Transcript: The Canaan of the New World African American Emigration to Haiti, 1860-1862 ? What distinguished Haiti from other African American emigration projects in the mid-nineteenth century? - distinct from African colonization - Haiti held great symbolic value - the Haitian government provided incentives - emigrating to Haiti meant participating in a Black nationalist nation-building project - emigration to Haiti was not a repudiation of their American identity African American Emigration African American Emigrationism American Colonization Society African Colonization The plan of removing free Black people to West Africa resonated with many white Americans in the nineteenth century. The most important vehicle was the American Colonization Society (ACS), which established the colony of Liberia shortly after its founding in 1816. The ACS membership certificate illustrates the organization's goal of presenting itself as a benevolent society. Even though individual African Americans had supported the ACS from the beginning and several thousand indeed resettled to West Africa, most Black leaders accused the organization of promoting racial hatred. After its activity and support had died down considerably in the 1840s, colonizationist ideas once again gained vast popularity in the tense political and social climate of the 1850s. This context is significant to understanding the arguments made by the supporters of the Haitian emigration movement. They stressed that they were in no way affiliated with the ACS and that emigration and African colonization were fundamentally different. 1 Madison, James, and American Colonization Society. American Colonization Society to James Madison. Membership Certificate. 1816. Library of Congress. National Emigration Convention (1854) National Emigration Convention The Cleveland Convention was part of the Colored Conventions Movement, which comprised a number of national and state-wide meetings organized by African American leaders and activists. Instead of presenting a more open forum for debate, the delegates who came together in Cleveland all supported emigration. While the focus was on Canada, the minutes provide insights into general pro-emigration arguments (which are clearly responding to the more dominant anti-emigration sentiment among other African American spokespersons). Emigration is presented as a positive act of self-determination and self-respect and the only path to freedom. Several of the organizers became affiliated with the Haitain emigration movement a few years later. 2 Proceedings of the National Emigration Convention of Colored People. Pittsburgh: By A. A. Anderson, Print, 1854 Frederick Douglass Opposition Identifying the United States as the only true homeland of African Americans, Frederick Douglass was among the most outspoken critics of African American emigration, and especially colonization. This article published in Douglass’ Monthly in 1861 represents a brief moment in his career, in which he seemed to have been more open to the idea of emigration, and in which he weighed in on the specific benefits of Haiti as a destination. This is an important source because it shows how pervasive the idea of emigration was in the early 1860s, even among African Americans who has previously staunchly rejected it. It also demonstrates the particular appeal of Haiti over other destinations, since Douglass continued to reject places such as Liberia, Haiti seemed to be a different story. 3 “Emigration to Hayti.” Douglass’ Monthly III, no. VIII (January 1861): 386-7. "Frederick Douglass," 1856. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. The Haytian Emigration Bureau The Haytian Emigration Bureau The Haytian Emigration Bureau, based in Boston, was founded to promote the emigration of African Americans to Haiti. While the promise of economic advancement was part of the Bureau's recruitment strategy, this poem, disseminated through the Bureau's weekly newspaper, illustrates a different argument used to promote Haiti. In direct contrast to the United States, Haiti would be a welcoming home(land). African American readers of the paper may have a roof over their head in the US, but they were part of a generally hostile society. Just because the United States was the country of their birth did not make it a loving home. 4 The Pine and Palm 1, no. 14 (August 17, 1861). James Redpath (1833-1891) James Redpath This source represents 27 handwritten reports by James Redpath related to his work as General Agent of the Haytian Emigration Bureau in Boston, as well as a number of letters. Since the Bureau was funded by the Haitian government, Redpath wrote detailed weekly reports on his recruitment activities to Victorin Plésance, Haiti’s Secretary of State. This source reveals some of the strategies Redpath used to promote emgiration. One major part of the effort was enlisting African American leaders as agents of the Bureau. Other entries also suggest that Redpath actively tried to
Transcript: Interests Top Three Sports Favorite Sports My favorite sports are football, wrestling, and throwing in track. Family Family Members I have one brother and three sisters. My mother's name is Sarah and my father's name is Michael. My sisters' names are Tiarra, Destiny, and Autumn. My brother's name is Kaleb. Food Favorite Food My favorite food is lobster or steak.
Transcript: SIMPLE TEMPLATE Topic 1 Topic 1 2 3 TODAY'S SCHEDULE 4 1 Subtopic 1 Subtopic 1 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2
Transcript: CASE STUDY Dive Into Bihar BANK OF BIHAR LTD. (Appellant) Vs DR. DAMODAR PRASAD AND ANOTHER (Respondents) Presentation by :- JEEVA SHIVA LLBH/021/2022 WHEN AND WHO? TIme:-Civil Appeal No. 1109 of 1965 , decided on August 8, 1968 Parties involved:- 1.Bank of Bihar 2.a. DR. Damodar Prasad 2.b. DR. Paras Nath Sinha WHAT HAPPENED? Facts:- 1 2 3 DR.Prasad wanted a loan of 12,000 RS/- from Bank of Bihar in 1951 ,*and as surety he pledged his home documents and gold*.However the bank needed more surety ,thus came in DR.Sinha ,who took the role of a surety in this contract. Now after a period of time, DR.Prasad failed to pay his interests,despite of repeated notices,and for recovery the plantiff filed a case against both principal debtor and the surety in the court of subordinte Judge,Patna in 1965. The plantiff wanted the surety to be held liable ,but the small court dismissed the plea stating that " The plaintiff bank shall be at liberty to enforce its dues in question, against Defendant 2 only after having exhausted its remedies against Defendant 1”. 4 The plantiff apealed this in High Court,but the High Court too dismissed the appeal on same grounds. *presumed statement. Issues ISsueS:- 1.Can the creditor claim liability from the surety ,before claiming the liability from the principal debtor? 2.Does the state of solvency of the principal debtor play any role in how or from whom(either debtor or surety) the creditor can claim the liability from? In the Apex Court What the Supreme court said-part1 COURT HELD; 1.The court mentioned the section 128 of the Indian Contract Act ,which said "The liability of the surety is co- extensive with that of the principal debtor, unless it is otherwise provided by the contract". 2.The demand for payment of the liability of the principal debtor was the only condition for the enforcement of the bond. That condition was fulfilled. Neither the principal debtor nor the surety discharged the admitted liability of the principal debtor in spite of demands 3. Thus,his(surety) liability was immediate. It was not deferred until the creditor exhausted his remedies against the principal debtor. 4. Before payment the surety has no right to dictate terms to the creditor and ask him to pursue his remedies against the principal in the first instance,In the absence of some special equity the surety has no right to restrain an action against him by the creditor on the ground that the principal is solvent or that the creditor may have relief against the principal in some other proceedings. Why did the court say this? Ratio decidendi' 1.The direction postponing payment of the amount decreed must be clear and specific. The injunction upon the creditor not to proceed against the surety until the creditor has exhausted his remedies against the principal is of the vaguest character. It is not stated how and when the creditor would exhaust his remedies against the principal. Is the creditor to ask for imprisonment of the principal? Is he bound to discover at his peril all the properties of the principal and sell them; and if he cannot, does he lose his remedy against the surety? Has he to file an insolvency petition against the principal? The trial court gave no reasons for this extraordinary direction. 2. The Court rejected the prayer of the principal debtor for payment of the decretal amount in instalments as there was no evidence to show tha he could not pay the decretal amount in one lump sum. It is, therefore, said that the principal was solvent. But the solvency of the principal is not a sufficient ground for restraining execution of the decree against the surety. 3. It is the duty of the surety to pay the decretal amount. On such payment he will be subrogated to the rights of the creditor under Section 140 of the Indian Contract Act, and he may then recover the amount from the principal. The very object of the guarantee is defeated if the creditor is asked to postpone his remedies against the surety. 4. In the present case the creditor is a banking company. A guarantee is a collateral security usually taken by a banker.The security will become useless if his rights against the surety can be so easily cut down. ---------------------->THUS,In the result, the appeal is allowed, the direction of the court below that the “plaintiff-bank shall be at liberty to enforce its dues in question against Defendant 2 only after having exhausted its remedies against Defendant 1” is set aside. The respondent Dr. Paras Nath Sinha shall pay to the appellant costs in this Court and in the High Court. Cases Cited PRECIDENT 1.Wright v. Simpson:In which Lord Eldon observed “But the surety is a guarantee; and it is his business to see whether the principal pays, and not that of the creditor" 2. Lachhman Joharimal v. Bapu Khandu and Surety Tukaram Khandoi(1869) :The Judge of the Court of Small Causes, Ahmednagar, solicited the opinion of the Bombay High Court on the subject of the liability of sureties. The creditors THANK
Transcript: time manegment Life skills My time is that I could waste doing somthing Topic Topic Topic
Transcript: Javier Perez Living things in their environment Natural Habitats Living things meet their needs from living and nonliving things in ecosystems. Plants are important in ecosystems. They are food for many animals. Plants use water from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from sunlight to make their own food. Some examples of living things are organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria. ... Other living things in the forest might include mushrooms or even bacteria living in the soil. These living things interact with the nonliving things around them such as sunlight, temperature, water, and soil. Ecology is the study of the relationship between living organisms and their environment. An ecologist is someone who studies those relationships. An ecosystem is a place, such as a rotting log, a forest, or even a schoolyard, where interactions between living and non-living things occur. Organisms: All living things in the environment are organisms, such as plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. ... Ecosystem: An ecosystem is made up of both the community of organisms in an area and their abiotic surroundings. Animals depend on their physical features to help them obtain food, keep safe, build homes, withstand weather, and attract mates. These physical features are called called physical adaptations. ... Each adaptation has been produced by evolution. This means that the adaptations have developed over many generations. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. ... Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution. TOPIC 01 Living things in environmet Subtopic 01 subtopic 01 subtopic 02 Subtopic 02
Transcript: Rhino/Grasshopper Training MENA December 2018 Parameters Parameters What is fixed? What can change? Do you want to change fixed Parameters? Temporary towers Temporary Tower Parameters Typically Fixed Parameters Height & Load What Parameters can change Width, Depth, Horizontal Member Spacing, Diagonal Arrangement & Member Sizes Temporary Tower Parameters Width Depth Height Horizontal Beam Spacing Diagonal Arrangement Load Member Sizes Geometry Geometry Start with a... Creating your Geometry – Width and Depth Start with a Point Creating your Geometry – Width and Depth Copy the Point Creating your Geometry – Width and Depth Copy the point… again and again Creating your Geometry – Width and Depth Base Geometry is Established Creating your Geometry – Tower Height Creating your Geometry – Tower Divisions Creating your Geometry – Vertical Elements Creating your Geometry – Horizontal Beams Creating your Geometry – Horizontal Beams Creating your Geometry – Horizontal Beams Creating your Geometry – Diagonal Bracing Creating your Geometry – Diagonal Bracing Creating your Geometry – Diagonal Bracing Creating your Geometry – Diagonal Bracing Creating your Geometry – Diagonal Bracing Creating your Geometry – Load Application Point Creating your Geometry Load Application Point Diagonals Verticals Horizontals Supports Analysis with Karamba 3D kARAMBA 3D OPTIMISATION WITH gALAPOGAS TEMPORARY TOWER APPLICATIONS IN SUMMARY - Establish the Normal Parameters for your Design (Width and Depth) - Establish Parameters for other Applications or Projects (Height and Load) - Solve Problem Step by Step - Use Genetic Algorithms to optimize - Keep looking for improvements
Transcript: PRICE VARIANCE MONITORING MONITORING MOVING AVERAGE PRICE FOR WIP AND FINISH GOODS REVIEW FOR PRICE BREAKDOWN UPLOADING SELLING PRICE PERFORM COST ESTIMATE PERFORM DAILY ADJUSTMENT (IF ANY) MAKE MONTHLY REPORT SUCH AS : PL BY GROUP, PAPER RATIO,MOVEMENT SUB MATERIAL, MOVEMENT WIP, COAL, SOLAR, AND MANUFACTURING SUPPLIES PERFORM STOCK TAKE EVERY MONTH FOR FINISH GOODS, WIP, SPAREPARTS, RAW MATERIALS, AND SUB MATERIALS SEISO BUSINESS SCOPE - SRC KARAWANG MISSION PT SURYA RENGO CONTAINERS SEEKS TO DELIVER WORLD CLASS PRODUCTS AND SERVICES TO ACHIEVE INTERSTED PARTIES SATISFACTION AND SAVE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE RINGKAS SEIRI VISION - MISSION VISION TO BE THE QUALITY LEASER IN THE ASIA PASIFIC CORRUGATED CARTON INDUSTRY Quotation 1 RAWAT D E V I N J I M I E C O S T I N G S T A F F QUALITY OBJECTIVE FACTORY FOCUS RAPI JOB DESCRIPTION SEITON SEIKETSU RESIK Subtitle SHITSUKE 5R / 5S PT Surya Rengo Containers CONTRACT PRESENTATION RAJIN
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