Transcript: Protein By, Amber,Stefanie ,Alexis, and Kayedi Function of Proteins Function of Proteins The function of protein is to build muscle and new cell tissue Different types of nutrients Different types of nutrients Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamans, Minerals, and water Food Examples of Each Type: Food Examples of Each Type: Incomplete Protein: Grains and vegetables Complete Protein: Meat and dairy PRO: One advantage to a high protein intake is that it may promote short-term weight loss. Giving your body the tools it needs to build and repair lean muscle mass burns calories even while you're at rest, speeding up your metabolism of fat. Pros and Cons of Protein Pros and Cons of Protein CON: According to Harvard University, a high-protein diet may increase calcium and oxalate excretion, which promotes the growth of kidney stones. Complete proteins provide the nine essential amino acids, found in meat and dairy. Incomplete proteins only provide a few of the essential amino acids, found in vegetables and grains. Both provide energy to do things. Compare and Contrast Compare and Contrast Video and performance Video and performance Performance of Proteins: Non- athletes need 0.4 or 0.5 grams of proteins. Athletes need 0.5 or 0.8 grams of protein. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Chbm84sCBAw Protein Video Protein Video
Transcript: -one or more chains of amino acids -have different properties depending on the chain sequence Foods that contain proteins. Structural proteins Enzymes What Is A Protein? Transport proteins -meats, beans, nuts, etc. -amino acid chains -DNA is transcribed into mRNA -made is the ribosome -there are 20 different amino acids -tRNA: where amino acids are being translated Functions that proteins serve in the Human Body Antibodies -amino acids are the monomers of a protein Motor proteins PROTEIN!!! Substances that are considered proteins Signaling proteins Storage proteins Receptors What is the monomer of a protein and describe these monomers? How Proteins Are Made Hormones -regulate the body's functions -helps with the formation of cells -they transport and store chemical compounds -they storage energy
Transcript: Proteins -Joel and Natalie Definition A protein is a type of macro-molecule. More specifically a protein is a macro-molecule that are polymers of amino acids. The major function of a protein is to help in metabolism by acting as an enzyme, hormone, or a carrier What is a Protein? Chemical Structure Macro-Molecule A type of molecule that contains a large number of atoms Examples include Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and nucleic acids Macro-Molecule Amino Acids are organic compound groups that contain amine and carboxyl. A carboxyl group is made up of a carbon atom that is double bonded with an oxygen atom and is single bonded with hydrogen. Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids The Connection The connection between amino acids and proteins are when multiple amino acids bond together, they form a protein Amino Acids combine through dehydration synthesis. In this process one of the amino acid chains loses an oxygen and one hydrogen, and the other chain loses a hydrogen atom. They create H20 and the chains combine and become dehydrated. Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis Carboxyl Group Examples Amine Group R = More Molecules Another example is Ribose Enzymes: Substance produced by an organism that slows down or speeds up a reaction aka a catalyst Hormones: Regulatory substance produced by an organism and transported in tissue fluids to stimulate specific cells into action Carriers: Proteins that carry substances from one side of the membrane to the other Examples of protein include... Examples of Protein
Transcript: Protein Sources Protein Deficiency Tuna/ 40g Chicken Breast/ 53g Eggs/ 23g Ground beef/ 32g Cottage Cheese/ 28g Structural protein maintains the bones. The enzymes are responsible for most of the body functions Stimulates muscle growth Provides antibodies against diseases A single cell contains mostly protein Causes Kwashiokor Causes Marasmus Builds belly fat Stumps growth Body eats away muscle www.sunwarrior.com/what-is-protein Histidine Isoleucine Lysine Methionie Phenyanine Therom Tryptophan Valine Video Link Protein Presentation By: Bryan Cuellar Food Science Period 1 Components of Protein What does protein provide to the body?
Transcript: Protein Synthesis the process by which the information in a strand of dna is cpoied into a new molecule of messenger rna. Transciption Transcription Translations is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger rna and mrna molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis Translation Translation Subtopic 1 Subtopic 1 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together between the carboxyl atom of one amino acid Protein Protein Text Text Pictures Pictures amino acid is and organic compound characterized by having carboxyl group and side chain attached to a central carbon atom Amino Acid Amino Acid Map Map Chart Chart Codon is a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis Codon Codon Timeline Timeline 2019 where DNA guanine always hydrogen bonds to cytosine and adenine binds to thymine A-T C-G Complementary base pairs Complementary base pa is a three letter sequence of Mrna that codes for amino acis Codon chart Codon Chart peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of another molecule Peptide Bond Peptide Bond A triplet of nucleotide bases in transfer RNA that identifies the amino acid carried and binds to a complementary codon is messenger rna during protein synthesis at a ribosome. Anti-Codon Anti-Codon Its from RNA is known as translation translatins occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. Cytoplasm cytoplasm Structure and DNA is surrounded by a membrane the nucleus houses the cells DNA and directs the synthesis of protein and ribosomes. Nucleus Nucleus Ribosomes are sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place. Cells have many ribosomes. Ribosome Ribosome mRNA is translated into protein by the joint action of transfer tRNA and the ribosome, which is composed of numerous proteins. mRNA mRNA Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein. tRNA tRNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecule in cells that forms part of the protein synthesizing organelle known as a ribosome and that is exported to the cytoplasm to help translate the information in messenger RNA into protein. rRNA rRNA a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein. Gene Gene The process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells often called gametes. Meiosis Meiosis A sequence of three nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or start /stop signal during translation. Gene Sequence Gene Sequence Mendel's studies yielded three laws. the law of dominance, the law of segreagation, and the law of independent assortment. Laws of Inheritance Laws of Inheritance
Transcript: What is Acetylcholinesterase? An Enzyme Stops the signal between nerves and muscles. Structure Very vulnerable to poisons Snakes can affect this which leads to the muscles paralyzing Protein Presentation Acetylcholinesterase Found between nerve and muscle cells Destroys acetlycholine which leads to the muscle relazing. Composed of 12-stranded mixed beta sheet Surrounded by 14 alpha helices which gives it a tertiary structure. Acetylcholinesterase and poisons/Toxins
Transcript: 6 Asparagine (Hydrophillic) Soy Beans (0.4 grams of protein per gram) (4) Salami (0.22 grams of protein per gram) Egg (0.12 grams of protein per gram) (4) Tofu (0.08 grams of protein per gram) (4) 4 calories/gram of protein Proteins 4 5 Important Types of Proteins Contractile allow muscles to move Defensive protect the body from harmful chemicals/diseases Signal hormones and communications between cells Receptor transmit signals into cells Transport deliver important molecules Storage hold enzymes and amino acids 1 Collagen Protein (Space-Filling Model) Molecular Formula • Amino Acids • Contain an amino group and a carboxyl group that are bonded to a central carbon atom (1) • Bonded to central carbon atom is hydrogen atom and R (chemical group) (1) • Specific characteristics based off "R" (2) • Two main types of amino acids (hydrophobic and hydrophillic) (1) • Based on behavior of "R" with polar solvents (water) classified as either hydrophobic or hydrophillic (2) Glycine (Hydrophobic) Most abundant chemical Structure, strength, metabolism Outer membranes Organ and tissues Enzymes Polymers https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/1GZX_Haemoglobin.png http://lysozyme.co.uk/results/lysozyme-cpk.jpg http://courses.washington.edu/conj/protein/coll.gif http://chsweb.lr.k12.nj.us/mstanley/outlines/organicap/image215.gif http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Peptide.gif http://www.abcte.org/files/previews/biology/BioMod%203%5B1%5D.3%20secondary%20structure.jpg http://www.chembio.uoguelph.ca/educmat/phy456/gif/tim001.gif http://xray.bmc.uu.se/Courses/bioinformatik2003/Intro/quat_struc.jpg http://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/peptide_bond.htm http://www.imgt.org/IMGTeducation/Aide-memoire/_UK/aminoacids/formuleAA/ http://omlc.org/spectra/hemoglobin/hemestruct/ppix-struct.gif https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Glutathione-from-xtal-3D-balls.png http://www.peoplequiz.com/images/bios/Linus_pauling.jpg-1542.jpg https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/b1/4e/39/b14e39c73cb4601aa4809376dc657a5c.jpg http://www.chem4kids.com/files/art/bio_enzyme1.png Monomers 2 1 Proteins in the Human Body (6) Reece, Jane B., Martha R. Taylor, Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, and Neil A. Campbell. Biology, Concepts and Connections. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2009. Print. Al Karadaghi, Salam. "The 20 Amino Acids: Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, Polar and Charged Amino Acids." The 20 Amino Acids: Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic, Polar and Charged Amino Acids. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Nov. 2015. Carnot, Sadi. "Hemoglobin - Hmolpedia." Hemoglobin - Hmolpedia. Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics, 20 July 2015. Web. 09 Nov. 2015. Whitebread, Daisy. "Top 10 Foods Highest in Protein." <i>HealthAliciousNess</i>. N.p., 2008. Web. 06 Nov. 2015. Larin, Oleg. "The Peptide Bond." - Peptide Guide. 2007. Web. 09 Nov. 2015. <http://www.peptideguide.com/peptide-bond.html>. Thompson, Noelle. "What Are the Functions of Protein in the Human Body?" LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 12 Jan. 2014. Web. 09 Nov. 2015. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/407936-what-are-the-functions-of-protein-in-the-human-body/>. Works Cited Proteins made of precisely bound polypeptide chains. Chains made of amino acids bound together sections of over 100 amino acids long in a specific order. (1) Molecular Formula of Hemoglobin: C2952 H4664 O832 N812 S8 Fe4 (3) brought to you by Roman, Jasmine, Gary, and Beaven There are thousands of different three dimensional structures that change what a protein does Proteins can also be changed by what order the amino acids are in The most important role of proteins is as enzymes speed chemical reactions regulate chemical reactions initiate chemical reactions Features of Proteins Lysozyme Protein (Space-Filling Model) Works Cited (Pictures) Examples of Proteins Carboxyl and amino groups (5) 50 = Peptides (5) Proteins polypeptides synonymous Linus Pauling (5) Polarity (5) Resonance Structure (5) Polypeptide Bonds Polypeptide chains have several structures. (1) Primary Structure Polypeptide Chains Secondary Structure Alpha Helix or Pleated Sheet Tertiary Structure Polypeptide Subunit Quaternary Structure Combination of subunits Protein High Foods Glutathione (peptide) 3 Hemoglobin Protein (Ribbon Model)
Transcript: Evan L. Amylase Protein Info Basic Information • Amylase is an enzyme that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars. In nature, amylase is almost always present in the green parts of plants, although grains and starchy plants yield its heaviest concentrations • Amylase is found most commonly in the pancreas of nearly all animals, but it is also found in the salivary glands as well. • The function of amylase is the splitting of a compound by addition of a water molecule of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules such as maltose, which is a molecule composed of two glucose molecules. Glutamine is an amino acid found in amylase Amino acid found in amylase More Info: More Details The molecular weight of amylase is between 51.0 and 54.0 kilodaltons. Amylase has 496 amino acids in it. amylase consists of one subunit; a polypeptide chain of 496 amino acids, which forms three distinct domains A, B, and C • Abnormal levels of amylase may indicate pancreatitis or another problem with the pancreas. The treatment for pancreatitis usually results in a hospital stay, where fluid replacement and dietary changes are used. 3D Structure of amylase 3D Visual Pictures Pictures DNA Sequence Protein Structures Structures and Visuals Quaternary Structure Primary Structure Possible Primary Structure 2 Fun Facts Additional Interesting Facts It helps break down glucose Salivary amylase is also known as ptyalin. http://www.jbc.org/content/258/2/1007.full.pdf https://www.britannica.com/science/amylase https://draxe.com/nutrition/amylase/ https://collab.its.virginia.edu/access/content/group/f85bed6c-45d2-4b18-b868-6a2353586804/2/Ch22_Morris_H_Alpha_Amylase_(Human_Salivary)-_-/Ch22_Morris_H_Alpha_Amylase_(Human_Salivary)_Human_Salivary_Alpha_Amylase.html https://study.com/academy/lesson/salivary-amylase-structure-chemistry.html https://collab.its.virginia.edu/access/content/group/f85bed6c-45d2-4b18-b868-6a2353586804/2/Ch07_Schutte_S_Alpha-Amylase_(Salivary)-_-/Ch07_Schutte_S_Alpha-Amylase_(Salivary)_Alpha_amylase.html Citations
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