Transcript: The idea is to tell the story of SEMIS in a way that... Continue analysis and writing of narrative vignettes Draft of Chapter V Timeline 1. What theories help teacher educators to understand and describe the development of an “eco-ethical consciousness?” What ought to be the role of education? interviews of current and past key members of the organization, November 25th Study population will be recruited using a convenience sample of approximately 20-30 adults being interviewed. What previous experiences or events brought you to SEMIS? Defend the dissertation and graduate in December 2013 IV. EcoJustice Education Sample Interview Questions Purpose of the Study Ethnographic case study research of a reform effort that explores the potential and power of teaching and learning to be members of socially-just and environmentally sustainable communities. January 5th HSA Approval Begin first round of interviews Martusewicz, & Edmundson, 2005 To better understand teacher learning, and communicate a need for programs that support the development of both an “eco-ethical consciousness” and a “pedagogy of responsibility”. 2. How can/does an intermediary organization work with adult learners to foster the development of a “pedagogy of responsibility?” January 31st Brokering and leveraging resources Essential Secondary Questions Set 1: For all subjects interviewed who are, or were directly involved with SEMIS. Introduction What experiences or events brought you to that work? No vulnerable populations and no individuals under 18 will be part of the research. "Deep" Design of SEMIS A. EcoJustice Education B. Adult Learning and Development C. Summary D. Implications E. Further Research November 25th I hold the position that… Examining and identifying how to teach skills, and habits of mind, that support socially-just and environmentally sustainable communities. Investigate the design of a unique intermediary organization on the cutting edge of educational reform. Ethnographic research that closely examines and sets out to communicate the complex design of how a local intermediary organization draws from theories of professional development and school change to form articulated “theories of action” from which the research will provide an actual “theory of action” for the organization. In this critical moment in history, we need a major shift in how we perceive and interact with the world. How do you describe the connections between environmental degradation and social justice? which undermine living systems and ought to be minimized or eliminated. May 31st April 15th Typically they engage in: Continue interviews and transcriptions Drafts of Chapter IV Section A & B (Contextualizing Lit for EJE, Adult Learning, and other emerging themes) Final Drafts of main vignettes telling the story of SEMIS Drafts of Chapter V Section B: Articulated Structure, and Section C: Articulated Theories of Action, and Section D: Actual Theories of Action III. Autobiographical Statement/Self-Reflexivity Setting the context for the proposed research. Research Questions What do you think SEMIS does successfully? Dissertation Proposal Defense January 5th Any organization that operates between policy—or any set of principles—and implementers. Illuminates a “theory of action” (Argryis, & Schön, 1974) that emerges from the thick descriptions (Geertz, 1973) in the story of SEMIS. Subjects More Specifically: All participation will be voluntary and subjects may withdraw at any time without penalty or consequence 1. Phase 1: Ethnographic Observations of SEMIS 2. Phase 2: The Story of SEMIS Design the identification and analysis of documents archived by SEMIS. observations of the structure and function of the organization, When did you start to make those connections? Draft of Chapter V and VI What do you think limits or challenges SEMIS? Methods draw heavily from critical ethnography, oral history, and case study research that culminates in a "deep" description of the design of SEMIS. Overarching Question February 15th A. Eco-ethical Consciousness B. Pedagogy of Responsibility A. Statement of the Problem B. Purpose of the Study C. Significance of the Study D. Conceptual Framework for the Study E. Definitions F. Organization of the Chapters Table of Contents Set 2: For those subjects interviewed with strong influence on SEMIS but may not be directly aware of or involved in the organization. That traces the roots of SEMIS through… The unique design of an intermediary organization framed in EcoJustice Education. Proposal approved by committee HSA submitted Schools overwhelmingly prepare students for roles in communities shaped by individualism and consumerism at the expense of healthy social and environmental relationships… Ethnographic case study research. Begin Revisions / Preparation for Fall Defense Autobiographical story "Backyard Research" written Drafts of Chapters I and II May 1st a. Subjects b. Procedures c. Results d. Limitations e. Conclusion March
Transcript: Dissertation Proposal Defense James Vaughn Native San Franciscan Dissertation Committee Dissertation Committee Dr. Timothy McCarty, Dissertation Chair Dr. Keith Larick, Dissertation Committee Member Dr. Charles Young, Dissertation Committee Member Personal/Family Personal/Family James Vaughn Father of 3 Sons- Co-Parent w/ Tanya Legacy of Educators on Maternal Grandfather’s side Man of God Youngest of 5 siblings Professional Professional 27 years in Education Principal K-8 Current position - Director of Student Services Autism Coordinator Director of Special Education summer school and extended school year Procedure & Activities Education Doctoral Candidate, Organizational Leadership, Brandman University Masters in Special Education- San Jose State University Education Specialist II Credential- San Jose State University Bachelors of Science- Administration of Justice, SJSU Effective School Board Presidents: Dissertation Title Tasks, Teamwork, and Relationships Statement of the Research Problem Statement of the Research Problem complex issues complex issues School board presidents and school board teams face complex issues such as such as student discipline, budget and finance, distance learning and COVID-19 new legislation new legislation School board presidents and teams face new legislation the California Voting Rights Act (CVRA) School presidents lead meetings School presidents lead meetings School presidents lead meetings and their school board teams need to adhere to policies such as the Brown Act need strategies need strategies School board presidents and school board teams need strategies to help manage various types of conflict Limited research Limited research Limited research on school board presidents and how they work with their school board teams mesh and work together as a team mesh and work together as a team Limited research on how groups of elected officials mesh and work together as a team Purpose Statement Purpose The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study is to describe team dynamics challenges exemplary school board presidents’ face as they make complex board policy decisions based on Parker’s twelve characteristics of effective teams. Additionally, this study will describe strategies that exemplary school board presidents use to build governance teams during complex board policy decisions. Research Questions Research Questions How are the team dynamics challenges that exemplary school board presidents describe as they make complex board policy decisions based on Parker’s twelve characteristics of effective teams? team dynamics challenges team dynamics challenges Step 2 strategies Review of Literature 8 Key Factors Historical Context Historical Context History of School Boards School Board Members and School Board Presidents Policies & Legislation Complex Issues Existing School Board Team Development Existing School Board Team Development Governance Team Professional Development CSBA Masters in Governance Modules Theoretical Foundations of Team Models Synthesis of Team Development Models Theoretical Framework- Parker’s Model Theoretical Foundations and Framework Theoretical Foundations and Framework Gap in Literature This study will contribute to the literature by exploring the collective team challenges school board members face as they engage in collaborative activities from the lens of school board presidents. Development of team dynamics need more exploration as teams are engaged in these critical decision-making situations and are learning their roles and responsibilities as school board members. While many types of teams have been studied, school board presidents working with their associate school board members, have not been studied. Additional research is needed to understand the team building processes as school boards debate and decide upon complex school board policies. Gap in Literature Significance of the Study This study will contribute to the literature by exploring the collective team challenges school board members face as they engage in collaborative activities from the lens of school board presidents. Development of team dynamics strategies require more analysis as school board teams are entrenched in these crucial decision-making situations and are learning their roles and responsibilities as school board members and when implementing board policies. The development of an unhealthy governance team and can have a negative impact on the district and the implementation of board policies that impact student achievement. On the positive side, healthy school boards can make decisions that are supported by all stakeholders and this process leads to better educational programs for students. unhealthy governance team Methodology: Qualitative multi-case study conducted through interviews of 5 exemplary school board presidents of California unified school districts. Qualitative methods utilized to describe the team dynamics challenges of school board presidents as they
Transcript: -history of anthropology and sociology -gender/sexuality -Jewish diasporic subjectivity -internal colonialism Ruth Landes 1908-1991 I interrogate how Jewish female anthropologists and sociologists (like women in imperialist projects and national struggles from the end of the 19th century until WWII) may have proved their nationalist-imperialist belonging and “modern” subjectivities through their research with black and indigenous women (Brodkin 1998; Burton 1994:7; Mufti 1998; Woollacott 2006:104). BACKGROUND Forming gendered and racialized Jewish subjectivities in the internal colony: Jewish women social scientists and their transracial, transdisciplinary and transnational networks, 1920-1965 Problem Statement Definitions of Jewishness Theoretical Sampling Significance Concept Model Three kinds of networks "webbed connectivities" (Patil 2015:1, 12) challenging the gender of "theory" "connected histories" (Subrahmanyam 1997) Research Timeline Social Network Analysis Ellen Hellmann 1908-1982 A "Jewish" science? anti-Semitism-->racism internal colonization diaspora as networks relational and embodied practices, and processes of becoming (Damon 1996: 495; Schwadron 2013; Mufti 2007). Mufti: “oppositional culture,” a form of decolonization in-between-ness (Schwadron 2013): a conflict between assimilation into the white norm, versus affirmation of difference (King 2000) racialized Jewish stereotypes impacted self-understandings (Bloul 2013) embodied (gendered and sexualized) experiences of being Jewish, how they envisioned their bodies, how they performed gendered and sexualized Jewishness (Schwadron 2013) During Phase C: travel to three archives in order to gain access to the papers of the three core women including: manuscripts, journals, field notes, correspondence, photographs, and any existing ethnographic object collections. Fighting anti-Semitism by "remote control" & proving "modern" subjectivities Abby Gondek PhD student Global and Socio-cultural Studies Florida International University Dissertation Proposal Defense, April 22, 2016 METHODOLOGY Data Collection Central Research Objective Data Analysis Viola Klein 1908-1973 Grounded theory methodology: Phases A & C: open/eclectic coding, reflective and analytical memos Phase E: axial and thematic coding Social Network Analysis: Phases B & D edge lists "ego-centric networks with alter-connections" node properties and relation attributes Reflexive writing style Phase A: May-July 2016 Published materials Phase B: August-September 2016 SNA I Phase C: October 2016 – March 2017 Archival Visits Phase D: April 2017-May 2017 SNA II Phase E: June 2017 – April 2018 Dissertation Writing
Transcript: Students in alternative schools Critical Theory recognition power relations possibility for transformation California State University, San Marcos Tuesday, October 18, 2011 Methodology (McLaren & Girarelli, 1995, p.2) student view of instruction (Atkins et al., 2005; Brown, T., 2007; Foley & Pang, 2006; Kelly, 1993; Kim & Taylor, 2008; Lehr & Lange, 2003; McNulty & Roseboro, 2009; Muñoz, 2004; Quinn et al., 2006; Warren, 2007) Informs policy and procedures Many establishing a caring and supportive environment Lack of rigorous academic standards Self-Determination Theory (SDT) Generalizability Critical Theory Self-Determination Theory Student Voice (APA, 2008; Marinez 2009; Skiba & Rausch, 2006; Wallace, Goodkind, Wallace, & Bachman, 2008) Created for the benefit of the traditional schools Critical Constructivist Theoretical Framework Basic pyscological needs: autonomy competency relatedness A Mixed Methods Examination of Student Experience in an Alternative School Real Huge Can we reimagine alternative education? Statement of the Problem Research 1) Who attends alternative school? (Arcia, 2006; Brown, T., 2007; Cox, 1999; Kelly, 1993; Kim & Taylor, 2008; Lehr, Tan, & Ysseldyke, 2009; McNulty & Roseboro, 2009; Muñoz, 2004) Gives voice and advocates for students who have been marginalized Achievement Serving students labeled “at-risk” of educational failure Warehousing underperforming students Most vunerable and disadvantaged (Atkins et al., 2005; Darling & Price, 2004; Fairbrother, 2008; Loutzenheiser, 2002; Washington, 2008) recognition power relations possibility for transformation new methodology? critical enlightenment, critical emancipation, interpretation immanance (Brown, T., 2007; Kim & Taylor, 2008; Lehr et al., 2009; McNulty & Roseboro, 2009; Muñoz, 2004; Warren, 2007). Uniting logic and emotion Impossible to separate the knower and the known Practical for critical social action Acceptance of complexity Knowledge is socially constructed Power plays an exaggerated role Member checking Data triangulation (Lehr & Lange, 2003; Lehr et al., 2009) Deci & Ryan (2000) Overview student outcomes Limitations Real Alternatives? Research Questions Researcher Espistemology Reserarcher Espitomology The Gaps Significance The results might imply that alternative education has a hugh mountain or just a few peaks to climb to become a real alternative. What are the descriptive statistics? What are their goals? What is their perceived basic psychological needs satisfaction? How might students be associated into homogenous groups? Literature Review student experiences Theoretical Framework Student Voice Proposal Defense by Susan Glassett Committee in Charge Limitations supports and barriers Methodology Provides a systemic view from the student perspective communication as dialogue 2) What is the lived student experience before, during, and after attending an alternative school? Real Alternative? Adds to our knowledge Literature Review Tip Positionality Discipline Enrollment in alternative schools is increasing , due in part to excessive use of zero tolerance policies. Traditionally underserved students are being disproportionately suspended and expelled Research Questions (Darling & Price, 2004; de la Ossa, 2005; Fairbrother, 2008; May & Copeland, 1998; Poyrazli et al., 2008; Quinn et al., 2006; Saunders & Saunders, 2001; Washington, 2008). Data Operate with a relatively high degree of autonomy All aspects need research, especially research on student outcomes. (Kincheloe, 2005) Dr Erika Daniels, Chair Dr. Patricia Prado-Olmos Dr. Carolyn Hofstetter student profiles What are student outcomes from attending alternative school?? What factors (structural and cultural) support or challenge academic achievement and persistence in school? Statement of the Problem Improves practice Kincheloe and McLaren (2005) Significance of the study "Critical theory is, at its center, an effort to join empirical investigation, the task of interpretation, and a critque of this reality." Little to no accountability for student outcomes in alternative schools
Transcript: How I got here "Education ... [has] to do with the timeless question of how we are to live." -David Orr Purpose: What are the experiences that lead to ecological habits of mind in high school students? How might we provide such experiences in education to nurture ecological mindedness in other students? “You've got to jump off cliffs all the time and build your wings on the way down.” -Annie Dillard Study Design: Interview 5-10 high school students (twice each) and their parents (once each). Defend Proposal Pilot interview guides Submit application to IRB Data collection and analysis Data analysis and writing of dissertation chapters Defense of dissertation Four major dimensions of educational criticism: description, interpretation, evaluation, developing themes Timeline [my dad, my baby sister, and me] ecological care interconnectedness ecological integrity additional qualities? continuum of ecological mindedness 1. What are the values of high school students who are ecologically minded? 2. What childhood experiences contribute to the development of ecological mindedness in high school students? 3. What is the significance of the experiences of ecologically minded students for K-12 education in general? With Green in Mind Rocky Mountain National Park, 2011 experiences Nature is a significant part of my life, and the places that mean the most to me are all outside. I care about the health of the earth. I am a teacher. I want my kids to get the opportunity to be in nature and benefit from it the way I do (hopefully falling in love with it). As a teacher, I want to nurture ecologically minded qualities in children. Casper Mountains Wyoming, 1979 Grand Canyon, 1994 Factors that Influence Ecological Habits of Mind in High School Students What experiences lead to this end of the continuum? November 2012 November 2012 November 2012 December 2012- January 2013 December 2012- April 2013 May 2013 Research Questions no ecological care no sense of interconnectedness lack of ecological integrity absence of additional ecological qualities Why this study Interviewing: hearing stories and understanding the lived experience Method: Interviewing & Educational Criticism and Connoisseurship experiences Conceptual frameworks: aesthetic dimensions of education (CRISPA) and an ecological lens (and remain open to anything else that emerges)
Transcript: I Matter: Understanding the Self-care Practices of School Counselors and How Internal and External Factors Create Barriers Problem The # of students who request to see a counselor, each day, on average. 13% of children ages 8 to 15 have issues related to mental health. 1 student suicide 9 students this year have attempted self-harm/suicide on school property. Self-care is actively sustaining the personal and professional self through purposeful and proactive efforts to replenish the physical and psychological self. Introduction Introduction The percentage of school counselors operating with some form of impairment. Research Questions: 1.) What are the self-care habits of Missouri school counselors? 2.) How do internal and external factors influence school counselor self-care habits? Theoretical Frameworks Review of Literature Clayton Alderfer's E.R.G. Theory Robert Kegan & Lisa Lahey's Immunity to Change Theory Key Elements of the Review of Literature School counseling is a "high touch" profession. School counselors advocate for self-care, yet they fall short in achieving healthy self-care practices themselves. The average school counselor is only productive for 10 years before impairment becomes an overwhelming barrier. Deficits in meeting physiological needs (sleep, hydration, nutrition, & exercise) is linked with deficits in well-being such as depression, anxiety, poor decision making, low cognitive performance, and others. School counselors are vulnerable to satisfy relatedness needs as their role differs largely from other school positions. Many school counselors experience role ambiguity and extraneous job assignments which interfere with their professional identity, causing growth needs (e.g. work-life balance) to become frustrated. Self-care is an ETHICAL MANDATE for school counselors. Validating Quantitative Data Mixed-Methods Approach Methods Research Sample Stage 1 of Data Collection Electronic Survey Researcher-generated list of Missouri school counselor email addresses yielded 2,575 emails, representing 483 of the 565 school districts in Missouri (approx. 85%). Researcher goal is to receive 500 or more responses to the electronic survey during a 4-week initial data collection time frame, with a reminder email occurring between weeks 2 and 3. Research Sample Stage 2 of Data Collection Focus Groups Participants may self-select to participate in a focus group facilitated by the researcher via digital discussion. Researcher goal is to receive at least 20 participants interested in a follow-up discussion of self-care. Collection Instrument Collection Instruments Stage 1 of Data Collection Electronic Survey-Survey Monkey Demographics: 9 Questions Role, Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Years in Counseling, Years in Current School District, Grade Level, Student-to-Counselor Ratio, and Missouri Geographical Location Existence Needs: 14 Questions Sleep, Hydration, Nutrition, and Exercise Relatedness Needs: 11 Questions Interpersonal Relationships, Belongingness, and Interpersonal Esteem Growth Needs: 10 Questions Work-life Balance, Self-esteem, and Personal and Professional Development Locus of Control: 6 Questions Open-ended Questions investigating the control school counselors feel over their own self-care practices/habits Stage 2 of Data Collection Focus Groups (Plan B: Interviews via phone) Competing Commitments: 5 Questions Open-ended questions investigating the competing commitments (visible or hidden) that work against another stated goal (i.e. those things working against achieving healthy self-care practices). 50 Questions Trustworthiness, Limitations and Delimitations Trustworthiness, Limitations and Delimitations TRUSTWORTHINESS Internal Validity: Researcher generated questions; survey relies heavily on face validity External Validity: Study is best transferable to 31 states with a similar policy context as Missouri Self-care set within two existing theoretical frameworks LIMITATIONS Timing of Data Collection Method of collecting school counselor email addresses Predetermined survey responses on most questions Survey as primary data tool DELIMITATIONS Population includes Missouri school counselors only Forced, 4-point Likert Scale, no "neutral" response Chosen Theoretical Frameworks Tentative Timeline Tentative Timeline
Transcript: Learn to Communicate Communicate to Learn Memory Social Cognition "Why" Audience Collaboration Beliefs Goals Qualitative Grounded Theory Create Meaning • This study is delimited to first through fifth grade teachers. • All teachers in the study will be selected from suburban communities in Northeastern Illinois. • The research utilized within this study will conclude within one school calendar year. • The information communicated in data collection is limited to the accuracy and honesty of participants’ answers. • Study participants are instructors in the elementary grade level setting, and not from middle or upper grades. Common Core State Standards Learning outcomes for students grades K-12 and college readiness. 4 writing anchor standards 3 styles of written works tools for writing + addresses writing content based on frameworks for writing development, instruction and assessment. - does not address essential writing skills such as motivation, feedback and revision (Troia & Olinghouse). - lacks a variety of writing outcomes (Lawrence, Galloway, Yim & Lin, 2013). Jessica Thacker Holt Wednesday, March 18, 2015 Purpose of the Study Importance of Writing : Influences of Flower and Hayes' Model Delimitations/Limitations Writing Constraints Research Timeline Artifact elicitation of teacher lesson plans relate to participants' beliefs and views on writing instruction components (Mirriam, 2009). Potential to generate additional perspectives during the interview process (Wagner, 2011). The Common Core State Standards for Writing Can be a predictor of academic success (Nora, de la Cruz, Pozo, & Neira, 2006). Protections National policy is now seen as an agent of change in public education. (Spring, 2005). Dissertation Proposal Writing is viewed as a secondary literacy skill to reading (Wray, 2013). In the progression of learning development, writing is typically the last skill taught (Learner, 2002). (Hicks, 2011; Morgan, 2014) Teacher Interviews Teacher Lesson Plans Memoing Common Core State Standards Technology Definition of Terms Common Core State Standards: Educational standards established for kindergarten through twelfth grade by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices Writing acquisition: The processes used for individuals to effectively learn how to compose written works. Writing instruction components: How the subject of writing is taught to students. Writing mechanics: The correct use of basic print conventions. Writing structure: organization of ideas used in written compositions. Long Term Memory Background knowledge, audience Working Memory Coordinating of writing skills Multiple processes Students with reduced memory capacity may struggle as writers. Cognitive Writing Acquisition The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish what two different educational groups (teachers and educational legislators), each deemed as experts in their own right, determine as essential components of writing instruction. A secondary purpose is to determine the compatibility of these essential components between the two groups. Writing expectations as outlined by CCSS fall within the bottom three levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Teacher expectations of writing fall within the top three levels. Theoretical Framework Memoing Jot ideas that contribute to the evolving theory (Cresswell, 2007). Used during and after collecting data to identify relevant information (Goulding, 2002). Teacher Expectations Study of college teachers showed they have higher expectations than CCSS (Wolsey, Lapp & Fisher, 2012). Studies of high school teachers showed higher expectations than CCSS (McMackin, 1994; Nauman, Stirling & Borthwick, 2011). Content > Mechanics Research Questions There is a mismatch between teacher expectations and educational policy. Constructivist Framework (Miles, Huberman & Saldana, 2004; Riessman, 2003). Thematic (Bazeley, 2013; Miles, Huberman & Saldana, 2004; Squire, Andrews & Tamboukou, 2008). Comparative Pattern Analysis (Patton, 2002; Hays & Singh, 2012). Hayes Model (1996) Writing is the most prevalent communication disability (Hooper, Swartz, Wakely, Kruif &Montgomery, 2002). National and State Standards vs. Teacher Standards Data Collection Writing is essential to education. Data analysis is completed thoroughly. Participants will be willing and honest. Narratives will be analyzed through the language The Need to Study Writing Image retrieved on 3/15/15 from http://www.louterpromoveren.nl/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/hayes.jpg Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis of Effective Writing Instruction Components as Expressed by Elementary Teachers and Common Core State Standards Writing helps strengthen thinking processes (D’On Jones, Reutzel & Fargo, 2010). Writing is one of the main educational areas where students perform the lowest. CCSS and Teacher Expectations Teachers are no longer seen as educational experts in their field Methodology Goal Identify essential components of writing
Transcript: Culture is a tool that defines reality for those who belong to the culture (Chung and Bemak, 2002. p. 156) Data Collection After transcription of the data the following steps may be followed: 1. Read the individual participant's narrative. At this time unclear passages or statements will be discussed with the participant via telephone. 2. Creation of notation on the transcript. Note word choice, descriptive comments, and conceptual comments of the researcher. 3. Generate categorical themes that convey participants' meaning. Demographics Limitations Purpose of the Study Significance Counseling literature ignores the multicultural issues of adolescents except: Literature focuses on subgroup studies (Coleman, Casali, & Wampold, 2001) Literature focuses on school issues (Day-Vines, Patton, & Baytops, 2003) Literature focuses on developmental nature of adolescents There is a paucity in describing and understanding multicultural factors in the counseling process and relationship and even less literature addressing multicultural factors in adolescent counseling Research Questions Methodology Dissertation Committee Implications Background Summary of IPA Data collection will be face-to-face semi-structured interviews conducted in Alaska and Michigan Interviews conducted in Alaska will occur at Kenai Peninsula college, or at participant's home Interviews conducted in Michigan will occur at a local library, private practice counseling center, or participant's home Face-to-Face interviews will be digitally recorded The semi-structured interview will be 90-120 minutes Face-to-Face interviews are compensated at $10/hour in cash immediately following the interview. Recruitment flyers Facebook Webpage Screening script Parent permission form Assent form or adult consent form Counseling Release Form This research will help construct the meaning and influence of racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and age-related identities of adolescents in the counseling relationship and process This may help counselors understand how multicultural counseling experiences inform the identity of adolescents on the cultural factors of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and age This research may give counselors a better understanding about the implication of their own cultural presentation and multicultural counseling competence and effectiveness This research will give voice to adolescent counseling clients A Dissertation Proposal Defense by Christina Stuive Counselor Education Western Michigan University Recruitment IPA Permissions EXPLORING ADOLESCENT EXPERIENCES OF RACE, ETHNICITY, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN COUNSELING RELATIONSHIPS: A QUALITATIVE APPROACH Process and Procedure Cultural competence is an expectation of ethical counseling practice This study may help to better inform counseling practices through illuminating the perspectives of adolescent clients Journaling The proposed research will explore the dynamics of the cultural identity of adolescents. The proposed study will utilize a qualitative methodology to examine how race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and age influence the experiences of adolescents. Data Analysis Literature Review Statement of the Problem All individuals hold personal culture and identity Counseling and therapy interventions are framed by culture and experiences Participants must have received four or more professional counseling/therapy sessions from the same professional The qualifying counseling experience occurred within the last three years Participants may not currently be in counseling/therapy Counselors recognize the importance of multicultural issues in counseling (Arredondo & Toporek, 2004; Bean & Titus, 2009) Understanding multicultural issues requires understanding multiple dimensions of identity (Arredondo, 2003; Lee, 1997) including SES which is frequently not addressed Counseling literature is limited when addressing multicultural counseling Studies depend on self report of counselors (Cartwright, Daniels, and Zhang, 2008) Studies are mostly quantitative methodology (D'Andrea, 2008; Pope-Davis, Liu, Toporek, & Brittan-Powell, 2001) Existing qualitative studies are ethnographic in nature Studies fail to address culture in the actual counseling process or counseling relationship (Pope-Davis et al., 2002) Etic Interpretative Outsider The following Research Questions will guide this study: 1. How do adolescents make meaning of the cultural factors of race/ethnicity, SES status, and age in therapy relationships? A. How do clients process race/ethnicity identity differences or similarities between self and counselor/therapist in counseling? B. How do clients process socioeconomic identity differences or similarities between self and counselor/therapist in counseling? C. How do clients process age differences or similarities between self and counselor/therapist in counseling. 2. How do adolescent clients make meaning of their cultural identity after counseling experiences? A. How does counseling
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