Transcript: The Greek InFluenced the romans for their fashion. Sandals (soleae, sandalia) with open toes were the proper footwear for wearing indoors It is fair to assume that children, especially those not borne to rich families spent their time in simple, belted tunics. Although women had apparently worn togas in the early years of Rome, by the middle of the Republican era the only women who wore togas were common prostitutes The large overfold in the front of the body was called a sinus, and part of the material under this was pulled up and draped over the sinus to form the umbo. priest greeks greatly influenced the romans in fashion Roman men wore their hair short and were clean shaven, even though the process of shaving was uncomfortable and frequently resulted in cuts and scratches. Roman Empire Male children of the upper classes also had distinctive dress for formal occasions how to make a toga=)
Transcript: After the Period of Caesar, The republic of Rome turned into an Empire. em·pire [em-pahyuhr; for 8–10 also om-peer] Show IPA noun 1. a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire, or Roman Empire. As stated by dictionary.com He was very well known as being sweet and ambitious. He would fully examine the 'problem before having made any judgement and, was known for having equality for everyone He desired to award every man according on what that man had done, and that is why many people loved him as the emperor of Rome. He desired to award every man according on what that man had done, and that is why many people loved him as the Emperor of Rome Policies He had a heart for the people and helped the poor. He had his senators in charge of allotting land for the poor. He also gave land back to those who had it stolen from them. "Antonious Pius" Who Was Who in the Roman WorldN.p.:Cornell University , n.d. 23-24. Print Marcus Cocceius Nerva became emperor after the assassination the 'much hated emperor Domitian. Dictionary.com When Antoninus was appointed as Emperor, A.D. 138-161, he secured all of the ratifications of Hadrian’s acts from the senate of Rome. Since Antoninus had a duty toward recognizing the memory of Hadrian, the senate gave the title of Pius to him. Antoninus was not extravagant in any way. He left 675 million “denarii” in the treasury at his death. However, Antoninus had much support for the continuation of building, especially in Italy. Antoninus Pius Antoninus had great relations with the senate, and therefore received the title of “Father of his country” in A.D. 139. Reign under Antoninus is referred to as a period of peace and prosperity. The Empire N.s , Gill " before you learn about the Good Emperors of ancient Rome' Ancient/Classical History. About.com, 2009print <http:// acnienthistory.about.com/od/roamanemporosgnereal/bb/GoodEmporers.htm>. He helped the abused children by proving relief for the poor. Public buildings were ordered to be built such as: Public baths New forum Large basilica Canals (Tiber river) New harbor(port of Ostia) A road that extended across the Italian peninsula to the Adriatic sea. He made certain rules such as; -Castration wasn't allowed -Uncles were not allowed to marry their nieces -Slaves were not allowed to charge their masters with treason (informers would be executed). 96-98 a.d He expanded the territory of the empire, launched an extensive building program in Rome. He also helped extend the plan that Nerva had started to help the poor. Armies 96 a.d. - 180 a.d Administration This was all paid for by the money won from conquests. He also used that wealth to put on public games. Marcus Aurelius was unable to defeat the Danube tribes which brought an end to the Pax Romana, which meant Roman Peace in Latin. He also heavily persecuted Christians during his reign, though it is debated why because his writings seemed to be of Christian influence. Marcus Aurelius died on 17 March 180, in the city of Vindobona, which is modern day Verona. After his death he left his throne to his son Commodus who was considered to be one of the worst Emperor of Rome. Modesty is what Trajan was known for. Along with being an unassuming ruler, and courteous and friendly with the senators. He treated the Roman senate with respect. He also carefully avoided polices of the early emperors For example: He didn't confiscate senatorial property Nerva He requires candidates running for office to invest money into Italy. Marcus Aurelius The Roman Empire Trajan He swore that he wouldn't assassin senators when becoming an emperor which, later had an influence on Trajan. He also released a lot of people from prison that had been accused of treason under Domitian's rule. N.S. Gill "Nerva" ancient/Classical History. about.com, 2009print <http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nerva/p/Nerva.htm> Hadrian The 5 good emperors 98- 117 a.d. His reign was considered the Golden age. He received the title " Optimus princepes" ( best leader) Marcus Aurelius was born A.D. 121 in Rome and was raised by his grandfather who helped in grow up with a strong moral outlook on life. When Aurelius was young Rome was ruled by Hadrian who was the second of the great rulers. Hadrian helped Marcus with his education, in a way he took him under his wing. One of his tutors was Homer and many other Greek experts. He was exposed to different philosophical works. Aurelius was admitted to the Roman Senate and was Roman Consul not once but twice. He later became Joint Emperor with his adoptive brother Lucius Aurelius Verus in 161. While in joint control the brothers were involved in many battles. Upon the death of Lucius Verus he became sole emperor. Much of his time was focused on philosophy. He wrote twelve volumes of Stoic Philosophy. He
Transcript: The Roman Empire Roman Army The Romans had many battle tactics. Here are a few. Shield-to-shield- Also known as the "tortoise" in this formation soldiers other than the first row were to stand with their shields over head. The first or front row of soldiers were to hold their shields to their sides. This created a "shell" of armor protecting the infantry from projectiles. Cannae- Also known as the "weak center" in this formation soldiers left a weak central battle line tempting the enemy to strike there. But when they did they had forgotten the rest of the battle line was strong. Therefore, when the enemy was in their league, the rest of the battle line enveloped them. Wedge- This very common defense strategy was when soldiers formed a triangular structure then used this to thrust small groups into the enemy with a strong impact also pushing the enemy troops behind. Zama- Another very interesting Roman tactic also known as the "maniple channel strategy" was when there were channels made between the legions or maniples. This commonly confused the enemy as to which maniple to attack first. Weapons Sword- One of the most common ancient weapons used by the Romans. It was a long, pointed and double-edged Iberian weapon called the "Spanish sword." *Ceasar carried one special sword called a "Gladius." Dagger- A fighting knife with a sharp point made of copper alloy or iron. Pilum- Ancient short-range assault instrument that resembled a heavy javelin with a pyramidal head. Shield- Roman shields were oval, rectangular or hexagonal. They were typically made of thick wood bordered with copper alloy or iron. Spear- Mainly three kinds of spears were used by ancient Roman soldiers: light javelins, thrusting spears and two-handed lances. Roman Emperors Nero Birth date: December 15, 37 Death date: June 09, 68 Place of birth: Antium, Italy Summary: Nero discouraged luxury, reduced the taxes, and increased the authority of the Senate. Nero gained throne as a result of his mother murdering all other oppositon. Nero commited many crimes during his reign but possibly the worst was the burning of Rome. It is unknown whether Nero was responsible for its burning or not. Once the fire had come to an end after six days Nero blamed the Christians. He became the first to persicute the Christians. Julius Ceasar Birth date: July 12 or 13, 100 B.C. Death date: 44 B.C. Place of birth: Rome, Italy Summary: Ceasar wasn't really an emperor. He was considered a "Dictator perpetuus" (Latin for dictator in perpetuity.) Aside from being dictator and strategic military leader Ceasar was also a general, a statesman, a lawgiver, a jurist, an orator, a poet, a historian, a philologer, a mathematician, and an architect. Julius Caesar was also distinguished as an author, and wrote several works which related the history of the first seven years of the Gallic War and the history of the Civil War. Roman Accomplishments Roman Art & Literature The Romans developed Roman numerals (hence the name!) This is significant because it is widely used across the United States and the world! They're used in the Super Bowl, movie titles, and in the army corps. Romans were noticeably interested in one art called "mosaic" art. This type of art was created by using small pieces of tile, glass or stone. The pieces were arranged on a smooth surface, such as a wall to form a pattern. These patterns would depict gods, heroes, and even basic Roman life. Roman literature including drama, poetry and prose became popular during the 240's B.C. this period is known as the "Golden Age of Roman drama." Roman Architecture The Romans invented the technology for concrete, aqueducts, arches and roads. When a city was conquered, roads were constructed to connect it to Rome, the capitol of the empire. Milestones were installed on the side of the road informing a traveler the distance to be covered to reach Rome. Roman aqueducts were built to carry water from the springs or rivers to the public baths and fountains. These baths had a plumbing system to drain the dirty water. Aqueducts were built all across the vast Roman Empire and some are still functioning today. Roman Laws Romans formulated many of the laws multiple countries use today. Roman laws were applicable to any and all Romans, irrespective of his place in society. Roman laws were written on metal tables and were organized into twelve sections. Therefore, they were known as the "Twelve Tables." These tables were displayed at the various Roman forums or meeting places in all the Roman cities. Examples of Roman Laws: A person is innocent until proven guilty If you have summons from the court, you are expected to attend the court. Or else, you could be taken by force to the court. Capital punishment would be imposed on a person found guilty of giving false witness. No one is allowed to hold meetings after nightfall. Roman Culture Roman Mythology Long before the emergence of Christianity, Roman mythology was greatly influenced by
Transcript: Fall of the Roman Empire Decline in Morals and Values Public Health Even during PaxRomana there were 32,000 prostitutes in Rome. Emperors like Caligula and Nero became infamous for wasting money on lavish parties where guests drank and ate until they became sick. The most popular amusement was watching the gladiatorial combats in the Colosseum. Unemployment THE FINAL BLOWS Many people would trade their goods for other goods instead of trading coins. Inflation Farmers would compete to sell the best crops for as little as possible. Which eventualy leaded to other farmers losing their farms or selling them. This would leave then unemployed. Public health was very bad and the water had been transported through lead pipes which caused diseases.
Transcript: The Roman Empire’s economy was mainly based on slavery(“Silver”). Roman economic fortunes were dominated by agriculture and trade and a small portion of industry. The agriculture grown was various grains, olives, and rock. Some of the important products were olive oil and wine. Instead of paying a tax, most farmers would donate surplus crops to the government. Egypt, Sicily and Tunisia in North Africa were very important in making and delivering grain to Rome. If the merchants failed to ship the grain or certain materials it would lead to either deportation or execution. There main industry work was mining. The things they mined were stone and metal. The metal was for their weapons and the stone was for building projects Many of their goods were traded along the road instead of the sea.Their more expensive goods like food, precious metals, stones and building supplies were shipped by water. Trading by land was only good if the goods were going short distances or if the trade cargo was small. The Romans lived off these items. Importers were among the wealthiest citizens of the empire. Most coins such as brass, bronze, copper, silver and gold were distributed under strict rules of weights, sizes, value, and metal composition Economy Any Questions? The art the Romans built were not just typical things you gaze at, they created them for more then that. The Romans believed in many Gods. Marble was built into houses of wealthy The senate was provincial membership which means that about one half of the senators were non-Roman. The following Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180) chose to strengthen their positions and followed Augustus’ creation “Pax Romana.” When an Emperor named Commodus came to rule he was known for his dictatorial behavior which weakened the people with disillusionment. Augustus wanted to reshape and justify the economy with law and ordered “Pax Romana,” (Roman peace) which was nearly a two-hundred year period of peace. He preserved the Republican institution by reassembling the Senate. He removed unworthy senators who strengthened the government power from one thousand to six hundred Under the first emperor of Rome, Augustus Caesar, Latin Literature began to reach new heights. Under his ruling famous Roman poets and authors such as Virgil and Ovid left their mark. Some of the most noticeable writers at this time were Livy, Virgil, and Horace. Livy is famous for his writing of history of the Roman Empire from the beginning to end. Architecture The difference between the old Roman Empire and the new is that the people were equal before the expansion of the empire, and when the people wanted to be different they started dressing differently and buying fancier and fancier amenities. The Roman Empire is the base foundation of modern architecture to this day. The art of the Roman Empire was said to have stopped at the beginning of the ruling of Constantine and the reign of Christianity, and from then on started the art era of Constantinople in AD 330. copy paste branches if you need more.... The prayer of Roman's was odd because they believed God would only answer you with a sacrifice a type of animal to have their prayer answered. As soon as the Roman Empire began to grow increasingly, the times of equality were over; the rich separated themselves by showing that they were different. The people built these monuments not to show they could do what others couldn’t, they build them with purpose. The Roman Empire The letters J and U were not present if a word had these letters it would be replaced. For example, the name JULIUS would be spelled IVLIVS, the reason why is because the letter J was replaced with the letter I and the letter U was replaced with the letter V. Roman literature under the Roman Empire during A.D. 14-476 had many more writers introduced. There was M. Annaeus Lucanus who wrote the epic Pharsalia, which he finished in ten books. The most valuable industry of all was mining The Colosseum was a work of art of structure supported on an intertwining structure of routes, stairways, and ramps, all being able to support forty to fifty thousand people From that tragedy sprouted up two great rulers named Diocletion (c.245-c.316) and Constantine (d.337) both of which increased the Authoritarianism and totalitarianism. The Romans left many legacies for future generations including Latin Literature and architecture, thus modern Western civilization has been greatly influenced The Romans were Christians, but the fact that Christians only believed in one God was odd for them. Literature Quintus Curtius Rufus wrote about the account of the deeds of Alexander the Great in about ten books The main currencies in the time period were miscellaneous good such as food and cloth. Even the taxes of farmers were goods meaning extra grain, rice, or corn when the payments are due. Introduction (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr His writing on this was so bit it took 142
Transcript: Roman Empire Emperors after Augustus: The first four emperors after Augustus were from his family. They took for themselves some of the powers of the Senate & tended, like Nero, to become corrupt. The five "good emperors" In the early second century, a series of five effective emperors came to power, creating a period of peace & prosperity known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. Though they continued to claim more power for themselves, these emperors treated the ruling classes with respect; were capable & tolerant; built important public works, such as roads & aqueducts; & adopted policies that were helpful to the empire. Further expansion of the empire: During the Early Empire, Rome expanded farther, becoming one of the largest states up to that time, with more than 50 million subjects. Cities were important in administering the empire & spreading Roman culture, which mixed with Greek culture to produce a Greco-Roman civilization. Economy & Society: Trade: The peaceful conditions of the Early Empire led to an increase of prosperity through trade. Grain was imported to feed the Roman populace, & luxary items were imported from as far away as China. Farming: The basis of Roman prosperity remained farming. agriculture in southern & central Italy was dominated by large, slave-worked estates. Small farms survived in northen Italy. Architecture: The Romans also adopted Greek architectural styles but added curved forms, such as the arch, vault, and dome. They used concrete to construct huge buildings beyond the abilities of the Greeks. Art: The Romans adopted a number of features of Greek art & produced many copies of Greek status, though their own statues tended to be more realistic. Engineering Projects: the Romans were superb builders, constructing a 50, 000-mile network of roads & bridges, as well as aqueducts to provide fresh water for Rome.
Transcript: Fall of Rome Later Emperors and the end of Rome 600 BC Romans are under rule of Etruscan kings. Romans adapted Etruscan language. Romans were learned to take things and make it better. The city of Rome is built of seven hills on the banks of the tiber river. This location prevented invasion from sea. 509 BC wealthy Roman land owners over throw Etruscan King and set a Republic. The Republic had three parts: the Senate, Magistrates, and Assemblies. There were two public classes: the Patricians, and the Plebians. By 265 BC Rome controlls all of Italy south of the Rubicon. To expand army, every male citizen who owned land must be enrolled in army. Men put in legion as legionaires. At that time there were two super powers: Rome and Carthage. The wars between Rome and Carthage were called Punic Wars and lasted from 264 BC till 146 BC. There were three different wars. The third war ended with the defeat of Carthage and Rome destroying the city. Rome is now completely supreme in its power. Because of the expansion of the empire, more power was given to the senate and to the nobles. Roman Empire Beginning of the Reign Of Emperors By 133 BC Rome was facing many problems. The leaders were trying to reform the Rebuplic. The Rebuplic days were numbered. The turning point in Roman history was when the Gracchi brothers were killed. Rome replaced violence for the law as the primary voice in politics. Any one with an Army could do what every he wanted. Gaius Marius brought changes to Rome. He created an army of volunteers in 107 BC who were rewarded with money, conqured land, and the spoils of war. This made the troops loyal to the Generals and not the goverment. After Augustus died in 14AD, Julio-Claudian Emperors reigned for 54 years. Tiberuis reigned from 14AD to 37AD. He was dislikled by all because he ruled poorly. He murdered by his insane succussor Caligula. Claudius ruled the empire after Caligula. During Claudius riegn, Rome conquered Britian. Claudius was murdered by his wife. His wife's son Nero took the throne. Nero was the last Julio-Claudian Emperors. Nero's rule was horrible. A fire swept through Rome and destroyed a huge portion of Rome. After Nero killed himself, The flavian emperors took power. In 180 AD, the last of the good emperors, Marcus Aurelius, died. Shortly after prices inflated. This caused insecuritity in the empire. Attacks on the borders increased. In 250s to 260s Athens and Antioch were sacked. In 284 BC new emperors try to reform Rome. Diolcetian split the power of the goverment and made a second Ceasar and two assisants to rule the different parts of the empire. Constantine was a co-emperor to Diolcetian. Constantine revolted against Diolcetian in a civil war. Constantine won out and took control of the empire. After Constantine died in 337 AD, Rome was stable for 50 more years. In 338AD the goths revolted against Rome. In 410AD the Visigoths Kings sacked Rome. It was the first time in 800 years. The vandals crossed the border with little oppistition. In 429AD the vandals were in control of North Africa. In 455AD they went to Europe to sack Rome. The Empire in the east was destroyed, but the empire in the west remained until 1453 AD. , Rise of Roman Empire Reign of Roman Empire The first Punic War was from 264 BC to 241 BC. Rome had no navy at the time but they adapted to the Carthaginians ships. Rome had advatage in close range combat. Rome made boarding bridges to fight the Carthginians hand to hand. After years of fighting, Carthage asked for a peace . Carthage gave Rome money, and all the islands between Italy and Africa, including Scicily. The second Punic War was from 218BC to 202BC. Carthage had expanded to Gaul. From Gaul, the Carthage general Hannibal invaded Italy through the Alps. Hannibal had a huge army of foot soldiers, calvary, and elephants The Punic Wars Julius Ceasar , Gnaeus Pompey, Licinus Crassus form the first Triumvirate. The Trimumvirate hold a lot of power. Julius and Pompey are the strongest and most powerful people in the Triumvirate. Crassus tries to gain military fame to match the other two memebers, but dies fighting Partha. The Senate know the Pompey and Juluis are too powerful for them. So the Senate appoints Pompey as Consul. As Consul Pompey demands Juluis to come home to Rome and retire from the military. Juluis refuses and marches on Rome. Pompey flees and dies in Greece. Juluis appoints himself Dictator for life. The Senate assaignates Julius and a civil war follows. A second triumvirate appears with Marc Anthony, Octavian, and Lepidus. Lepidus is quickly taken over. Italy is split between Marc Anthony and Octavian. Octavian declares war on Marc Anthony and kills him in Alexandria. Octavian is appointed "first citizen" then Augustus. Augustus becomes Rome first Emperor Ceasar Augustus. Augustus greatly expanded Rome. Under his rule Rome streched from Spain in the west to Syria in the east and Egypt in the south to the Rhine river in the north. This
Transcript: The Bigger they are the harder they fall, but some never fall. Population Outnumber in battle Moral Support The Roman Military By: Dylan Wolf Roman Advantages Population Reinforcments Naval Ablity Moral ability Devotion to Military Intelligence of Miltary Devotion of Roman military Intelligence Roman Naval ability The Romans are the Ancient Gods of War
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