Transcript: Space shuttles take/took astronauts into space, to complete missions. It carries astronauts and cargo to and from Earth. It carries about seven astronauts at a time. A rocket-launched spacecraft, able to land like an aircaft used to make repeated journeys between earth and earth orbit. Space Shuttles What is it used for spaceflight.nasa.gov Mission! The Apollo Program began before the first American was launched in to space. Many people feel that the Apollo program stands as man kind greatest technological achievement. They focused on Lunar Landing. Benefits Sources What is a Space Shuttles
Transcript: Parts of a Space Shuttle it had an orbiter that housed the astronauts in space so they could live in the airless place it had an external tank that housed fuel for the main engine it was the first spacecraft able to be reused after returning from space it can glide for a long time which is great for landing Remembered Shuttles The Challenger is the most remembered shuttles along with the Columbia.These two were destroyed and all crew members died.The challenger was going to send the first teacher to space.Since the accident there are multiple challenger learning center all over the country.These were built because we want to go farther than the boundaries. The space shuttle was invented by N.A.S.A to broaden human achievement and space research that was needed to help Americans study space closely and safely. It was started by the spacecraft STS-1. It also was to compete with the Soviet Union in the Space Race since the Soviets were first in getting humans into space.Finnaly it was used for getting astronauts to and from space Space Shuttle's History in the solid rocket boosters nose cap four booster separation motors frustum forward skirt solid rocket motor forward segment, forward center segment, and aft center segment external tank attach ring four booster separation motors solid rocket motor aft skirt nozzle extension in the external tank liquid oxygen tank inter tank lox feed line bellows bipod assembly liquid hydrogen tank in the orbiter crew cabin payload bay doors orbital maneuver system pod main engines Reasons to be invented Space Shuttles
Transcript: -usually 121 feet long -wingspan is 78 feet -tail height is 57 feet -made of mainly aluminum the size of a DC-9 Commercial Trailer -carry a payload of 65,000 pounds -payload bay is 60 feet long and 15 feet in diameter -the weight varies from 200,000 pounds-230,000 pounds when landed -designed for 100 space missions -forward fuselage where the cockpit is, crew cabin and work area is. -mid fuselage has the playload bay, the wing and -main landing gear attach points -aft fuselage holds the main engines, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the reaction control system pods (RCS), the wing aft spar, and the attach point for a vertical tail Main Engines External Tank Successful landing How does a space shuttle fly? -largest solid propellant motors -first to be used on a manned spacecraft -each made of 11 individual weldfree steel segments -joined by high-strength steel pins -each assembled motor is 116 feetlong, 12 feet in diameter -contains more then 1 million pounds of solid propellant -propellant burns at 5,5800 degrees Farenheit -generates liftoff thrust of 2.65million pounds -exhaust nozzels gimbaledto provide yaw,pitch and roll -solid propellant made of atomized aluminum powder (fuel), ammonium perchlorate (oxidizer), iron oxide power (catalyst), binder and curing agent -burn to achieve orbital altitude -after two minutes of flight, altitude of about 24 miles -casings separate from external tank -descend by parachute into Atlantic Ocean, recovered by ship, returned to land, and refurbished for reuse Getting to Earths Orbit Components of a space shuttle Lift Off -count down automatically controlled by Ground Launch Sequencer -16 seconds sound suppression system drenches Mobile Launcher Platform and SRB trenches with 300,000 gallons of water to protect orbiter -10 seconds,hydrogen igniters activated under each engine bell to quell stagnant gas inside cones before ignition; if not burned these gases could trip onboard sensors and create a possibility of an overpressure and explosion of vehicle during the firing phase -main engine turbopumps also began charging combustion chambers with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen the computers reciprocated action by allowing the redundant computer systems to begin the firing phase -main engines ignited sequentially Space Shuttles -liftoff -SRB separation/splashdown -main engine cutoff -ET separation -orbit insertion -on-orbit operations -deorbit -re-entry -landing -154 feet long -28.6 feet diameter -constructed primarily aluminum alloys -empty weight of tank 78,100 pounds -each has gross weight of 1,667,677 pounds -contains nearly 1.6 million pounds (143,060 gallons) of liquid oxygen -more then 226,000 pounds (526,126) liquid oxygen -only major part of space shuttle not reused after flight -has to fit weather criteria; precipitation, temperatures, cloud cover lightning, wind and humidity -not launched if conditions where could be struck by lightning -orbiter must be maneuvered into the proper position Crew Must -Close the cargo bay doors have been flying nose-first and upside down they then fire RCS thrusters to turn orbiter tail first -Once orbiter is tail first crew fires the OMS engines to slow orbiter down and fall back to Earth; will take about 25 minutes before the shuttle reaches upper atmosphere -During 25 minutes crew fires RCS thrusters to pitch orbiter over so that bottom of orbiter faces the atmosphere (about 40 degrees) moving nose first again -burn leftover fuel from the forward RCS as safety precaution because area encounters the highest heat of re-entry. Solid Rocket Boosters -main engines are operated by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen -each engine produces a sea level thrust of 375,000 pounds, and a vacuum thrust of 470,000 pounds -can pass over the thrust range by 65-109% -allows the high power during lift off and initial ascent -gives a power reduction during a final ascent to keep acceleration of orbit to three earth gravities -engines movable to control pitch,yaw and roll -operating time on normal engine for each flight about 8.5 minutes -each designed for 7.5 minutes operating Orbiter Preparation for lift off
Transcript: The space shuttle Endeavor is on display at the California Science Center. California helps build the space shuttle and a lot of aircraft for Nasa. What I Know about Space Shuttles... There are five space shuttles Columbia,Challenger,Endeavor,Atlantis,and Discovery. Each space shuttle costed over 196 billon. Adminastration By: Nollan Lizardo Thank you! NASA Aeronautics Space National Rockwell Internatinal in Palmdale,
Transcript: Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster How dangerous are space shuttles? How long does it take for a space shuttle to lift off and be in space? THANK YOU FOR WATCHING MY AWESOME PREZI!!! p.s: MR. ALI CAN YOU PLEASE GIVE ME AN A++++++++++++ Sally Ride was the first American in space. Sally Kristen Ride (May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012) was an American physicist and astronaut. Born in Los Angeles, she joined NASA in 1978 and became the first American woman in space in 1983. She remains the youngest American astronaut to have traveled to space, having done so at the age of 32. After flying twice on the Orbiter Challenger, she left NASA in 1987. She worked for two years at Stanford University's Center for International Security and Arms Control, then at the University of California, San Diego as a professor of physics, primarily researching nonlinear optics and Thomson scattering. She served on the committees that investigated the Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters, the only person to participate on both. Ride died of pancreatic cancer on July 23, 2012 (aged 61). The solid-rocket boosters used on spacecraft like the Space Shuttle are examples of rockets. Unlike airplane jet engines, which take in air as they fly through the sky, space rockets have to carry their own oxygen supplies (oxidizers) with them because there is no air in space and with no air they couldn’t possibly get to space and fly in space. It takes a space shuttle approximately 8 – 9 minutes to get to orbit and if you think about it, that is pretty quick for a space shuttle launch. Once it gets up in the air and out into space there is no return for at least another 24 hrs (1 day). For a successful return to earth return to earth/landing the space shuttle a lot of things have to go right. First the orbiter must be maneuverer in the right positon, this is crucial for a safe landing. When a mission is finished and the shuttle is halfway around the world from the landing site (Kennedy Space Centre, Edwards Air Force Base Florida), mission control gives the command to come home, which prompts the crew to close the cargo bay doors and all doors in general. When the orbiter is tail first, the crew fires the OMS engines to slow the orbiter down and fall back to Earth; it will take about 25 minutes before the shuttle reaches the upper atmosphere. Space Shuttles By James Barker The evolution of the rocket has made it an indispensable tool in the exploration of space. There are some dangers though. On January 28, 1986, the challenger space shuttle had its fatal explosion. The mission’s launch from Kennedy Space Centre at Cape Canaveral, Florida, was delayed for six days due to weather and technical problems. The morning of January 28 was unusually cold, and engineers warned their superiors those certain components, particularly the rubber O-rings that sealed the joints of the shuttle’s solid rocket boosters were vulnerable to failure at low temperatures. However, these warnings went unheeded, and at 11:39 a.m. Challenger lifted off. Seventy-three seconds later, hundreds on the ground, including the families of McAuliffe and the other astronauts on board, stared in disbelief as the shuttle exploded in a forking plume of smoke and fire. Millions more watched the wrenching tragedy unfold on live television. Within instants, the spacecraft broke apart and plunged into the ocean, killing its entire crew, traumatizing the nation and throwing NASA’s shuttle program into the dumps. Who Was the First American Woman in Space? How does a Space Shuttle Come Back to Earth? One of the most dangerous places for an astronaut is the launch and re-entry of their rocket. A lot of rocket fuel for reaction mass and energy is required to attain even a low Earth orbit. The spacecraft needs to get up to least 7 miles per second or 25 000 miles per hour, which is a very scary and dangerous speed. Proof of such a thing is the Challenger disaster of 1986 when a Space Shuttle blew apart 73 seconds into its launch costing the lives of all seven members of its crew. Space shuttles were the most fatal space orbiter ever built How does a space shuttle work?
Transcript: What is a space shuttle? BACKGROUND ON SPACE EXPLORATION AND THE INTRODUCTION OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE THE SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM As you can see, the making of space shuttles was a prominent part of history... My trip to visit space shuttle Endeavour Space Shuttles By Shannon Zheng Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_Maximum_Mission 1969- Neil Armstrong and Apollo 11 land on the moon official end of the Space Race Columbia Courtesy of: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg PARTS OF A SPACE SHUTTLE Endeavour WHAT IS LIFE LIKE INSIDE A SPACE SHUTTLE? Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-107 Tail and rudder enables stable flying 2003- PM CORE Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Gagarin Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Enterprise Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union first space shuttle ever built never flew in space used by scientists to test and mimic specific phases of a real shuttle flight GENERAL INFORMATION second operating shuttle of shuttle program significant for being the first ever space vehicle to have astronauts use jet packs to pull a satellite out of orbit to fix and then return to service. On January 28, 1986, Challenger unexpectedly exploded during the first 72 seconds of takeoff official start of space shuttle program astronauts John Young and Robert Crippin return from a successful two day trip on Columbia Courtesy of: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger_disaster Mostly built using aluminum alloys, and other heat resistant materials sides of space shuttle often exceed 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit during reentry. Three main engines powered by burning hydrogen and liquid oxygen, creating combination that acts like a repellant astronauts perform scientifically developed exercise routine muscles must be kept healthy in order for body to function properly Courtesy of: http://www.space.com/7060-sleeping-space-easy-shower.html Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuttle_Carrier_Aircraft Atlantis Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Atlantis Discovery Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golf_club Weighs about 178,000 lbs. Orbital maneuvering systems are two small engines fired briefly during takeoff to help get he orbiter sideways and into orbit Courtesy of: http://www.conspiracyguy.bravepages.com/conspiracyguy3/secret_email/april_emails/nasa_exercise_equipment.htm Repaired the Solar Maximum Mission satellite, making it the "first in-orbit satellite servicing" Third operating space shuttle performed most missions- 39 missions within the past 30 years A significant mission included Discovery's effort of deployment on the Hubble Space Telescope Was first space shuttle to announce retirement Solid rocket boosters last space shuttle constructed main purpose of building was to replace Challenger its most known mission was probably its repair mission in which it attached "contact lenses" onto the Hubble Space Telescope retired June of 2011 1990 1962- John Glenn orbits the Earth Stay Clean! WELCOME ABOARD, FELLOW ASTRONAUTS! Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger "T-minus 5,4,3,2,1....BLAST OFF!!!" Courtesy of: https://www.flickr.com/photos/suzanmarie/5054445577/ Courtesy of: http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Challenger_disaster Courtesy of: http://www.easyvectors.com/browse/other/cleaning-bucket-sponge-water-clip-art 1958- America's first successful launch, Explorer I. is used to coat many NASCAR race cars On April 12, 1981, Columbia became the first space shuttle to fly into orbit scientists used its robotic arm to operate things in space scientists also used the shuttle as a space laboratory space shuttle program lost Columbia and its seven passengers on February 1, 2003, when the shuttle malfunctioned and broke down during reentry space shuttle consisted of a main pressurized compartment that was divided into two decks upper deck is where the commander, pilot, and mission specialists work upper deck is also where shuttle is controlled, and where shuttle receives messages from mission control lower deck consists of a galley or a kitchen, and a gym with exercise equipment only these two decks are pressurized January 28, 1986- Challenger tragedy History of Space Shuttle Program Courtesy of: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:African_Elephant_Addo_National_Park.jpg Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-1 Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_orbiter Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race The space shuttle program was a program that support the launching of American space shuttles. Courtesy of: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercury-Atlas_6 The space shuttle's main engine turbo pump... Courtesy of: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Space_Shuttle_Program_Commemorative_Patch.png 1983- Salley Ride becomes the first
Transcript: provides 71% of thrust needed to lift the space shuttle off the launch pad support entire weight of the shuttle and fuel tank each has a solid rocket motor, a solid propellant, jointed structure, synthetic rubber o-rings between joints, flight instruments, recovery systems, explosive charges, thrust control systems, and a self destruct mechanism started being built in 1987 to replace Challenger after the accident 5th shuttle to be built first mission was May 1992 last mission was May 2011 went on 25 missions before retiring Fuel for main engines is stored in ET. 158 ft. long with a diameter of 27.6 ft. When it is empty it weighs 78,000 pounds. It can hold 1.6 million pounds of propellant (2 million liters) The Main Engines rocket launched spacecrafts able to take off like a rocket, maneuver like a spacecraft, and land similar to an airplane created by NASA for an easier way to travel in space in 1972 Space Shuttles consists of: the crew compartment forward fuselage forward reaction control system moveable airlock mid-fuselage cargo bay doors remote manipulator arm aft fuselage OMS/RCS pods airplane parts of orbiter How big are they? Parts of the shuttle The shuttle has 3 main engines located in the back of the spacecraft. They are all 14 ft. long, 7.4 ft. in diameter, and weigh about 6,700 pounds. Provides remaining 29% of thrust for lift off. During re-entry the crew must: close cargo bay doors fire RCS thrusters to turn orbiter tail first fire OMS engines to slow orbiter and fall back to Earth (25 minutes) make sure bottom of orbiter is facing atmosphere burn leftover fuel from forward RCS as a safety precaution What are they? External Fuel Tank Orbiter Re-Entry first space shuttle to got to space first flight took place on April 12, 1981 flew 28 missions total logged more than 300 days in space Feb 1, 2002 the shuttle broke up during re-entry over Texas all 7 crew members died home to the crew for 7-14 days orientation of orbiter can be changed throughout the mission shuttle must be able to: provide life support change position and orbits let you talk with ground based flight controllers find way around make electrical power coordinate and handle 2nd shuttle in space first flight was April 4, 1983 completed 9 missions last flight was January 28, 1983 broke apart 73 seconds after launch killing all crew members first shuttle to be destroyed Christa McAuliffe would have been the first teacher in space if the launch succeeded Shuttle in Orbit length of shuttle: 184 ft. length of orbiter: 122 ft. height of orbiter:57 ft. wingspan: 78 ft. lift off weight : 4.5 million pounds Challenger Endeavor 4 major parts: Orbiter which houses the crew, large external tank that holds fuel, and 2 solid rocket boosters that provide most of the thrust during the first 2 minutes, needed to launch the shuttle into space, and the main engines. Solid Rocket Booster Columbia
Transcript: What goes on the inside of space shuttles? The tiles are made from 90% oxygen to stop the tiles themself from getting dented or damaged. This is because oxygen is light but won't change shape when it is compressed because when it is compressed, it is more dense. Tiles Space shuttle tiles are made of 90% air (oxygen) and 10% silicon fibre. Silicon fibre is very good for resisting the heat from the Earths atmosphere and this stops the shuttle exploding or catching fire. But why use oxygen??? Space shuttles have a lot of insulation in order to stop the heat from the atmosphere getting too hot inside. How Space Shuttles are insulated... Topic 7 Oxygen Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 4
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