is a fictional version of "Munroeville". Harper Lee was a Tomboy who often got in trouble at school. Facts About the 30's and The Great Depression Born Nelle Harper Lee, on April 28, 1926 in Monroeville, Alabama, U.S. Died February 19, 2016 (aged 89) Monroeville, Alabama, U.S. Widely known for To Kill a Mockingbird, published in 1960. It won the 1961 Pulitzer Prize and has become a classic of modern American literature. About the Author To Kill A Mockingbird:Background 1619-1865 Slavery is legal. 1861 Civil War Begins 1865 Abe Lincoln ends slavery by signing the EMMANICAPATION PROCLAMATION 1865-1954 Segregation in the South "Jim Crowe Law" 1955-1968 Civil Rights Movement 1963 Martin Luther King Jr, "I have a Dream" to over 200 000 people in a March on Washinton. 1965 Right to Vote (Rules Applied in Some States) The plot and characters of To Kill a Mockingbird are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family and neighbors, as well as an event that occurred near her hometown in 1936, when she was 10 years old. Harper Lee Historical Timeline of Racism in America Does Racism Exist TODAY?? Historical Context

To Kill a Mockingbird Background

Transcript: The Dust Bowl In the Summer of 1931 rain stopped falling Causes Drought at the time Improper irrigation Complications Threat to life Results Adults and children had to stay indoors little to no crops = no food Bad health- respertory problems Parents had to put nets on top of the babys' cribs Depression The Social Structure and Family Life • Most blacks had no contact with any white people, most communities were either white only or black only • The great depression caused a resurgence in religious life • If the father of the house had a job your family was considered a good family • Family was close nit and a very important part of life • Popular activities for a family in the 1930’s include watching baseball games and putting together puzzles As you can see this cartoon depicts a black man. He looks completely ridicules he is dancing around he has ripped clothes and almost resembles an animal. This was another way of showing that African Americans were lesser. Its not like people didn’t get to fight this awful thing. For example “brown VS Board of education” which showed that separate schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. This went against “Plessey VS Ferguson” which allowed the states to decide on segregation. The rest of the Jim Crow Laws were ruled out by the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights act of 1965. The New Deal What Caused It?: •The depression caused people to lose jobs •Most people were very poor and had no job •It was important that the resent economic collapse would get fixed and reorganized so that they could insure that the depression wouldn’t happen again How was it resolved?: •Franklin D. Roosevelt pledged to help the people in the lower half of the economic pyramid •He worked to get about 13,000,000 people, who were unemployed, get a job •He helped restore banks that had been destroyed by the economy •He developed a new set of back up plans so that the states would get back up when its economy was failing ; also known as the ‘’Hundred Days’’ meeting The ‘’Hundred Days”: •Franklin D. Roosevelt got together with Congress to discuss the issue of the economy •They found out how to back up the banks and help prevent another economic collapse •They protected the money of each state by passing laws to protect stock and bond investors Who paid for the New Deal?: •They spent $697 million in 1916 and $9 billion in 1936 •It was hard to tax the people after the depression so they highly taxed the rich •They also made money by raising taxes and borrowing money through the sale of government bonds •Even though the economy was being built back up, the nation’s debt reached unprecedented heights Jim crows affected everything from schools to drinking fountains. They were everywhere when I think of segregation this is what comes to mind. Everything was separate In the time between 1876 and 1965 there were a set of laws passed mostly in the southern states of the former confederacy. The whites called these laws separate but equal. They obviously were not. It was “equal” in the sense that they had the same things but t was not at all fair. All of the things that African Americans had were inferior to anything whites had. This included treatment, job options, and even everyday accommodations. If a white man and a black man went to eat in the same building blacks would usually have to use a side of back door that lead to a separate room. This room was not as nice as were the white person would be. There were also educational disadvantages. For example in an all black school they would have a smaller room that would have more people in it. There supplies would not be as nice or new. One of the biggest issues of all though was the job option issue. Many jobs only offered for white Americans. The jobs for African Americans were not as good and had little or less pay. This was the sigh for the Jim Crow laws… Harper Lee Thanks for Watching Citations -By Kyle Segregation and Jim Crow Laws THE • Born on April 28, 1926, in Monroeville • Born as Nelle Harper Lee • The youngest of her family • Father was a lawyer • Member of the Alabama state legislature • Owned part of the local newspaper • Mom had a mental illness, believed to be bipolar disorder • Lee liked English literature in high school • Graduated high school is 1944 • Went to Huntingdon College in Montgomery, Alabama • In the literary honor society • Transferred to the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa • Wrote for the magazine called the Rammer Jammer • Accepted in law school • Left the Rammer Jammer • Went to Oxford University • Went to New York in 1949 at age 23 • In 1956, she started to be a writer Cite Used: • 1929 the stock market crash led to people running to the

To Kill a Mockingbird background

Transcript: The wall street crash of 1929 caused many shares to suddenly become worthless and poverty swept the country. 1933-1935 Economic depression Setting and background The background to the Civil rights movement - Late 1950s and Southern American writing Research the following: Find an image of the 1930's depression, what does this tell us about the period? What did Roosevelt mean by "we have nothing to fear but fear itself"? How were other countries affected by the Great Depression? (NB did this contribute to the outbreak of WW2?) How does this relate to Greece today? Task Research what was the Civil Rights movement. Use the question prompts to get you started. How were African - American's being denied their civil rights Why was this so?What were the Jim Crow laws? Was this consistent across America? How did people protest and how were they suppressed? Famous landmark cases in the Civil Rights movement? Civil rights movement To Kill a Mockingbird background Task Task Research the following: Using the "I have a dream" speech, what literary techniques does Luther King use to make this a great speech? Roosevelt introduced a number of economic measures to promote the economy but these strategies took time to improve the economy. Black people who had fought during WW2 were starting to demand civil rights. Harper Lee's novel is a mix of nostalgia, criticism and perhaps guilt - typical of white Southern American writers of the time who had gained some perspective on their past. "they had nothing to fear but fear itself"

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