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Transcript: 3D Atom which cleans pennies the best lemons or limes Introduction About what my topic is about The Science What juice cleans dity pennies the best lemon juice or lime juice? + The positive aspects about my experiment are it's a cool topic to learn about and the experiment is safe to do. Also you get to learn lot's of fun facts, about lemons and limes, and how lemon and lime juice react to the metals in the penny. Positive Aspects _ The negative aspects are,it might not turn out the way you want it to. For instance the lemon juice might not clean the penny at all, the juices could dirty the penny more, and or the juices could react to the metal in the penny. Negative Aspects My visual research Show & Tell FACTS ABOUT PENNIES Newer pennies are made mostly of zinc. Here's the history, according to the U.S. Mint: From 1837 to 1857, the cent was made of bronze ( 95% copper, 5% tin and zinc). From 1857, the cent was 88% copper and 12% nickel, giving the coin a whitish appearance.'s-a-penny-made-of. html As you can see I have a PH scale with different food and there acidity. PH scale PH scale lemons and limes acidity is a # 9 on this chart IN the catigory of Citric acids the fruits that fall under the citric acid are lemons, limes, oranges, pineaple, and strawberries. fruit acids fruit acids Fun fact strawberries are not berries. fruits that contain malic acid are apples, bannas, cherrys, watermelon,and red grapes. Acids commily have a sour taste like Lemons and limes, it's not safe to eat most acids. So be carefull. Some Know Properties Of Acids Some Know Properties Of Acids Reactivity chart Reactivity chart different metals and identefying reactions different metals and identefying reactions Metal Reactions Atomic Ideas Zoom My idea is to make a penny cleaner with lemon and lime juice The reaction between the metal on the penny,the aicd from the different juices,and to see which one lemons or limes cleans the dirty penny best. Even the Smallest Details! Go Viral Brainstorm see what ideas you come up with to improve your experement. .?.^__^ ^.^ Make sure your test container is non-reactive to your test materials. This will help with clearer test results. Better test results Better test results Use more than one source and dubble check your references. Good Info Good Info Make sure it's nice and neat More Good Info More Good Info Contact Info Control The lemon juice corroded the meatale in the dime the same way the lime juice corrroded the pennies. Also the lemon juice turned a reddish tone. So what you see here is a penny that has been cleaned , by lemon juice lemon results lemon results lime result lime result The lime juice made the pennies rust.

Science Fair Board Samantha

Transcript: Magnetic Pendulum Patterns "Chaotic Pendulum." Chaotic Pendulum. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <>. "How It Works." How It Works. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. <>. "Magnetic Field Basics." Electricity & Magnetism: Magnetic Fields. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <>. "University of Birmingham." Chaotic Motion. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. < engineering/weblab/Introduction-to-Chaos/Chaotic-Motion/index.aspx>. Conclusions Procedure If the pattern of the magnets is changed, will the time of the of the bob's swing change? If the pattern of the magnets is changed, than the time of the bob's swing will change because the magnetic field would have been changed, and the magnetic bob would have been pulled to a different field. Hypothesis First, put the magnets in a triangle pattern. Push the magnetic bob and time it’s swing. After timing the pendulum’s swing 10 times, change the pattern. For, example, you could put the magnets in a line or maybe a circle instead. Do this ten times, recording the time of the bob’s swing. Make sure to watch the pendulum carefully to avoid making a mistake or missing a stopping point. Maybe try a few other patterns for better results. One pattern that I tried was a stacked pattern where the magnets were stacked on top of each other. Materials Question By: Samantha Blackman Results Background Research My hypothesis was correct, and when the magnet’s pattern is changed, the time of the swing will change, too. The difference between the slowest and fastest times averages was 9.5803 seconds, and were not very far from each other. The pendulum’s pattern was very different between stacked and scattered. The stacked kept the bob in one spot, but the scattered moved the bob around more, and further distances. In conclusion, the experiment went well and the results helped to explain what happened to the bob’s pattern, and went well with the background information. Some problems that might have been run into could be the bob getting stuck to the pendulum, which would happen when swinging the bob. The timing may have been off, because when the pendulum slowed down, the timer may have stopped to early or to late, resulting in outliers in the information. Some errors could be the pattern of the magnets from day to day. The pattern would be one way one day, then the next it would be re created, but different, so it might effect the pendulum time. All together, most problems were fixed, like how the magnets would stick together at random times, and the experiment went smoothly. The results helped with the conclusions and other information by adding facts to back up the research and hypothesis. One example is the time of the swing change and average times, like in the first paragraph. The times of the swing’s average helped to show that the slowest and fastest times were not so far apart from each other. To take this a step further, you could experiment with new types of magnets. Stronger magnets may create a new outcome, such as less predictable patterns. Another way you could look into this further would be testing new types of string to see how flexible it may be. Stiffer string may make the bob move in more jolting movement instead of smooth swings. The results can help to take this a step further by comparing your times to the old average. Overall, the results will really help further research and proving a point to information, such as this experiment. In this experiment, the magnets will be put into a different pattern instead of the usual triangle pattern. You will need: • A magnetic pendulum (found on • 4-6 magnets (any kind will work) A magnet is an object that gives off a magnetic field. A magnet works with the poles attracting and rejecting each other’s forces. There are negative and positive charges. The negative charges attract positive charges and the other way around. A pendulum moves using gravity and movements of the earth. The earth’s movement tilts the pendulum’s bob and makes it move one way, then the gravity pulls the bob back down, and back, and down again. The inertia of a pendulum makes it swing out, and then gravity pulls it down. Inertia is the bob’s resistance to a change in motion. Chaotic motion is the movement of random angles and other unpredicted movements. Even though the movements may seem random, the motion has a hard to follow pattern. An example would be a magnetic pendulum, which has a pattern, but the pattern is hard to pick up on. The magnetic pendulum is moved by chaotic motion, which is caused by the magnets attracting and rejecting each other’s forces. Chaotic motion makes the pendulum move randomly in different fashions. When working on this project, you really need to pay attention to due dates and what is due. Make sure to get things

Science Fair Board

Transcript: Bridging the Gap Engineering: Electrical and Mechanical project By: Neil Marquell Which Type of Bridge is the Strongest? Information Research When Researching the three bridge designs that were used many interesting things came up Research Straight bridge Information A straight bridge is a bridge that as all of its support on the bottom and uses the sides of what it is crossing as support. Straight Bridge Research and Information Truss Bridge Information The truss bridge is a bridge with support above it. It is similar to a suspension bridge, but the key difference is that the truss bridge uses metal beams as supports, with supports on top of the bridge. this is a very strong type of bridge. Truss Bridge Research and Information Beam Bridge Information A beam bridge is almost like an inverted truss bridge, and supports itself on the bottom of what it is crossing. this is a very reliable style of bridge. Arch Bridge Research and Information Hypothesis Introduction If three bridges are built all with different styles (one straight one truss and one beam) the Truss bridge will hold the most weight. This is believed because a Truss bridge has the most support of any of them. A Truss style bridge is similar to a suspension bridge in which the supports are above the main bridge where people and cars would cross. So the Truss bridge will be the strongest. Materials 60 popsicle sticks 4oz wood glue Sharpie Marker Fine Point Measuring tape 105 20 gram cups 1 50 pound weight Materials and Methods Truss Bridge Methods -Marked the dimensions of the bridge with a sharpie -Constructed the trusses using popsicle sticks and wood glue -Laid out popsicle sticks and glued them together forming the main bridge -Glued the trusses to the bridge -Using 20 gram cups added weight until the bridge broke (it didn’t) when the cups didn’t work weights were used. Methods Materials 74 popsicle sticks 4oz wood glue 20 20g cups 1 10lb weight Materials and Methods Beam Bridge Methods -Make 6 triangular supports -Lay out popsicle sticks -Glue supports to the popsicle sticks Add weight until it breaks Methods Materials 100 popsicle sticks 4oz wood glue Sharpie ultra fine point (for marking dimensions) Measuring tape 55 20 gram cups Materials and Methods Straight bridge Straight Bridge Methods Layed out popsicle sticks in a row Put wood glue to connect the popsicle sticks Made support for either end of the bridge Glued everything together Using 20 gram cups stacked until the bridge broke Methods Data on Each Style of Bridge Here are some graphs on each style of bridge Data Straight Bridge Data Truss Bridge Data Beam Bridge Data Conclusion Conclusion As has been seen the Truss bridge was the strongest bridge so the original question of "Which type of bridge is the strongest?" the answer is the Truss Bridge. and the answer to the hypothesis which was... "If three bridges are built all with different styles (one straight one truss and one beam) the Truss bridge will hold the most weight. This is believed because a Truss bridge has the most support of any of them. A Truss style bridge is similar to a suspension bridge in which the supports are above the main bridge where people and cars would cross. So the Truss bridge will be the strongest." Was proven to be correct Testing Images Next Image Next Image Bibliography Truss Bridge | Definition, History, and Uses. Beam Bridge | Britannica. NCDOT: Truss Bridges. bridge-types/Pages/truss.aspx. Truss Bridge - Facts and Types of Truss Bridge. truss-bridge/. Beam Bridges - Design

Science Fair Board

Transcript: A Race Against...Medicine! By Dana Younes abstract Drugs must dissolve into our bloodstream to take effect. One may become required to take more of a certain medicine if its solubility is particularly low. In this experiment, liquid gels, coated tablets, regular tablets, and caplets were placed into water to determine their solubility. In the end, the liquid gels/coated tablets dissolved the most rapidly, followed by the caplets and tablets. Abstract Introduction Introduction Drug solubility is a vital aspect of modern medicine. It is the ability of a particular drug to dissolve into the bloodstream of the consumer. Once this solution has occurred, the medication travels to the liver. This is where it can get distributed to the target area(s) in the body and take effect. Medicine is not always ingested orally. However, 85% of medicines in the US and Europe are consumed orally, increasing the essence of a high drug solubility (T. Savjani, Gajjar, K. Savjani). During this experiment, four types of pills were tested to determine how soluble they are: traditional tablets, coated tablets, caplets, and liquid gels. Tablets are the most commonly used pill due to their convenient prices and safety. Tablets consist of one or more powdered ingredients that have been compressed. This process results in solid, smooth, pills with the capability of breaking down in the digestive tract. Some tablets are coated to prevent breaking down in the stomach rather than the digestive tract. Caplets are oblong-shaped (the same shape as capsules). Their distinct form, as well as their film or gelatin coating, makes them easier to swallow. Capsules include medication surrounded by an outer shell. The two types of capsules are hard-shelled capsules and soft-gel capsules. Hard-shelled capsules contain a more rigid shell with two halves. The inside consists of dry medication (in powder or pellet form). Soft-gel capsules are also known as liquid gels. They are filled with medication suspended in substances such as gelatin, hence the name “liquid gels” (Vandergriendt). Purpose This experiment was conducted to determine the impact of a pill’s delivery method on its solubility. Purpose Hypothesis My hypothesis is that the solubility of the pills will come in the following order: liquid gels, coated tablets, capsules, and traditional tablets. Hypothesis Variables Variables Independent Variable: The type of pill Dependent Variable: Time it takes for the pill to dissolve into water Control Variables: Weight of pills Amount of water used Brand of pill Room temperature Container/bowl’s cleanliness Temperature of water Materials Materials 3 Tylenol Regular Strength Liquid Gels, 325 mg 3 Tylenol Regular Strength EZtabs (coated tablets), 325 mg 3 Tylenol Regular Strength Caplets, 325 mg 3 Tylenol Regular Strength Tablets, 325 mg Container or bowl Any device to record on (e.g., camera, phone..) Distilled water Procedure 1. 360 mL of water was distilled. 2. The water was placed into a container. 3. A 325 mg Tylenol Regular Strength Liquid Gel was placed into the water. 4. A phone began recording. 5. Once the pill had been dissolved, the recording was stopped. 6. The video was reviewed to determine the exact time during which the pill dissolved completely into the water. 7. The water was poured out. 8. The container was cleaned. 9. Steps 1-8 were repeated 2 more times to ensure accurate results. 10. Steps 1-9 were repeated 3 times with 325 mg Tylenol Regular Strength EZtabs. 11. Steps 1-9 were repeated 3 times with 12. 325 mg Tylenol Regular Strength Tablets. 13. Steps 1-9 were repeated 3 times with 325 mg Tylenol Regular Strength Caplets. Procedure Observations/Results Observations/Results Figure 1 Figure 1. This graph displays the time required for different types of pills to dissolve in distilled water. Figure 2 Caplet Tablet Liquid Gel Coated Tablet Figure 2. The tablet took the longest time to dissolve into the distilled water. The p value of the time taken for the tablet and caplet to dissolve is 0.00002 (less than 0.05), showing a statistically significant difference. There was a statistically significant difference between the time taken for the caplet and liquid gel to dissolve, as their p value was 0.00007. Another difference is shown between the caplet and liquid gel’s time, with a p value of 0.00002. The tablet and coated tablet’s time had a statistically significant difference, which is shown by their p value of 0.0002. The p value of the time of the coated tablet and liquid gel is 0.00003, displaying another statistically significant difference. Finally, the p value of the liquid gel and coated tablet’s time was 0.1. This is greater than 0.5, so there was no statistically significant difference in the time they took to dissolve. P Values Images More Images Conclusion Conclusion In conclusion, my hypothesis was merely partially correct. This is because it was correct about the liquid gel taking the least amount of time to dissolve, followed

Hanneli's Science Fair Board

Transcript: 1) In each tray, place the cress seeds on top of the cotton and water it. 2) Put 6 trays in the room with radiation just right next to the routers. 3) Put the other 6 trays in the other room without radiation. 4) Observe, measure, weigh and photograph both the 6 trays for the next 12 days. 5) Results. Hanneli's Science Fair Board (Pictures) Conclusion In conclusion, my answer is yes, cell phones are dangerous to the health. Also, children shouldn't use cell phones frequently because it can damage their sensitive brains severely. If a cell phone is used always then it can lead to tissue heating and brain cancer. Equipment/Method To be able to identify and analyze the harmful effect of cell phone radiation. To find out if cell phone radiation is dangerous to our health. Acknowledgments Aim Cell Phones are merely dangerous to the health. We might as well do not have to worry about cell phone use. For this experiment you will need: Lepidium sativum (a type of garden cress)/cress seeds 12 trays 12 sheets of cotton Water A room next to two routers (it emmited the same type of radiation as an ordinary cellphone) A room without radiation On the 12th day, according to my observation, the results were blatantly obvious. The cress seeds in the six trays in the room without radiation grew, whereas the other 6 trays in the room with radiation didn't. This means that cell phone radiation is very dangerous to the health. Results/Explanation Hypothesis CELL PHONE RADIATION: IS USING A CELL PHONE DANGEROUS TO YOUR HEALTH? Graphs & Diagrams Procedure

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