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Sickle Cell

Transcript: Disease that can be inherited it is a blood disease shortens life expentancy Also known as (SCD) Sickle-cell disease, usually presenting in childhood, occurs more commonly in people (or their descendants) from parts of tropical and sub-tropical regions where malaria is or was common. this is the region of the worl most commonly affected by sickle cell. Attacks of abdominal pain Bone pain Breathlessness Delayed growth and puberty Fatigue Fever Paleness Rapid heart rate Ulcers on the lower legs (in adolescents and adults) Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice) Other symptoms include: Chest pain Excessive thirst Frequent urination Painful and prolonged erection (riapism - occurs in 10 - 40% of men with the disease) Poor eyesight/blindness Strokes Skin ulcers (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr doodles notes Budapest San Francisco Results Notes Stockholm is a disease that effects the shape of your actual blood cells instead of the regular disk shap the blood cell becomes more rigid and its not as flexible anymore MY PROJECT (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Double click to crop it if necessary Why does this happen? The fragile, sickle-shaped cells deliver less oxygen to the body's tissues. They can also get stuck more easily in small blood vessels, and break into pieces that interupt healthy blood flow.Sickle cell anemia is inherited from both parents. If you inherit the hemoglobin S gene from one parent and normal hemoglobin (A) from your other parent, you will have sickle cell trait. Symptoms usually don't occur until after age 4 months. Almost all patients with sickle cell anemia have painful episodes (called crises), which can last from hours to days. These crises can affect the bones of the back, the long bones, and the chest. Research outlook What does it effect? photo frame Common symptoms Place your own picture behind this frame! (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr details Assets Life expectancy is shortened. In 1994, in the US, the average life expectancy of persons with this condition was estimated to be 42 years in males and 48 years in females,but today, thanks to better management of the disease, patients can live into their 50s or beyond. In the UK, the current life expectancy is estimated to be 53–60 years of age map Important Details The sickling (changing of the shape of your blood cells) occurs because of a mutation in the hemoglobin gene This mutation happens in chromosome 11 Sickle-cell

Sickle Cell

Transcript: Sickle Cell Anemia What is the cause? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. People who have the disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin—one from each parent. Sickle hemoglobin causes red blood cells to develop a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickle cells are stiff and sticky. They tend to block blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. Blocked blood flow can cause pain, serious infections, and organ damage. Sickle Cell Anemia is a recessive trait, but it is autosomal, no sex-linked. And it is caused by an error in the gene for hemoglobin, a protein which transports oxygen in the bloodstream. What are the symptons? •Shortness of breath •Dizziness •Headaches •Coldness in the hands and feet •Paler than normal skin or mucous membranes (the tissue that lines your nose, mouth, and other organs and body cavities) •Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes) Who have Sickle Cells? Mostly African Americans, South or Central Americans, people from the Caribbean islands, Mediterranean countries (such as Turkey, Greece, and Italy), people India, and Saudi Arabia. What is the frequency? 1 in every 12 African Americans have the sickle cell anemia trait, and around 1 in 150 babies are actually born with it. This means that they carry the gene and have the potential to pass on to their future generations. More than 70,000 Americans actually have sickle cell anemia. And about 2 million Americans actually carry the trait. When is it detected? Early diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is critical so that children who have the disease can receive proper treatment. More than 40 states now perform a simple, inexpensive blood test for sickle cell disease on all newborn infants. This test is performed at the same time and from the same blood samples as other routine newborn screening tests. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is the most widely used diagnostic test. If the test shows the presence of sickle hemoglobin, a second blood test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. These tests also tell whether the child carries the sickle cell trait. What is the treatment? Sickle cell anemia has no widely available cure. However, treatments can help relieve symptoms and treat complications. The goals of treating sickle cell anemia are to relieve pain; prevent infections, organ damage, and strokes; and control complications (if they occur). Infants who have been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia through newborn screening are treated with antibiotics to prevent infections. Their parents are educated about the disease and how to manage it. These initial treatment steps have greatly improved the outcome for children who have sickle cell anemia. What is the life expectancy? As recently as 1973, the average lifespan for people with sickle cell disease was only 14 years. Currently, life expectancy for these patients can reach 50 years and over. Women with sickle cell live longer than their male counterparts. What is the quality of life? Some patients have mild symptoms, and some have very severe symptoms. The basic problem, however, is the same: the sickle-shaped red blood cells tend to get stuck in narrow blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood. Follow a healthy diet. A healthy diet includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. It also includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, and fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. A healthy diet is low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugar. What is some current research studies being conducted to cure the disorder? Scientists have not found a cure but they do have treatments for patients that go into a painful crisis. They provide antibiotics and vaccines for patients after the treatment. They are now trying to find a cure for people with the Sickle-cell anemia disorder. What is the frequency? 1 in every 12 African Americans have the sickle cell anemia trait, and around 1 in 150 babies are actually born with it. This means that they carry the gene and have the potential to pass on to their future generations. More than 70,000 Americans actually have sickle cell anemia. And about 2 million Americans actually carry the trait. dakota is a boss jklfsdjkd Scientists have not found a cure but they do have treatments for patients that go into a painful crisis. They provide antibiotics and vaccines for patients after the treatment. They are now trying to find a cure for people with the Sickle-cell anemia disorder. As recently as 1973, the average lifespan for people with sickle cell disease was only 14 years. Currently, life expectancy for these patients can reach 50 years and over. Women with sickle cell live longer than their male counterparts. Who has sickle cell anemia? hey jor

Sickle Cell

Transcript: Sickle Cell disease The disease does not occur until the age of four months. people with the sickle cell disease have painful episodes called crises that can last from hours to days. they happen in your long bones like your arms and legs and your chest. most of the time these crises happen around once a year, but some times they can happen like once a month for some people. some times it can even hospitalize people. This is to small to put in just one small circle. so im going to put it over here. ------------> <----- Coffee cup. :O Normal red blood cells give oxygen to the heart. but when its cresent shaped or sickle the red blood cell will have little or none oxygem in it, thus making it hard to breathe. they also get stuck in small blood vessels and then they break into different pieces that will hurt your healty blood flow. That cell right there is a sickle cell -------> Thank you for listening SIckle cell disease is a disease passed down through families in which the red blood cells is deformed and looks like a cresent moon. Complicatio-ns At the moment there is no full treatment to sickle cell disease, but there is a goal to have a treatment that decreases the crises that happen each year, one way to prevent that is putting donated blood transplanted into the person with the diseae what is sickle cell disease? <------------ thats what a sickle cell is Symtoms of the cell Why is this dangerous? How to treat the sickle cell disease Imagine that with sickle cells blocking the vain up Complications of sickle cell is - Blindness, death,joint destrution, sore legs, tissue death in kidney, and lose of funtion of your spleen

Sickle Cell

Transcript: Sickle Cell -DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder and its main function is to store genetic information. -the information guides the cell in making new proteins that determine all of our biological traits -Mutations are abnormal changes. Mutations can permanently change DNA -Mutations in DNA can affect how something looks, behaves, or its physiology. Sickle cell affects the transportation of oxygen throughout the body. - Pain is caused by the clumping in small blood vessels - Poor growth occurs because growth requires energy and energy requires well-oxygenated tissues - Vision problems: blood vessels in the eyes can easily clog with clumps of sickle cells which causes long term damage to the retinas that can lead to blindness - Strokes can occur when the blood vessels in the brain are blocked by clumping -Organ damage from lack of oxygen causes damage to the lungs, spleen and liver Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. The clumping of Hb S molecules into rigid fibers causes the "sickling" of red blood turning its shape abnormal . DNA & Mutations Treatments with Hydroxyurea with children Medications/Treatment Mutation that causes Sickle Cell -Most common genetic disorder in USA -Nearly 1000 babies each year are born with it Current research cont. Current Research Impact on USA and the World Genetic based studies, such as correcting the globin genes, are ongoing. Haematopoietic stem cell transplants are also still in early trials, with promising results. SCD is a "good candidate for experimental gene therapies" (Meier & Miller). There is no cure discovered yet, but various things can help. Including hydroxyurea a prescription drug that prompts the body to make fetal hemoglobin and lowers the chance of the cells to sickle. various pain medications help to nullify the pain. Effect on the body Hydrophobic amino acid valine takes the place of hydrophilic glutamic acid at the sixth amino acid position of the HBB polypeptide chain which causes this disease -Genetic factors affecting sickle cell symptoms -Regulation of the hemoglobin production -New treatments for pain

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