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Epipedobates Tricolor

Transcript: The Poison Size: 2-3 cm Diet - small arthropods, including insects like fruit flies and ants. A high majority is of Pumiliotoxin-containing ants (1). Location - Forests of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru (2). Life Cycle - Eggs hatch and the male frog brings the tadpoles to the water where they grow into adult frogs. Family Tree - Animalia Chordata Amphibians Anura (Frogs) Dendrobatidae (Poisonous Frogs) Epipedobates Tricolor Defensive Weapon - The phantasmal poison frog secretes an alkaloid from its skin. The frog accumulates the alkaloids from the many ants that it eats. It will only produce its poison if fed the right ants in captivity. Frogs that are captured maintain poison levels for years (1). The poison is called epibatidine, named in honor of the frog. If an organism brushes the frog, the poison will be absorbed in through the skin. The LD50 of epibatidine is .4 µg, which is 200x more potent than morphine 1. Saporito, R., Garraffo, H. M., Donnelly, M., Edwards, A., Longino, J., & Daly, J. (2004, May 5). Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC419554/ 2. Poison frogs: Dendrobatidae - phantasmal poison frog (epipedobates tricolor). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://animals.jrank.org/pages/152/Poison-Frogs-Dendrobatidae-PHANTASMAL-POISON-FROG-Epipedobates-tricolor-SPECIES-ACCOUNTS.html 1. Strong, S. (1998, May 1). Altering chemistry: Epibatidine a novel alkaloid. Retrieved from http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/chem4400/sjbr/strong98.htm This means that .4 µg is enough to kill 50% of a population (3). Natural History Histrionicotoxin is very similar to epibatidine Phantasmal Poison Frog 1. Daly, J., Secunda, S., Garraffo, H., Spande, T., Wisnieski, A., & Cover, J. (1994, June 6). An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (dendrobatidae). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7940573 2. Strong, S. (1998, May 1). Altering chemistry: Epibatidine a novel alkaloid. Retrieved from http://wwwchem.csustan.edu/chem4400/sjbr/strong98.htm 3. Louissaint, P. (2008, September 18). Epibatidine: Nature’s pain reliever. Retrieved from http://chemgroups.ucdavis.edu/~shaw/CHE_150_2008/DHC-Website/Epibatidine_LouissaintP.pdf Mode of Action (2) (1) Lets learn about this little fella. Epibatidine binds to a neuronal nicotinic receptors in the brain. This desensitizes the receptor from receiving any of the natural ligand, acetyl choline (1). This effectively shuts down the muscle control system and paralyzes the victim, leading to die of asphyxiation. Accidental poisonings of humans are treatable by putting them on a ventilator until the effects of the poison wear off. There is no medical uses of epibatidine, but a compound that was synthesized from it called ABT - 594 is being tested for a pain relieving medicine (1). Epipedobates Tricolor

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Transcript: 14th Week Consulting interns can be expensive Time and Money Personal Experience Preliminary Design Stage NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 New and Existing Education, Business, and Mercantile Definition of Project This app would be used to provide interns and recent graduates with an outline of guidelines for how to design and review designs of specific occupancies. With the given time frame, I will be writing the information that will go into the app Begin parametric study: Speak with my mentor and Jason to understand more about what critical variables I could concentrate on for this app. Choose those parameters and begin my study Gather information from NFPA 101 and NFPA 13 for new and existing education, business, and mercantile occupancies. By: Breanne Thompson Next Steps (Continued) Finish preparing for Draft of Analysis Pull together and discuss results of project Draw my conclusions and state future work needed Turn in Final Paper! 10th and 11th Week Turn in my parametric study Begin draft of analysis Map out the process of the app for the key elements 15th Week References Next Steps 7th Week Prepare for Final Presentation Summarize my draft of analysis into presentation Work on how to incorporate a live demonstration for my presentation App Development Background Information 8th-9th Week Continuous Process Objective-C for Apple products Java for Android products 6 months of studying Places to Learn: Codecademy, iOS Dev Center, Android Developers Training Hire App Developer will cost thousands Prepare Final Paper Dive into Shark Tank! 1. http://lifehacker.com/5401954/programmer-101-teach-yourself-how-to-code 2. http://www.bluecloudsolutions.com/blog/cost-develop-app/ 6th Week Background Presentation 12th-13th Week

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Transcript: Real action and accountability Amnesty International Non-state actors/ Rebel Groups?? ...and what about men?? ignoring male rape victims? would rape exist without a man? Weapons of War: Rape UN as an Arena - NGO's - Discussion and dialogue Arena Instrument Actor Critical Thinking Weapons of War: Rape UN as an instrument UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008) UN as an Actor - UN Action Against Sexual Violence in Conflict Weapons of War: Rape Problems with 1820 "Roles and Functions of International Organizations" "Sexual violence, when used as a tactic of war in order to deliberately target civilians or as a part of a widespread or systematic attack against civilian populations, can significantly exacerbate situations of armed conflict and may impede the restoration of international peace and security… effective steps to prevent and respond to such acts of sexual violence can significantly contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security" (UNSC Resolution 1820, p. 2)" http://www.stoprapenow.org/uploads/advocacyresources/1282164625.pdf Background Presentation- Kristin Mann Weapons of War: Rape Brief Insight - used to manipulate social control - destabilize communities - weaken ethnic groups and identities Examples: - Sudanese Militia - Rwanda Genocide - DRC Critical Thinking http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-need-for-numbers-on-rape-in-warand-why-theyre-nearly-impossible-to-get Critical Thinking Increased Data Collection by international organizations - determine humanitarian responses - ensures justice and reparation - provides recognition and dignity

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