Transcript: Earthquakes Types The Ring of Fire Liquefaction Structure and Safety Tsunamis Mountains What is Formed by Earthquakes At Certain Convergence Zones Volcanos How They're Measured History Waves
Transcript: Earthquakes chauntai & Ayana Earthquake Earthquake facts How many a day How many happen a day The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) says there's an average of 20,000 earthquakes every year which is about 50 a day around the whole world. How they happen How are they caused? Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault line. Then sudden release of energy causes seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. ... When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs. Causing everything to shake. images images Plates of earth The outer shell of the earth, the lithosphere, is broken up into tectonic plates. The seven major plates are the African plate, Antarctic plate, Eurasian plate, Indo-Australian plate, North American plate, Pacific plate and South American plate. Plates of the earth African African plate The African plate is located on the coast of Africa. Antarctica The Antarctic plates are located near the coast of Australia. Antarctica Eurasian Eurasian The Eurasian plate is located between Europe and Asia indo- Australian The Indo-Australian plate is located between Indonesia and Australia. indo-australian North American The North American plates are located around the coast of NA North american pacific The Pacific plates are locates around/in the Pacific Ocean. pacific South American The South American plates are located around the South American coast.. south american Earthquake valdivia May 22nd , 1960 9.6 magnitude Earthquake valdivia happened in southern Chile. The earthquake lasted for 10 minutes affecting even the surrounding countries. It killed 5,000 people and left 2,000,000 million homeless. It was the worst recorded earthquake in history. Earthquake VAldivia Mitigation/Preparation If you are in a vehicle, pull over and stop. Set your parking brake.If you are in bed, turn face down and cover your head and neck with a pillow.If you are outdoors, stay outdoors away from buildings.Do get in a doorway.Do not run outside. Mitigation Boundary Types Different boundary types; Boundary type Title Divergent When enough pressure is built up the two plates diverge making sea floor spreading , earthquakes , underwater volcanoes , etc. Transform When so much pressure is built up the two plate slide past each other causing earthquakes. Title Convergent When enough pressure is built up the two plates converge , they can make mountains trenches , earthquakes etc. convergent
Transcript: where was it? The Valdivia earthquake occurred at 3:11pm on 22 May, and affected all of Chile between Talca and Chiloé Island, more than 400,000 square kilometres .. Coastal villages, such as Toltén, disappeared. 1960 chile earthquake This earth occurred at 6:00pm Sunday 21 May 1960.The 1960 Chilean earthquakes was a strong earthquake that affected Chile between 21 May and 6 June 1960. The first was the 8.1 Concepción earthquake, and was the strongest earthquake. please watch Mrs Spencer :D The earthquake was caused by the Nazca plate releasing tension and descending 15 metres underneath the south american plate. what was the modifided mercalli scale level? The intensity of the 1960 Chile Earthquake on the Mercalli Scale was XI which equals=11 By Cleo a massive earthquake hit Vladiva,Chile in the 1960's.It was so powerful you could feel it from Hawaii!.This earthquake was felt from 7 countries.During the earthquake a tsnunami hit in 7 countries including Chile, Hawaii, Japan, the Philippines, eastern New Zealand, southeast Australia, and the Aleutian Islands. THANK YOU! When did it happen? what was the richter scale reading? what could have caused the earthquake? According to the richter scale it was 9.5!.this was the highest number ever to be recorded in an century!. what happened?
Transcript: Makaya Laurence Environmental Science-P3rd Natural Disaster presentation Earthquake: Any sudden shaking of the ground caused by the passage of Seismic waves through Earths rocks. Seismic waves are produced when some form of energy stored in earths crust is suddenly released, usually when masses of rock straining against one another suddenly fracture & "slip" . Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up earths crust. Introduction The four different types of Earthquakes #1 Tectonic- This earthquake is one that occurs when the earths crust breaks due to geological forrces on rocks & adjoining plates that cause physical & chemical changes. #2 Volcanic- This earthquake is any earthquake that results from tectonic forces which occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. #3 Collapse- These earthquakes are small earthquakes in underground caverns & mines that are caused by seismic waves produced from the explosion of rock on the surface. This earthquake is an earthquake that is the result of the detonation of a nuclear and/or chemical device. Explosion- #4 Effects & Benefits of this disaster- Effects on humans/animals: -Electricity, gas, and water can be shut off when pipes/wires move or break - Death or injuries -Loss of home and belongings -Food supplies run low -Diseases may be spread -Loss of animals, friends, and family -Lack of clean water -Lack of power to keep people and animals warm -No way to transport or get away from Earthquake due to roads being damaged or closed and vehicles damaged Effects to the environment: -Effects on landscape -Damaged houses -Collapsed bridges -Road damages -Damaged businesses, schools and community -Damaged pipes & cables -Damaged vehicles -May cause fire Effects -Pushes the land further up which helps vegetation flourish -Part of shaping the earth -Loosens & churnes the soil -Nutrients and minerals to be deposited evenly, creating a very fertile soil -New plant life -Newer/better homes, schools, and businesses built -New sandy beaches -Help to maintain hydrothermal activity Benefits: Benefits Small earthquake- (Berkeley, CA)- Jan 16th, 2018 An earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 3.4 shook the bay area early Wednesday morning of January 16th. The quake was centered near Pediment & the Oakland Hills, according to the USGS, it was just over 7 miles deep and it shook the region for just a few short seconds at 4:42 pm, three small aftershocks occurred at 4:45 am, a 2.0 at 4:48 am and a 1.1 at 8:52 am. all four morning quakes were along the Hayward Fault. The first earthquake was recorded at a 3.7 magnitude , but was revised down by 5:20 am. Within 30 minutes of the quake, more than 2,000 people reported feeling the earthquake on the USGS's "Did you feel it" map. No injuries or damages were reported. Info The 3 recent BIG earthquakes-(Sendai, Japan, Bio-bio, Chile, and Sumatra, Indonesia) At 2:46 Am, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake takes place 231 miles northeast of Tokyo at a depth of 15.2 miles. The earthquake caused a Tsunami with 30-foot waves that damage several nuclear reactors in the area. It is the largest earthquake to EVER hit Japan. The combined total of confirmed deaths and missing is more than 22,000 (nearly 20,000 deaths and 2,500 missing). Deaths were caused by the initial earthquake and tsunami and by post-disaster health conditions. Sendai, Japan March 11, 2011 Bio-bio, Chile March 15, 2010 The magnitude 8.8 earthquake occurred on March 15, 2010, at 3:34 Am. The epicenter was located at 35.909 and 72.733 (just offshore), at a depth of about 35 km. The capital, Santiago, lies some 330 km, too far to be strongly affected. The affects were far more strongly felt in the cities of Conception (Chiles second city) and Chillian, both about 100 km away. The event was felt as far away as Southern Peru, Bolivia and Buenos Aires (Argentina) and lasted up to 30 seconds. It was the 5th strongest earthquake ever recorded and has been followed by numerous aftershocks , some as high as magnitude 6.9. The structural damage and number of people killed, injured or made homeless are still not clear but the fatality numbers have been approaching 800. More than 2 million people are thought to have been directly affected, and some 1.5 million building are expected to have been destroyed or badly damaged. On December 26, 2004, at 7:59 Am, an undersea earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 struck off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Over the next 7 hours, a tsunami triggered by the quake reached out across the Indian Ocean, devastating coastal areas as far away as East Africa. Some locations reported that the waves had reached a height of 30 ft or more when they hit the shoreline. The tsunami killed at least 225,000 people across a dozen countries with massive damage as well. Indonesian officials estimated
Transcript: By: Krishna, Manmeet & Kavya Earthquakes Introduction 1 What is it? 2 #1 Important Detail #1 #2 Important Detail #2 #3 Last but Not Least #3 Suitable for Many Presentation Topics 3 Customize 4 The World is Watching Where are You? 5 6 Question time 7 8 9 10 11
Transcript: Hardest hit was Sumatra, Indonesia. Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. Number of Injuries? 275,950. Sunday, 26 December 2004 Magnitude? 655,000 people are homeless. 90% of buildings were destroyed. Fawn & Joselyn Where? 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake When? Amount of Deaths? Damage. Additional Disasters? 8,457. 9.3 Tsunami.
Transcript: Jazlyn & Antonio How to Survive an Earthquake Safe Areas Safe Areas One of the most safest areas to be is outside in an open area. Areas like under a table or even beside an open refridgerador door are also safe places. Safe Areas Safe Areas The safest place inside a home is under an object. Staying Calm Staying Calm It is important to stay calm during and even after earthquake occurs. Staying Calm Staying Calm For example, if you were to panic, it can cause more people to panic and will make it harder for safety to be possible. Pictures Needs Needs If there are power outages, it is good to have a flashlight with extra batteries. Water is also a need if there happens to be a water shortage. Needs Needs Shelf food is also good to have, incase of a disaster. Quote Quote https://tremor.nmt.edu/faq/prepare.html https://google.com Bibliography Thank You For Your Attention!
Transcript: Earthquake Safety What to do before an earthquake? Prepare a first aid kit -Canned foods -Choose foods that members of the family like. Familiar foods lift the morale of the family members in moments of stress -Foods that require no refrigeration, water, special preparation, or cooking are best. -Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nutrition -Make sure you have a manual can opener and disposable utensils. Don’t forget nonperishable foods for your pets. Look for possible dangers Such as unsecured books, televisions, and/or lamps which could fall during an earthquake. Make sure you fasten movable objects to the bookshelves and put the heaviest, most fragile and/or flammable objects nearest to the ground. Other items to have What to do during an earthquake? If indoors If outdoors If in a moving vehicle If trapped under debris Do not light matches Do not move or kick dust Cover mouth with clothing Tap on wall or pipe so that rescuers can find you Shouting is the last resort, because you can ingest dangerous substances Be calm at all moments Make other people serene and help them If you can evacuate, locate and move towards security zones What to do After an Earthquake Stay alert for aftershocks They are less violent than the main quake but can damage already weak structures. They can occur hours, days, weeks, and months after the Earthquake keep a battery operated radio So that you can listen to the latest emergency information and news. stay away from damaged places or areas there is a high risk that these places will fall down. If your house is very damaged, leave and don't return to it unless authorities say it is safe. Be aware of Tsunamis If you are at home... Also, Check utilities Finally... Help injured or trapped people, give first aid correctly and only move injured people if they need inmediate attention or may have other injuries. Nicolas Heeren Patrick Eidson sebastian diaz Triangle of Life Stop as fast as you can and stay in the car Don't stop near buildings, trees or utility wires When shaking stops proceed Avoid going through damaged bridges and roads Check utilities like: Gas leaks, they may cause an explosion Damage to the electrical system, like broken or frayed wires If you smell something burning, turn off the entire electrical system from the main fuse box Check damages in the sewage and in water lines. If damaged, don't use them Stay outside Move away from buildings, street lights and utility wires Once in open space, stay there until shaking stops some experts suggest these procedures: Seek shelter near solid items, which will provide a protective space in case Something falls, it will fall on top of the solid item and bounce off Open cabinets in your home with caution, objects may fall. Clean up all objects that have fallen on the floor and any liquids like bleaches, gasoline, medicines, etc, that have spilled. Drop to the ground take Cover below a sturdy table Staw away from glass, windows, outside doors, walls or anything that could fall If in bed, stay there and cover your face with a pillow Use doorways for shelter if there isn't a piece of furniture with which to protect yourself Stay inside until shaking stops If in a building don't use elevator and warn others not to use it either •Nonelectric can opener. •Essential medicines. •Cash and credit cards. •Sturdy shoes. •Water purification device •Food, water, leash for pets •Flashlight and extra batteries. •Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries. Tsunamis may occur after an Earthquake. If authorities say there is a risk of tsunami, be aware of big and strong waves. Leave places near the shore and go to highlands or elevated places.
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