Transcript: Public Reason and the Availability of Truth Acknowledgments He wants to strengthen public reason from external criticisms. A disposition of citizens: (1) willingness to propose claims acceptable to others (2) Treat fellow citizens as free and equal (3) Accept the consequences of the burdens of judgement The truth-apt activities of public reason can rely upon this internal use of the truth predicate in order to make sense of their validity. Available Claims in Public Reason Ex. "It is true that law x is unjust." - As an internal claim, the example relies on an accepted framework (a political conception of justice). - These types of truth claims adhere to the constraints as they are limited in their range. (Their use is not intended to change the framework of justice already in place) a. The Constraints: Justificatory considerations are political. Reasonable as External Duty of civility requires it An essential feature of democratic society b. Internal Claims: Internal claims take a particular framework as given, they can not be made before the acceptance of a framework. Cohen's Political Conception of Truth Assume (a) Assume (b) 'Reasonableness': Standard of correctness for political justification. 'Political Conception of Justice': responds to the fact of `reasonable pluralism,' is freestanding, and is the focus of an `overlapping consensus.' Attitudes: Truth is the norm governing belief, assertion, and judgement If we take the political conception of truth to be an internal claim then public reason can make sense of the validity of its own claims. Public reason can already make sense of the validity of its own claims. Therefore Cohen requires further justification or motivation to include the political conception of truth. Correspondence: True beliefs correspond to how things are but not in any mind independent sense. - There is a limited range of application that characterizes the judgements, claims, and reasons that can be appealed to in public reason. - justification can not be on the grounds of comprehensive doctrines. (they have broad scope of application qua grounds) Truth & Political Justification: Must be in terms acceptable to all "reasonable' points of view. Why favor reasonableness as a standard? The Political Conception of Truth as External Contrast: Truth is distinct from warrant but not in any substantive sense. - judgements appealing to such justification then aim at the truth about justice in a controversial, philosophical sense. - this is restricted in light of political liberalism's commitment to propose and honor fair terms of cooperation. (The duty of reciprocity can not be maintained) Introduces the political conception of truth Political Conception of Truth Public reason's avoidance of a standard of truth is not justified by its central aims. A political conception of truth is acceptable. The political conception of truth is necessary for public reason to make sense of the validity of its own judgements and claims. Non-metaphysical Is truth available? Not designed to restrict liberty of conscience 1. If Cohen's political conception of truth resolves the discrepancy between truth and public reason then it is either (a) an internal claim or (b) an external claim. 2. In either case of (a) or (b) Cohen's political conception of truth is unsatisfactory on its own terms. C: Therefore Cohen's political conception of truth does not resolve the discrepancy between truth and public reason as is intended by its introduction into political liberalism. If the political conception of truth is used as an external claim then it is outside the constraints entailed by the standard of correctness for public reason. Cohen argues that the political conception of truth entails such constraints. Therefore it can not be an external claim. The Argument Responsibility of citizens: Moral responsibility Epistemic responsibility Reasonableness The reason of citizens - endorsement of a political conception of justice. - agreement in the form of overlapping consensus - necessary for political legitimacy -allows for reasonable disagreement It is reasoning addressed to others in their capacity as citizens When acting from public reason, legal acts are legitimate even though they may not be just Value: Truth is valuable in a way warrant is not. (The duty to be able to explain to one another how the principles they advocate can be supported by the political values of public reason.) I am grateful to Nick Alvarez, Aaron Bentley, John Gotti, Emily Lobsinger, Mike Nishkian, Patrick Smith, and Jeuel Wilkerson for all of their support, philosophical insight and overall encouragement. Their friendship is inexorably entwined with my philosophical growth. I'd like to acknowledge and thank Carlos Montemayor, Jennifer Montgomery, Kevin Toh, and Shelley Wilcox for their continued support and dedication of time through feedback, advice, and guidance. Without the loving support, patience, and understanding of my parents and my
Transcript: /1/ Siemens Siemens PLM Software Products: The Smart Innovation Portfolio NX VIEW IDEAL PLM TEAMCENTER Currently these listed problems are solved manually by NX designer. This process, since each drawing may have several views, many dimension, many notes, many symbols and since companies has hundreds of different drawings, may take hours and in some cases days. Siemens PLM Products Problem Statements Fibersim Syncrofit Femap 3 Weld Symbol - A button is added to NX Tool Bar Drawing Fix Tool is NXOpen API which integrated to NX. Teamcenter is a suite of product lifecycle management software that enables com-panies digitally manage their product and manufacturing information in context of the product life cycle. Teamcenter providers managing and sharing product de-signs, documents, Bill of Materials and any data in Teamcenter. And also it pro-vides workflows in order to change and control the process. /2/ Burcu Ser Simple Calculation.. If a designer can modify 1 element in average 60 seconds, this simple design takes 42*60 = 2520 secs, around 42 minutes. This makes 7 hours for 10 designs. PLM- PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION Active Integration LMS Solid Edge 4 view is updated. NX Open libraries C# programming NX Block UI Styler Microsoft Windows Form library NX information window Thank you! Thesis Supervisor: Ghodrat Moghadampour Introduction 3 Notes The Drawing Fix Tool must read all these elements of drawings: dimensions, notes, views, symbols.. In order to develop a tool which reaches the all elements and modifies them the technologies below are used for implementation: 3 Properties are saved What is PLM? The Application required functions: Technologies used for implementation Teamcenter Functions to fix Surface Finish Symbols, Weld Symbols and Identification Symbols NX In 2001, Siemens PLM Solution has started implementing a plan in order to move I-deas customers to NX and this plan included ending I-deas development and support in 2015. Therefor many of Siemens customer started to I-deas to NX migration process. IDEAL PLM is involving the migration process for many big and small size companies. A function to hide the points Information Technology, School of Technology University of Applied Sciences 2016 IDEAL PLM User Interface Product lifecycle management (PLM) is an information management system that can integrate data, processes, business systems and, ultimately, people in an extended enterprise. PLM software allows you to manage this information throughout the entire lifecycle of a product efficiently and cost-effectively, from ideation, design and manufacture, through service and disposal. /1/ Diverse functions and technologies converge through PLM, including: Product data management (PDM) Computer-aided design (CAD) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) 3D computer-aided engineering (CAE) and simulation Mechatronic system simulation (1D CAE) Finite element analysis (FEA) Modal testing and analysis Digital manufacturing Manufacturing operations management (MOM) NX Software is an integrated product design, engineering and manufacturing so-lution provided by Siemens. NX offers such a full range of advanced manufacturing applications, integration of multi-discipline simulation and it is considered as the best tightly integrated software with Teamcenter, Product Lifecycle Manage-ment platform. /3/ NX 2D DRAWING FIX TOOL Functions IDEAL PLM is company that established in 1992, since then the company has successfully delivered project of all levels of complexity while carefully listening the customers. IDEAL PLM represents Siemens PLM Software in Finland and Russia and it has honour to get from Siemens PLM Top European Partner Award FY 2015. In June 2014 IDEAL PLM was awarded ISO 9001 : 2008 quality certificate. DRAWING FIX TOOL General Introduction Problem Statement Solution Demonstration Conclusion NX 2D DRAWING FIX TOOL Total: 23+16+3 = 42 elemts of drawing Content Table Solution - Drawing Fix Tool During the migration process, companies are facing with many different problems on designs and drawings. After investigating difference cases, it appears to be that different customers of IDEAL PLM have similar problems. Thereafter a research has started to observe the most common issues and their solutions. During the re-search, opinions of many NX designers who work actively, from customer side and the company side, are considered. "We make PLM simply work" - The GUI, created in NX Block Styler Application. Functions to change style setting of view, dimension and notes Functions to remove I-deas title block, custom symbols and to save data from the title block The main objectives of this work was to develop a software for fixing problems on drawings and adapting them to NX system. As a result the Drawing Fix Tool was developed. The software meets all the requirements set by the customers and it can be used in order to fix the problems help migrating drawings successfully. The Drawing Fix Tool is
Transcript: Developed at the University of Waikato, New Zealand It is a java based software. What is probability? Probability is a measure or estimation of how likely it is that something will happen or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 and 1. The higher the degree of probability, the more likely the event is to happen. Related Work Naïve Bayesian classifier is a simple probabilistic classifier based on probability mode, which can be trained very efficiently in a supervised learning. It is based on static probability theory. Enhancing Performance of a Decision tree by Reducing Training Instance Calculation Work in WEKA Work in WEKA System Configuration Work in WEKA Decisions tree A supporting tool Decision tree is a supporting tool that uses a tree like graph or model of decisions. Useful Classifier The decision tree approach is most useful in classification problem. Popular Algorithms of Decision tree are- ID3 C4.5 Calculated Weight Performance Analysis Work i WEKA Performance Analysis Letter Dataset WEKA is a strong tool to make Decision Trees and Analyzing There are several Decision Tree making algorithms: J48 ID3 RAT etc Performance Analysis Probability Work in WEKA Naive Bayesian Classifier Prior probability for each class: P(Class= A) = . . . P(Class= J) = 677/16000 = 0.0423 . . P(Class= Z) = Feature Extraction Tree Pruning Attribute Reduction Datasets for Analysis How can we solve this? Our Idea! Work in WEKA Flow Chart (Weight Calculation) Lib.py (Personalized Library) All the functions Randomizing Calculating class Mean & class Std Calculating Gaussian Conditional Probability Calculating Weight Data.py (Main Script) Calling all the methods of Lib.py Calculating all the posterior probability of each data Making WEKA readable ‘.arff’ file for analysis. To Calculate weight, we are picking up the first data (D1): P(J | D1) = P(A1 | J) * P(A2 | J) *. . . . * P(A16 | J) * P(Class=J) P(J | D1) = P(3 | J) * P(11 | J) *. . . . * P(6 | J) * 0.0423 The Gaussian distribution is the classic “bell-shaped curve” distribution. The mathematical function for computing the probability density of the Gaussian distribution at a particular point X is: Work in WEKA Calculation Machine learning is spreading worldwide Need Data for Learning Data sets are getting larger Day-by-Day Space shortage Time Consuming Test Dataset (20% data) #The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems "Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques" Calculation Conclusion Abstract Conditional Probability Calculation Gaussian Distributions Sorted Data according to Weight Training Dataset (80% data) Analysis in Python #Google #Wikipedia WEKA (Continues) Flow Chart (STD) WEKA: Flow Chart (Main) Methodology United International University Proposed Algorithm Flow Chart (Mean) # Deleting unimportant data from data set. # Performance is related with number of leaves of the tree. # Number of Leaves and Tree Size will be reduce. # Performance better for large Data Set compare to smaller Data Set. # Training time will be less as well as prediction time. # Saving storage #Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach By Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig. So, now what? Analysis Machine 1 CPU Intel i3 3.30 GHz (Core 2, Thread 4) RAM 4 GB A conditional probability is the probability that an event will occur, when another event is known to occur or to have occurred. Given two events A and B with P(B)>0, the conditional probability of A given B is defined as the quotient of the joint probability of A and B, and the probability of B: Our Proposal Aditi Biswas Kazi Mohammad Ehsan Hasnaeen Ferdous Bin Hashem #ASSIGNING WEIGHTS TO TRAINING INSTANCES INCREASES CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY Dr. Dewan Md. Farid1 and Prof. Dr. Chowdhury Mofizur Rahman2 We will consider: Data Deleted Percentage Number of Instances Number of Leaves Size of Tree Incorrectly Classified Percentage Thesis Supervisor: Dr. Chowdhury Mofizur Rahman Pro-Vice chancellor United International University P(J | D1) = P(3 | J) * P(11 | J) *. . . . * P(6 | J) * 0.0423 = 0.092366 * 0.02252 *. . .. * 0.0423 Weight = 1.60189274743e-17 Input: Total training Data set, % of delete info Output: Reduced Training Data set Randomize Total Data Separate the Data part from arff file Attribute <- Extract Attributes from Data Class <- Extract Class from Data classProbility <- Calculate the class probability classMean <- calculate the class mean according to class of each attributes for all data classStd <- calculate the class standard deviation according to class of each attributes for all data for all Data (i=0 to length of data) Initialize probability variable x 1 for all classes (j=0 to length of class) do if class = class of data for all attributes (k=0 to all attributes) do x=x *GuassianPF(attributes[k],classMean[j],classStd[j]) Gaussian Probability Calculations for each attributes of datawith attribute value class mean and class std End for Weight x * classProbability Write weight according to
Transcript: Education The Male Bias of Tuberculosis In India: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Problem Age 1. Stigmatization of TB in Women 2. Active Case-Finding 3. Scheduled Tribe Membership 4. High Gender Ratio Case Studies 5. Mortality Statistics 1. Solid Fuel Hypothesis Thank You! Female Era of Neglect and Complacency Methods Gaps in Knowledge About TB Applying the Scientific Method 1990 Interest Reignites 2. Tobacco Use Rejected Factors 1947 Future Research Total Age > 35 Desire for Discretion 2006 Cultural First TB Drugs Developed Results Scheduled Tribe Membership Biological Logistical and Linear Regression Categorically Sorted Dependent Variables Methodological Narrative Methodological Modern Era 1970 Male Male Bias of TB Biological Narrative Discretion 1989 Cultural Narrative Malnutrition Total Age > 35 Desire for Discretion
Transcript: The researchers sent letters of consent to the hospital administrators and chief nurses of each hospitals. Results In summary, the results of our survey solidify the essence of the Social Dominance theory, since the respondents agreed to the seven out of twelve discriminatory statements of our survey questionnaire. The Social Dominance Theory is being manifested by practicing “dominance” of some peoples’ higher societal hierarchy rank over those from below, to who is the subject of dominance in the aspect of intellectual or mental capacities. Our research paper dealt with a familiar and yet not so popular topic, to unmask the other “face or form” of discrimination, which is commonly overlooked, regarded as normal and sometimes a taken for granted form of discrimination happening in our society presently, this is dominating the mentally incapable by way of discriminating them. Methodology Ideas In summary, 7 out of the 12 discriminatory statements in the survey questionnaire shows that large percentage of the participants agreed to most of these discriminating statements. This shows that there is really stigma towards the mentally incapable from those people who work in the hospitals. These were the professionals who have constantly deal with them. The respondents agreed in the following statements 2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 with the following statements “Combating Stigmatization - A Survey on our labels of people with mental illness” Notes As early as 1949 studies revealed that people with mental disorders suffered from discrimination in the form of Stigma. Stigma is the negative evaluation of a person as tainted or discredited on the basis of attributes such as mental illness, ethnicity, drug misuse or physical disability (King et. al, 2007) The participants were instructed how to answer the questionnaire and were also encouraged to answer with utmost honesty. They were also informed that the survey questionnaire prepared will take only two minutes the least and five minutes the most to answer. this will serve as an eye-opener that will lead to communal realization to the public that the immediate judgments we give to these people who are suffering from mental illness is not something that should be taken as “usual” that in fact by doing so, we act like we are unaware of how we have discriminated them or stepped on their dignity as a person worthy of respect, that instead they deserved and needed love, understanding and patience from us and the rest of the society. Ideas Responses to 2nd Essay Question "what they will do when they encounter people with mental illness " they would treat the mentally incapable as normal people but they will probably put limitations and be cautious or vigilant in interacting with them. Few respondents even answered that to be scared to them is actually a normal initial reaction, but after assessment of what the mentally ill is capable of, they say that they can probably manage talking to them or even treat them as friends. Another respondent even said that he/she would probably refer them right away to counselling to help them recover fast. Discrimination, although an unfair behavior practice, exists in societies. It can range from gender inequality to racial stereotypes and unfair labor practices. It can even be against those who have emotional, mental and physical disturbances. Responses to 1st essay Question "how they see people with mental illness" Problem of the Study It is our very goal to promote Psychology more than just a Science, but is something beyond books. We believe that Psychology is more than just the study of the human mind and behavior, but most importantly to look after other peoples’ welfare most especially to the ones that are incapable to look after their own, the people suffering from mental illness. After the approval from the hospital administrators, the researchers started to conduct the survey. Some of the Chief nurses of the station asked to just leave the surveys since they were busy. Some respondents are open minded regarding the condition of the mentally-ill which were manifested when they said that they must be treated equally because they are normal people with special needs and that they need help and support from their families, friends, due to their impaired mental capabilities. Some also added that they are just victims who should be given immediate concern and exact treatment not just through medicines but in the society as well, that they are individuals with worth and dignity who needs love, patience and utmost understanding. The researchers conduct the survey in around eight (8) hospitals here in Cagayan de Oro city and with probably around three hundred (300) random adult participants working in hospitals or medical staff. mentally –ill as people who can be violent, unpredictable and have mood swings. They say that these behaviours are dangerous to people who have close contact to them, most especially to children, these judgments
Transcript: "ACQUIRING SELECTED JOURNALISM SKILLS AS PERCEIVED BY SELECTED AB JOURNALISM STUDENTS" ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK Analytical Paradigm Television – Professors Mediated Fashion - teaching strategies Media Content/Messages - Journalistic skills that are being taught Influence on the Audience - the skills learned by the students 100 students randomly selected as the respondents 25 students – first year 25 students – second year 25 students – third year 25 students – fourth year DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE Statement of the Problem P= [F/X] x 100 The data will be accumulated; the researchers will tally the respondents according to their age, sex and year level. It will be presented through tables and will be interpreted. Their response to the questions will be then added. Using the formula for finding the mean, the researchers will compute the scores of the respondents. suggests that television (and other media) plays an extremely important role in how people view their world modern Culture most people get much of their information in a mediated fashion rather than through direct experience 1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents? a. Age b. Gender c. Year Level d. Number of Major Subjects SOURCES OF DATA This study is a descriptive content analysis on the Journalism skills development of the journalism students of Bicol University. 2. What are the activities provided by the Journalism Professors to develop the Journalistic skills of the respondents? a. Writing Articles b. Beat Assignments c. Covering Press Conferences d. Conducting Interviews e. Production of Newsletter, Magazines and Documentary Films An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the College of Arts and Letters BICOL UNIVERSITY THANK YOU VERY MUCH! TREATEMENT OF DATA Questionnaires 4. What are the implications of these Journalistic skills to the respondents as they practice on the field of Journalism in the future? "Culture Analysis Theory" METHODOLOGY Frequency Distribution. This will be used in counting the responses. Percentage. This will be used in the computation of the percentage to the frequency count using this formula: where: P = percentage F = no. of response X = total no. of respondents STATISCAL TREATMENT OF DATA Jefferson G. Geva Christine D. Latona Ma. Abbygale V. Ombao Jeuela Joey L. Quiñones In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts in Journalism 3. What are the Journalistic skills that are developed by the respondents? a. Critical Thinking b. Quick Time Composition Capability c. Deadline Beating Capability d. Following Ethical Procedures e. Computer Literate in Lay-out and Design
Transcript: Thesis Presentation THE TELEVISION PRIMETIME SHOWS OF ABS-CBN, GMA AND TV5: A STUDY OF THE DIFFERENCE ON PROGRAMMING By: Rhoel Carreno Donitha Rose Encabo Jienah Guibao Felvie Oracion Rationale Theoretical Background Agenda Setting Theory by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw Theoretical Conceptual Framework Problem Statement This study aims to find out the programming of television primetime show of the three national television networks such as ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5. More specifically, this seeks to answer the ff: 1. The profile of the shows of the three national television networks in terms of time Slots and program title ,program genre, program audience and program ratings. 2. The Programming strategies of television primetime shows of the three national TV network based on the study of head-to-head, counter, strip, checkerboard and block. 3. The Television Programming Policies; general audience (GA), parental guidance (PG). 4. To reveal the program strategies and policies being used by ABS-CBN, GMA, and TV 5, including the Title, Time Slots, Genre, Target Audience, and Ratings of each primetime show. Therefore, the researchers conclude that the theory of Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw “The Agenda-Setting Theory” which stated that through their day-by-day selection and display of the news, editors and news directors focus our attention and influence our perceptions of what are the most important issues of the day. This implies that the viewers have the choice and option to choose what network they would like to watch in their daily viewing of TV. Conclusion Methodology 1. The output of the study came up with a website entitled” The difference on Programming of the three Networks” this will serve as a primary source in looking into the differences of the programming of the three television networks. 2. Viewers. Be a responsible viewers and audience on watching the evening primetime shows. Don’t get easily affected and be influenced with the shows that are being shown in the TV. Be wise enough to choose on to when and what to be watched. 3. Media. As the society watchdogs, they should be responsible of using media wisely on spreading information through the medium. Create a more modern idea and strategies to make difference. Producers, film-makers, directors and members of the production of primetime shows should plan carefully the themes, the concepts, and the messages to make life informative, modern but the value is there and at the same time fun. 4. Advertisers. Companies and Advertising firms should choose an appropriate and accurate primetime shows to where they would want to sponsor or placed their advertisements to a certain show. 5. Mass Communication students. As future media personalities, they should have the right and exact knowledge about the study to serve as their guide to be more creative but a wise media icon in the future. 6. Schools offering Mass Communication. As the venue for knowledge and excellence, they should need to be more updated in the new idea and techniques for a better education that will be given to their students. Do more research; publish new books that can be a new help; a new way to excel in the field of Media Communication. Omit the unused and produce a modern and unique idea to apply. 7. Researchers should continue the research and do impoundment studies to discover more difference of the programming of the evening primetime shows of Television of the three networks. Discover new theory that can be useful and a helped as new revenue of knowledge in the next generation. 8. Furthermore. The following topics are strongly recommended to the future researchers as their future references in their studies: 8.1. Why ABS-CBN, GMA and TV5 can attract the viewers with their evening Television primetime shows? 8.2. Ways on attracting sponsorships and advertisements in the evening primetime television shows of the three networks. 8.3. Television Evening primetime shows’ commercial invasions. 8.4. Religious Drama is the Best Genre on television primetime shows. 8.5. Story line techniques to attract viewers of the television Primetime shows. Difference in programming of the evening prime time shows. This study used the Qualitative Content Analysis. The researchers used ABS-CBN, GMA7, and TV5 as their sources of data. They analyzed the items through the given guidelines. Findings Probably the highest stakes “game” in the world is television programming. It is programming that brings viewers to the station. If the number of viewers is large, and if they possess the characteristics sought by advertisers, the station will attract advertising dollars. Ergo, the researchers come up an idea to study about the programming of the three big national networks here on Philippines which are ABS-CBN, GMA7, and TV5. Furthermore, this study tackles the profile of the three networks, the difference on programming strategies and the television classification of evening primetime shows based on
Transcript: Year 4 Thesis - Daniel Buhendwa Unilateral humanitarian intervention Introduction Legal Issue Purpose of this thesis is to discuss and determine if the principle of unilateral humanitarian intervention would benefit by having its own codified, strict normative regime? What is IT ? What is Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention? “an action to prevent a foreign state from denying fundamental rights and persecuting its own citizens in a way which "shock[s] the conscience of mankind. OR “the proportionate transboundary help, including forcible help, provided by governments to individuals in another state who are being denied basic human rights and who themselves would be rationally willing to revolt against their oppressive government." Hugo Grotius First use - 1829, “when France, Britain, and Russia militarily enforced the Treaty of London, established in 1827, in order to prevent massive bloodshed in Greece, which was under Ottoman empires rule 3 Essential characteristics It is a military intervention. An intervention in response motivated by the preservation of human life and has purely humanitarian objectives. The act of intervening entails interfering in a state’s internal affairs. The U.N. Charter's Effect on Humanitarian Intervention The UN charter in article 2 (4) "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations." - Purpose and Principle UN Charter article 51 The politinature of the UN Security Council - selective and opportunistic approach. The U.N. Charter's Effect on Humanitarian Intervention How has IT been applied by states ? How has IT been applied by states ? Contemporary Humanitarian Intervention Globalization Principle of Sovereignty - Sovereignty in today’s world signifies “simultaneously a right to act and a power to act” NATO - What is it good for ? Yugoslavia (1999) / Libya (2011) / Iraq (2014) / Syria (2016) Responsibility to Protect (R2P) What will a strict codified normative regime mean for IT ? Advantages Obstacles What will a strict codified normative regime mean for IT ? There are other means of achieving the same ends without the need of a codified normative regime. Obstacles in codifying a norm of unilateral humanitarian intervention Obstacles in codifying a norm of unilateral humanitari... Increasing accountability - less costly than military intervention. Reinforcing the United Nations' role in the conduct of humanitarian intervention. Consensus on the content of such a doctrine Increasing accountability - less costly than milita... A codified normative regime would “provide a solid frame of reference by clarifying what is to be condemned and why, thus defining, limiting and ultimately reducing the possibly of abusive intervention. Arguments in support of a codified normative regime Arguments in support of a codified normative regime The effect it will have on the deterrence of abusive interventions. Contributes to conflict prevention - would create incentives to contain internal conflicts. The mere existence of a codified regime would enhance the legitimacy of international law. Deterrence, Incentive and legitimacy Deterrence, Incentive and legitimacy Insuring that the standards are applied coherently and to all parties equally or there will be a risk of problems arising if the standards cease to be connected to principles of general applicability. How would IT be implemented ? How would IT be implemented ? It would have to be embodied in a Security Council or General Assembly resolution. A rule-oriented approach - The method of the intervention must be reasonably calculated by the newly established organ to end the humanitarian catastrophe as rapidly as possible. Exception rather than norm Focus is reconstruction and stabilization commitment - as well as criminal prosecution is needed Altruistic intervention Altruistic intervention Q&A Q A & Thank you for your attention .
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