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Transcript: PHYSICS MINI PROJECT DONE BY Sagnik Ayush Nagul Keerthi Jyothi Karunakara Shashank Quadcopter Components Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module The props are rotated in two ways, clockwise and counter clock wise direction to maintain the conservation of angular momentum and restricting the drone from rotating in its own axis. The clockwise directional propellers are known as pusher propellers while the anti clockwise propellers are normal propellers. The propellers we are using are of dimension 10x4.5 inches. More the surface area, more the air to move round the propeller creating a good downward thrust to push the drone upwards as per newtons third law. Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module We r using bldc motors of model A2212 of rating 1000kv i.e. it will rotate 1000 times if one volt is passed. The reason we are using a brushless motor instead of a brushed motor is a brushless motor has an efficiency of 85 to 90% unlike the brushed motor which has an efficiency of 70 to 80% BLDC motors has no brushes so no energy is consumed in heat loss so total power is used to produce rotational force, also it lasts long as there is no brushes so no fear of wearing out. Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module The ESC's or the electronic speed control is one of the main parts of the drone. it is directly connected to the battery at one end, and other end is connected to the motors. The signal pin is connected to the ardupilot which will signal the esc to take the amount of power needed by the motor to rotate. Our esc has a rating of 30Amp, that is it can pass a maximum of 30 Amp of current through it. The esc is a main part because we cannot allow the motor to get inadequate amount of power at a time which can result in unstable flight. It also provides the ardupilot and rx the required voltage to run by stepping the current down to not more than 5V, which is reqd by a RX to run properly Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module GPS module or the neo 7m gps is an advanced gps module with an inbuilt compass in it The gps module will help locate the drone and will help in RTL or Return To Land mode Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module Ardupilot is an open source firmware also known as an autopilot. It can be controlled by softwares like Mission Planner , Ground Control etc. It is coded in mainly Python and C++. It is a customizable autopilot with hundreds of pre installed firmwares and modes to use in quadcopter, rovers, fixed rotor planes, multirotor planes, even in submarines. Propellers BLDC Motors ESC's Ardupilot Drone chasis GPS module Radio Reciever To control the drone we are using 6 channels radio transmitter and receiver. To fly a quadcopter we need 4 channels viz. Pitch Yaw Throttle and Roll. Rest two channels are customizable. We are using one more channel to select the flight mode of our drone. The bandwith of our radio transmitter and receiver is 2.4 Ghz. Working Principle A quadcopter is a multirotor craft that is lifted and propelled using four rotors. The propellers of a quadrotor are vertically oriented and each of them works in varying speeds, giving the aerial vehicle some speed, desired thrust and turning force, required in moving the quadcopter on the air. It is controlled by 4 components - Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Throttle YAW Yaw is basically the movement of the drone on its vertical axis, say z axis. It helps the drone to move its nose in left and right direction by slowing down the desired side's rotor and its diagonal rotor which creates an extra angular momentum which rotates the drone on its vertical axis. PITCH Pitch is the movement of the drone in its y axis. It is done to move the drone backward or forward, for example, to move the drone forward, the front two motors are slowed which creates a horizontal drag and the weight also acts vertically, to counter it a force acts opposite to the resultant force which makes move forward. ROLL Roll is the movement of drone on its x axis. To make the drone roll on any side, the motors on the desired side are reduced which again creates a drag and the other two motors give a thrust which makes the drone roll toward the desired side. It is the same concept as Pitch but in different axis. THROTTLE Throttle is the altitude adjustment of the drone, more the throttle, more the thrust, which helps the drone to gain a better altitude. it just includes in the mechanism of increasing all 4 motor power which results in increased thrust and more altitude. Applications Initially drones were used for military purposes but now drones are used in almost all purposes. They are still used in defence as inception of drones is complicated. It helps in weather forecasting it helps as a surveillance device to places where human cannot reach easily it is used as telecommunications it is used as a mode of emergency response in areas affected by disasters. it is used


Transcript: QUADCOPTER UAV's DRONE INTRO TO UAV's UAV's are UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE that are remotely controlled,commonly known as drone.It has combination of components having four motors.Quadcopters generally use two pairs of identical fixed pitched propellers; two clockwise (CW) and two counterclockwise (CCW). ORG. CHART (UAV's) UAV's DRONE ESC's BATTERY MOTORS QUADCOPTER FLIGHT CONTROLLER SENSORS SCHEMATIC WITH DIMENSION Schematics Quadcopter & Components ESC's ESC's Esc's stands for Electronic Speed Controller.It converts the PWM signal from the flight controller or radio receiver, and drives the brushless motor by providing the appropriate level of electrical power. working of esc Esc to motors Each one of the motors has three wires which are directly connected to the respective electronic speed controller (or ESC). The speed controllers were attached to the main battery through a MPX connector. These speed controllers also require a connection to a 5V DC power supply, ground wiring, and the use of the PWM pins on the processing board. MOTORS BRUSHLESS MOTORS Use of brushless motors in aircraft increases the efficiency.For these reasons it is preferable to use brushless motors, because loss of structural integrity of the quadrotor due to motor failure should be avoided by using more reliable equipment. The speed of a brushless motor is controlled by an Electronic Speed Controllers (or ESC). 15% 45% 30% 20% 50% MICRO-CONTROLLERS & SENSORS MICROCONTROLLERS microcontroller platform is quite inexpensive and has a C-based language development environment that is very intuitive to use.Here using flight controller FLIGHT CONTROLLER FLIGHT CONTROLLER Flight controller(KK2.1) is the micro-controller which synchronize all the components It contain Accelerometer and Gyrometer MPU 6050,with LCD display. OTHERS BATTERY PROPELLERS SPECIFICATION: -li-po battery(3S) -11.1V-12V power supply -25C -2200 mAh SPECIFICATION: -Material (plastic) -10" X 4.5" weight and throtle output all motors TRAINING TIMELINE CLICK TO EDIT TEXT range of advancement in model APPLICATIONS Drones are able to stands for various purpose and also gives the high efficiency outcome. Previously, applications of drones was seen only around the war and as a weapon. With the increase in application and mandatory requirement, they are used in different areas for having a huge amount of implementation. APPLICATION APPLICATION LIST Drones are capable in the fields: -Surveillance -Agriculture area -Transportation -Military purpose -Public safety -Emergency & Disaster responses CLICK TO EDIT TEXT CONCLUSION

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