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steganography

Transcript: steganography Algorithms and Transformation Some Techniques of Steganography LSB ( Least Significant Bit ) is referred to as the rightmost bit . Writing numbers less significant due more to the right . For example at 00011001 bytes , then it is a bit LSB - byte located on the far right is 1 . steganography method in this way is very useful if used on a computer steganography way because many digital file format that can be used as a medium to hide the message . Commonly used formats include: • Format image: bitmap ( bmp ) , GIF , PCX , JPEG , etc . • Audio formats : wav , voc , mp3 , etc . • Other formats : text files , html , pdf , etc . What is steganography ??? Steganographic techniques include a lot of communication methods to hide secret messages (text or images) in files that contain text, image, audio and even without showing the characteristics of a real or visible change in the quality and structure of the original file. This method includes ink does not appear, microdots, arrangement of words, digital signatures, hidden lines and a wide spectrum of communication. The purpose of steganography is conceal or hide the existence of a hidden message or piece of information . In practice , most of the message is hidden by making subtle changes to other digital data that it would not attract the attention of potential attackers , as an example of an image that looks harmless . These changes depend on the key ( the same in cryptography ) and messages to be hidden . The person who receives the image can then deduce information disguised by replacing the correct key into the algorithm used . Steganography advantages when compared with cryptography is the messages do not attract the attention of others . The messages coded in cryptography that is not hidden , though not resolved , will cause suspicion . Often , steganography and cryptography used simultaneously to ensure the safety of the secret message . by gruph 8 1. Endang Setiowati 2. Fatimah 3. Isvi Sari Lestari 4. Jamilah Compression algorithm is a method of steganography to hide data in a mathematical function. The purpose of steganography The Methode Of Steganography Redundant Pattern Encoding is drawing a small message on most images. Advantages of this method is that it can survive the cropping (failure). Least Significant Bit Insertion (LSB) Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no-one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hidden message, a form of security through obscurity. Steganography advantages Generally, a steganographic message will appear to be something else: a picture, an article, a shopping list, or some other message. This apparent message is the covertext. For instance, a message may be hidden by using invisible ink between the visible lines of innocuous documents. Spread Spectrum steganography Spread Spectrum steganography scattered as a message encrypted (encrypted) through image (unlike in LSB). To read a message, the recipient requires that crypto-key algorithm and stego-key. This method is still vulnerable, namely the destruction or the destruction of the compression and the image (picture). The word " steganography " is derived from the Greek Steganos , which means " Hidden OR veiled ", and graphein , " writing " . History Of Steganography There are four types of methods Steganography , namely : Least Significant Bit Insertion (LSB) Redundant Pattern Encoding

Steganography

Transcript: *crptography : It is to encrypt the data to become unreadable expet the person who has the encrption key to decrypt it. *steganography : It is a technique to hide data within a media(vedio,audio,image,text),so the connection or exchanging the data is hidden .No one can see thier data. The features of Steganographic Techniques It is the capacity of the shrouded message to stay whole regardless of whether the stego-media experiences change, honing, straight and non-direct separating, scaling and obscuring, trimming and diverse different strategies. What is the advantage of steganography over cryptography? https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ Areas in which data is hidden: 1. Infrared 2. Colored glasses that filter all the wavelengths of the shaft to make hidden messages visible. 3. Callback. 4. DNA message. When others think about Security of Information the first thing that will come to their mind is "Hacking", but there are several fields of study security and one of them is called "Steganography", an branch of encryption and "data hiding". it is a very old art in which information is hidden, and no one can know it other than the sender and receiver which allows one party to communicate with another party without the third party being aware that communication is happening Steganography Perceptual Transparency https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/stenganography/steganography-past-present-future-552 Definition This feature is interested in the size of the data that we can hide within the cover file. The small cover can hide more capacity to reduce the bandwidth needed to transfer the stego–media. Index The word "steganography" can separate in two parts: stegano + graphy. "Stegano" comes from the Greek word "steganos" meaning "covered" and "graphy" which comes from the Greek word "graphein" meaning "writing:" . So, steganography literally means "covered writing". This diagram shows two-pixel images in two colours and binary values. for Each block of binary represents the value of the corresponding pixel. https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ Finally, any app for steganography should make sure that the mentioned features are fulfilled, which means they must make sure of better Hiding Capacity,Perceptual limpidity ,validity and Tamper–resistance so the integrity of the source work will be maintained. Tamper–resistance Conclusion The difference between Steganography and cryptography In cryptography : the message will be changed to another message which is unredable.Without hididng the connection . Otherwise in steganography no one will know that there was a connection happend between two parties. https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ There are many features of steganography techniques : *Hiding Capacity *Perceptual limpidity *validity *Tamper–resistance apps that use for steganography It is used in a lot of useful applications such as *enhanced smart cards. *As well as in networks in TCP/IP packets . The most popular of these programs: Jsteg ,JPHide and Outguess. https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&ved=&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.lynda.com%2FIT-Infrastructure-tutorials%2FSteganography-methods%2F476620%2F511454-4.html&psig=AOvVaw2tSnd9noN7f38qtYxhCARS&ust=1549639938769586 It is a critical component. Each spread media has beyond any doubt data concealing limit. On the off chance that there are more data or information is covered up inside the spread, at that point the outcome will be in debasement of the cover– media. Thus, the stego– media and cover– media will seem, by all accounts, to be divergent. In the event that the assailant sees this mutilation, at that point our steganography method fizzles and there is the likelihood that our unique message can be removed or harmed by the aggressor. https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ Of the considerable number of highlights, this component is imperative. This is on the grounds that, on the off chance that the assailant is fruitful in wrecking the steganographic procedure, at that point the alter opposition property makes it hard for the aggressor or privateers to change or harm the first information. https://www.trustwave.com/en-us/resources/blogs/spiderlabs-blog/steganography-what-is-that/ 1. Introduction. 2.Definition. 3.Features of Steganographic Techniques. 4.How to hide Info inside an Audio or Image! 5.The difference between Steganography and cryptography. 6.The advantage of steganography over cryptography. 7. apps that use for steganography. 8. Where we can use it? 9.conclusion. Done by : * Riham Ahmed Al-Harthi-36J179598 * Salima Sarhan AlMughairy

Steganography

Transcript: TEXT According to webster dictionary, steganography is the practice of concealing messages within other nonsecret text or data. People use steganography to put messages into pictures, text and even audio to communicate secret messages to other people. All sorts of people use this technique for good and bad reasons. Audio steganography is very similar to the LSB method in images. By changing the LSB of several bits in an audio file, little changes occur in the sound. This includes changing the binary numbers which slightly changes the .wav file. Humans cant tell the difference because of how small the change is. What is Steganography? What is it used for today? The different techniques to use Steganography An example of hiding a code within a text would be writing a paragraph of words and isolating every tenth word to be in your message. WORK CITED Steganography actually comes from the greek word meaning covered writing. This technique started in Greece and ancient Romans would used wax covered tablets to send secret messages for military purposes. Steganography is used for many good reasons and very bad reasons as well. Some good ways that steganography is used is by trying to protect data from theft. It is also used for one-way hash functions which is usually for security or management purposes. AUDIO Bad Reasons to use Steganography If a terrorist was trying to hide a secret message into a picture they would have to embed this code into the picture themselves. Typically they would do this through some type of steganography software. The whole point of using this technique is to hide the message they are trying to send and to not draw attention to the picture. Say the terrorists use an Least Significant Bit Encoding method. This is where they would encode the message in the least significant bit of every in the image. The pixel is changed a little bit but no enough to change the picture. The image looks identical to our eyes. A 24 bit image would look very suspicious sense it would be so large but to make it look normal they would have to use a 256 color image where i byte is used for each pixel. Steganography is used by all sorts of people. It can be used by computer programers, terrorist, military, or even criminals. Computer programers may be trying to make some type of security on their computer. Terrorists could be sending out a secret attack against someone. The military could be sending orders on an attack. Criminals could be hiding evidence or could be sending messages to law enforcement. Steganography is used in all different ways Westphal, Kristy."Steganography Revealed."Endpoint,Cloud,Mobile and Virtual Security solutions.N.P., 2 Nov.2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2013 "Cryptology I Audio File Steganography." Think Quest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. "What is Steganography." What is Steganography. N.P., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. Who uses Steganography? People can use it to steal data by concealing it in another file and sending it out in an email or file transfer It can also be used for Terrorist purposes for communication. Also criminals trying to hide evidence can use this technique. Steganography By: Ivette, Valerie, Alexandra, and Brittom Steganography has changed over many years. Going from wax tablets to computers is a huge advancement for this strategy and coding has become something more common in our generation. Learning Steganography can be something fun but it can also be something that people have to take very seriously. The Hisotry of Steganography

Steganography

Transcript: Pair Programming Client Communication The Art and Science of hiding Information Fast & Light Release Testing - ClusterLabs. 2014. Release Testing - ClusterLabs. [ONLINE] Available at: http://clusterlabs.org/wiki/Release_Testing. [Accessed 26 May 2014]. Methodology User can hide and retrieve the information by using single application Least Significant Bit 2 Technique in which programmers work together in a pair on a single workstation. Mailing Complexity level Protection Level Fully utilised the Agile Development Approach in the entire development life cycle. Weight of application The first recorded use of the term was in 1499 Testing Advance as compared to LSB-1 Plays a crucial role. Multiple File format Designed to develop application Least Significant Bit-2 Algorithm Agile Methodology Hiding & retrieving within same app. User can send secret key through mobile SMS. This makes unauthorized intrusion near to impossible.......... Release Testing: Each release undergoes a series of automated and manual testing to ensure the quality of the finished product. Conducted Surveys to know about what users think about this application and found expected result. Simple/ Advance Technique Least Significant Bit-2 (LSB2) algorithm Approximately all major image formats .DOC .PDF Written text on clipboard Simple Technique Stegi image produced without key Hiding Process Working of the Application Steganography Application Conclusion Approach Message Retreiving References Hiding info. in plane sight ( Popular Exp: Microdots) Integrated Development Environment What Is Steganography? Steganography Test Cases: Test cases are made to test the working of the application and to check whether application follow the expected flow or not. Eclipse Presenters- Innovation Group Unit Coordinator- Mr. Sami Azam Project Client- Mr. Charles Yeo Sommerville, I. 2011, Software engineering, Pearson, Boston. Single & Two level security Multilevel Hiding Strategy Our team has sucessfully acheived the objective of reliable Steganography i.e. to hiding/retreiving multiple file formats within an image. A common application is to insert hidden message within a cover image We are looking forward to encrypt audio and video files the coming future and also we will consider the advance algorithm like "F5". Support for multiple formats According to the need and confidentiality of the secret message, user can choose simple or advance steganography techniques.......... Algorithm Features Of Application It is an iterative and incremental approach in which requirements and solutions are evolved by thorough collaboration between self organizing and self functioning teams. Robust and shows higher level of immunity to Noise, Filter and compression and etc. Application performs steganography process and network operations within few seconds....... In this method ,the least significant bit of some or all of the bytes of “Byte Representation” of carrier image is replaced with a bits of the secret message. Algorithm Methodologies & Technologies Regular communication with Cilent helped us to fully understand the functional and non-functional requirements of the application. About The Application Two process 1. Hiding Process 2. Message Retreiving SMS Feature Advance Technique For successful project regular communication should be maintained and continues feedback should be absorbed Stego image produced with key Steganography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2014. Steganography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steganography. [Accessed 26 May 2014]. Banerjee, S. (2014). Steganography. Steganography and Digital Watermarking, 1(1), p.1. Comparison with Other Apps Mostly written in java, but can be customised to support multiple languages by installing plug-in. User can choose from wide range of file formats............ Application can automatically send the secret file to the friend through Email.....

Steganography

Transcript: // Digital steganography is a powerful method to hide data within data General terms General terms Before delving any deeper to the subject i'd like to explain what steganography means Steganograpgy Steganograpgy Steganograpgy is a practice of consealing a messege, video or file within another file, messege or video. Modern steganography used in computers and other digital devices is called Digital Steganography. Word steganography comes from Greek words steganos and graphein, meaning "covered writing" in English [1]. Digital steganography works by replacing the least significant bits of the original file with the data you want to hide. Image example Image example Hiding a picture of a cat inside a picture of a walrus [2] = Original and hidden walrus Original and recovered cat Text example Text example Hiding litle over 31k letters within walrus [3][4] -> Original and hidden walrus Steganography Steganography Anything within anything There is many different techniques for digital steganography, but the most common way to hide data using steganography is to exploit the lenient constraints of popular file formats. For example: Images (JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP) Videos (MP4, AVI) Sound (MP3, WAV) Programs (EXE) Documents (PDF, DOCX, TXT) Meaning that you can hide data very easily within file types everyone uses, with little (if any) loss of quality. [5, 6] In digital steganography you can hide anything within anything Hide from third party Using popular file types as a medium to hide data helps the user stay hidden. Steganography is hard if impossible to detect (depending from amount of hidden data) With least significant bit method the max amount of data you can hide is 30% of the original files size (without encryption) Undetectable with bare eye. Requires a lot of computing power to check if image contains additional data. Science of detecting hidden information is called steganalysis. [5, 6, 7] Hide from third party Modern usage Digital steganographys usage has grown exponentially during the 21 century. Now we are going to take a look at examples of legal and non-legal usage steganography. Modern usage Legal Legal Communication, "There are many countries in the word where political dissent is neither tolerated nor legal. Any dissident organization must therefore exercise extreme caution when communicating among each other or with international organizations such as Amnesty International." [8] Digital fingerprint, a next generation copyright. Instead using normal visible watermark in your artwork you could hide your name, email and internet address within the artwork. [8] EURion A pattern of circles incorporated into over 50 countries banknotes since 1996. Added to banknotes to help softwares to detect the precence of banknotes. Adobe PhotoShop, other image edition software and photocopiers detects the pattern and will not open/copy them. https://youtu.be/ylaRpE_ktfg?t=30 https://youtu.be/1c-jBfZPVv4?t=98 Discovered in 2002 [9,10, 14] EURion (CDS) Printer steganography A pattern of small yellow dots across printed pages Used by all major manufacturers Not visible to bare eye. Requires a powerful blue light (and depeding from printer a microscope) to be seen The pattern is used to trace the printed paper to the original printer Xerox (a major manufacturer) previously admitted that it provided these tracking dots to the government, but indicated that only the US Secret Service had the ability to read the code. Legal? [9, 11, 12] Printer steganography Non-Legal Non-Legal “al-Qaeda operatives have sent hundreds of encrypted messages that have been hidden in files on digital photographs on the auction site eBay.com.” [1] “US officials say that azzam.com contains encrypted messages in its pictures and texts – a practice known as steganography. They say the hidden messages contain instructions for al-Qaeda’s next terrorist attacks.” [1] A comprehensive steganography guide from terrorist groups "Ansar al-Jihad" mailing list from 2007 [13] Conclusion Conclusion I hope you have managed to learn something new from steganography. I know this was really fast and had way too many new terms, but i hope i managed raise some awareness and maybe even some interest about the subject. Sources Sources [1] Maura Conway (2003) ‘Code Wars: Steganography, Signals Intelligence, and Terrorism.’ - http://doras.dcu.ie/494/1/know_tech_pol_16_2_2003.pdf [2] https://incoherency.co.uk/image-steganography/ [3] https://manytools.org/hacker-tools/steganography-encode-text-into-image/ [4] https://pastebin.com/LkisKzum [5] Kefa Rabah (2004) Steganography-The Art of Hiding Data. Information Technology Journal, 3: 245-269. https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=itj.2004.245.269 [6] Donovan Artz ( may 2001), Digital Steganography: Hiding Data within Data http://gicl.cs.drexel.edu/images/7/73/IEEE-IC-Artz.pdf Sources 2 [7] Pierre Richer (2003), Steganalysis: Detecting hidden information with computer forensic analysis Sources 3 [13] Rebeffa Givner-Forbes

Steganography

Transcript: STEGANOGRAPHY Sulaymaniyah Polytechnic University Technical College of informatics The art of hiding data “Steganography” Introduction Prepared by Dana A. Salh MSc Student IN THE PRESENTATION What is Steganography? History of Steganography Types of Steganography Evolution Steganography tools Comparison of Secret Communication Technique. Applications Advantage and disadvantage Conclusion References Outline Define What is Steganography? Steganography is the technique of hiding secret data within an ordinary. Steganography is a method of hiding secret data, by embedding it into an audio, video, image or text file. The word Steganography is derived from two Greek words- ‘stegos’ meaning ‘to cover’ and ‘grayphia’, meaning ‘writing’, thus translating to ‘covered writing’, or ‘hidden writing’. History History The first description of the use of steganography dates back to the Greeks. The first recorded uses of steganography can be traced back to 440 BC when Herodotus mentions two examples of steganography in The Histories of Herodotus. Text was written on tablets covered with wax Slaves were shaved and tattooed Types Steganography in Digital Mediums Depending on the nature of the cover object(actual object in which secret data is embedded), steganography can be divided into five types: Text Steganography Image Steganography Video Steganography Audio Steganography Network Steganography Work How to Steganography Work Steganography replaces unneeded or unused bits in regular computer files (Graphics, sound, text) with bits of different and invisible information. Hidden information can be any other regular computer file or encrypted data. Text Steganography Types Text Steganography Text Steganography is hiding information inside the text files. One way is by simple adding white space and tabs to the ends of the lines of the document . Another possible way of storing a secret inside a combination of a page number, a line number and a character number. Setting background color and font color is one of the mainly used staganographic approach. This method is focused for Microsoft word documents. Image Steganography Types Image Steganography Digital images are the most widely used cover objects for steganography In digital steganography, images are widely used cover source because there are a huge number of bits present in the digital representation of an image. These are digital images for use with Steganography, 8-bit and 24-bit per pixel image files are typical. 8-bit images are a great format to use because of their relatively small size. 24-bit images offer much more flexibility when used for Steganography, it very hard to detect once a secret message Audio Steganography Types Audio Steganography Implanting secrete message into an audio is the most challenging technique in Steganography. This is because the human auditory system (HAS) has such a vibrant range that it can listen over. The only weakness in the (HAS) comes at trying to differentiate sounds (loud sounds drown out quiet sounds) In audio steganography, the secret message is embedded into an audio signal which alters the binary sequence of the corresponding audio file. Video Steganography Types Video Steganography In Video Steganography you can hide kind of data into digital video format. The advantage of this type is a large amount of data can be hidden inside and the fact that it is a moving stream of images and sounds. Two main classes of Video Steganography include: Embedding data in uncompressed raw video and compressing it later Embedding data directly into the compressed data stream Network Steganography Types Network Steganography It is the technique of embedding information within network control protocols used in data transmission such TCP, UDP, ICMP etc. You can use steganography in some covert channels that you can find in the OSI model. For Example, you can hide information in the header of a TCP/IP packet in some fields that are either optional. Evolution Evolution tools Steganography Tools These are the steganography tools which are available for free: Stegosuite is a free steganography tool which is written in Java. With Stegosuite you can easily hide confidential information in image files. Steghide is an open source Steganography software that lets you hide a secret file in image or audio file. tools Steganography Tools… Xiao Steganography is a free software that can be used to hide data in BMP images or in WAV files. SSuite Picsel is another free portable application to hide text inside an image file but it takes a different approach when compared to other tools. Image Steganography tool is another free tool to perform robust Steganography using images. Compare Steganography V/s Cryptography Model Basic Steganography Model Terms Steganography Terms Carrier or Cover File - A Original message or a file in which hidden information will be stored inside of it . Stego-Medium - The medium in which the information is hidden. Embedded or Payload -

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