Transcript: Overall stability of the food chain Ocean Food chain Effect of overfishing:Tuna The food chain first level is phytoplankton and bacteria. Second level is insects and zooplankton. Third level is small fish and other aquatic species. Fourth level is predator fish. Fifth level is birds and mammals. Flow of energy of the foodchain Overfishing in general started in the early 1800s when humans were looking for blubber for lamp oil. which dramatically decreased the whale population. Overfishing of tuna began in 1989 when fisheries are looking for species of orange roughly and bluefin tuna. The damage to the Tuna population was so severe that in 2003 the population of tuna was reduced to 10%. when did the overfishing of tuna start? The over fishing of tuna weakens the stability of the food chain. When people kill tuna, they are also taking away a source of food for other animals. this can result in not only as a problem for the predator fish, but also in a reduction in the population of tuna why is overfishing of tuna a problem? There are a lot of fishing boats on the ocean that are stll overfishing tuna. most of the tuna that they capture weren't even able to reproduce. can also cause a big decrease in the population of tuna which can effect other sea animals that rely on tuna to survive. Tuna will be harder to come by in the future if overfishing continues. sushi will probably be less available in the future if this keeps up. Bibliography http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/critical-issues-overfishing/ http://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/overfishing https://www.google.com/search?q=tuna+food+chain&oq=tuna+food
Transcript: Ebola Virus Disease Ebola Virus Disease (E.V.D) is a highly infectious illness that originates from wild animal and contracted by direct contact, such as: bodily fluids, infected objects, certain animals that have E.V.D (Fruit Bats, Primates), or through intercourse with a person who has recently recovered from Ebola (Oral, Vaginal, Anal Sex and Sperm). What is Ebola What is Ebola? The Ebola Virus Ebola Outbreaks Ebola, or E.V.D, is a virus that is contracted through physical contact. Cases for this virus is predominantly found in Africa and the most recorded cases of E.V.D was Sierra Leone. Country with the largest amount of deaths in Africa is Liberia, with just over 4,800 fatalities. First Wave The First wave of Ebola occurred in 1976, and first started to become damaging when it infected and claimed the lives of just under 90% of the small remote village of Yabuku, Zaire. E.V.D took the lives of over 200 people. First Wave Today's Virus Modern Day As of recently, a new outbreak has occurred, taking the lives of over 2200 people and infected 3456 people, confirmed on the 10 April, 2020. This new outbreak has appeared in the Republic of Congo and is still dangerous. The Impacts Impacts of the Virus The impacts that E.V.D that it had on African Countries include: Less Employment Transport was shut down Decrease in Mining Productions Other countries giving resources to help combat Ebola Population Fatalities Heavy impact on Economic Stability The Effects The Effects of Ebola on Africa The effects that E.V.D had on Africa still affect its daily functionality today. During the outbreak of 2014, Africa lost an estimated $2.8 billion USD and also lost major loss in trading, agriculture and sponsorships from outside nations. The early term effects the Ebola Virus include the restriction of people to their homes, panic between people. Global Initiative Global Initiative The effects of E.V.D have spread out to the outside world and to other countries. Some countries also reach out and give money to support Africa. There were also countries that received damage from Ebola, such as the US, Spain, Italy and more, as patients infected with Ebola cause problems in the stated Countries. References Cdc.gov. 2020. 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak In West Africa History Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) CDC. [online] Available at: <https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/2014-2016-outbreak/index.html> [Accessed 18 June 2020]. Who.int. 2020. Ebola Virus Disease. [online] Available at: <https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease> [Accessed 18 June 2020]. Publichealthintelligence.org. 2020. Chronology Of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks, 1976-2014 Health Intelligence. [online] Available at: <http://publichealthintelligence.org/content/chronology-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-1976-2014> [Accessed 18 June 2020]. staff, f., 2020. Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) - Symptoms And Causes Familydoctor.Org. [online] familydoctor.org. Available at: <https://familydoctor.org/condition/ebola-virus-disease/> [Accessed 18 June 2020].
Transcript: Question Four 4. Three factors that upset the dynamic equilibrium is alien weeds, fires, and feral animals. People brought cats to kill rodents and then these cats got into the wild and they kill native birds. Alien weeds come from their seeds on people that come into the area and have the little seeds on them Question Five 5. The Red Kangaroo is an endagered species in this area. A factor that affects the Red Kangaroo is drought because even though the Red Kangaroo can go for a long time without water, they need access to green plants in order to survive. Drought doesn't allow green plants to grow, so Kangaroos die down increasingly. Bottlebrush, Chenopods, newly sprouted green grasses, and Eragrostis setifolia are all things that the Red Kangaroo needs to survive. In order to rebound as a population is no drought and plenty of green grass that can survive even without rain. WWF Global 200 Ecoregions -- Northern Australia and Trans-Fly Savannas. (n.d.). National Geographic - Inspiring People to Care About the Planet Since 1888. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.nationalgeographic.com/resources/wildworld/profiles/g200/g090.html WWF - Northern Australia & Trans-Fly Savannas. (n.d.). WWF - WWF. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ecoregions/australia_transfly_savannas.cfm Question Six 6. Cane toads are invasive to this area. Nothing can kill them because their skin is poisonous. They kill animals in this area. They can't removed; nothing is a predator. Question Three: 3. Map of interrelatedness on sheet of paper. Northern Australia + Trans-Fly Savanna Question Seven 7.A way to save this ecosytem is to stop land clearing. Another way to stop introducing species to this area. Question One: 1. Biomes are large parts of the world with similar biotic and abiotic features. Ecosystems are smaller parts within those biomes that contain abiotic and biotic features that work together. Question Two: 2. This is an ecosystem because every biotic and abiotic feature help each other. Ten biotic factors include: Short beaked Echindas Red Kangaroos Swinhoes snipes Magpie Geese Green Sandpipers Great billed herons Comb-crested Jacanas Plumed whistling ducks Asian Dowitchers Agile Wallabies Five abiotic factors include: Water Sunlight Sand Gorges Fire
Transcript: Endemic - Something that is restricted to a certain place. Native - The place that something originated from. Maui's dolphins are endemic to New Zealand because it is only found in New Zealand. They are endemic to the North-West coast of the North Island, between Dargaville and New Plymouth. They are native to New Zealand. The conditions in the habitat are well suited for Maui's Dolphins most of the time. Unfortunately, sometimes stray fishing nets and nylon nets make it into the dolphins habitat. These nets end up strangling the dolphins, but fortunately the habitat does provide an adequate amount of food for the dolphins. People in New Zealand are trying to make up for the loss of dolphins by making their habitat sanctuaries. Fish Maui's Dolphin Popoto Cephalorhynchus hectori maui -Katherine Song Bibliography: http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/cetaceans/about/hectors_dolphin/mauis_dolphin/ http://mauidolphinrecoveryproject.blogspot.co.nz/ http://www.wwf.org.nz/take_action/maui_s_campaign_/sightings2/ http://www.hectorsdolphins.com/news-releases.html Smaller Fish What Does The Word Endemic Mean For Maui's Dolphin and Where Can You Find Maui's Dolphin? What are the conditions like in this habitat and what does the habitat provide for Maui's Dolphin? Maui's Dolphin Animal Plankton The population numbers of the dolphins are slowly diminishing because the dangers of fishing nets are too great. The dolphins regularly get caught in these nets. Once they get caught in these nets, they struggle. The more they struggle, the more tangled they get and in the end this results in death.There are only around 55 dolphins left and every death makes a huge difference. Unfortunately, the dolphins produce slowly which means the population of the dolphins barely ever increase. They only become sexually mature once they are at least 7 years old and once they do mature, they only breed every two to three years.World Wildlife Fund is helping New Zealand set up a sanctuary from Maunganui to the Whanganui river mouth. They are also planning to set up sanctuaries for harbors that are up to 100m deep. Orca Whale Plant Plankton Population Numbers: Squid Sharks Ecology Assessment Task Maui's Dolphin finds, eats and kills fish on the sea floor. They also eat squid. Orca whales and sharks eat the dolphin but they are mostly threatened by stray fishing nets and nylon nets. Maui's Dolphin are part of the fifth trophic level. An important adaptation of Maui's Dolphin is that the fin is rounded. This shape helps the dolphin propel itself faster through the surrounding bodies of water. Another adaptation is the think layer of blubber underneath their skin. The blubber helps the dolphin insulate and trap in heat. The dolphins are swimming around in cold water so they need the heat. The greyish-black tones of the dolphin's skin help the dolphin camouflage in the water. This helps the dolphin immensely because it conceals the dolphin from potential predators that are roaming around. All three of these adaptations are structural adaptations. Food Chain: What Does Your Organism Eat, What Eats Your Organisms and What Trophic Level Does It Belong To? Adaptions:
Transcript: Small Intestines Adrenals Abiotic and Biotic Features I believe that the Taipan is the most well suited animal to its habitat. Australia and Central America. Black soil plains Kidneys Thymus Chinshields Cloaca Abiotic: Burrows Fissures Crevices Sink Holes Dry soil Air Diagram of Taipan The Inland Taipan Left Lung Seasonal Changes Stomach Spleen Gonads heart Gullet Gular Large Intestine Parathyroid Thyroid Right Lung Liver Anal plate Thank you for watching and listening. By James Kang Trachea Ecology Assessment Task Pancreas Conclude Lives In Biotic: Birds ( prey ) Mice (prey) Lizards (prey) Small marsupials ( prey ) The End Gall Bladder
Transcript: Did you know that humans are the cause of global warming. ICE is melting and the lakes around the world are worming rapidly too Animals are changing migration patterns and plants are changing the dates of activity in spring to fall. Global warming is affecting sea level rise because global warming is causing the water to rise up to 2.5 and 6.5 feet by 2100 enough to swamp many cities along the u.s. east coast. Dire estimates say that a meltdown of the green land, ice sheet can push sea level rise to 23 feet (7meters) enough to submerge London. If all of the antarctic ice melted sea levels around the world rise about 61 meters (200feet). Sited pages WWW.climate hot map.org WWW.live science.com WWW.sea level rise--National geographic.com Global warming is primarily carbon dioxide that acts like a blanket trapping heat and warming the planet. Carbon accumulates and over loads our atmosphere and certain waste management and agricultural practices aggravates the problem by releasing potent global warming gases like methane and nitrous oxide What is global warming affecting around the world and who causes global warming? What is global warming and what does it do to are atmosphere? Ecology Final Assessment How does global warming affect sea level rise and how high can sea level get?
Transcript: No Compost "Bay Area in 'extreme Drought' - Might as Well Enjoy the Sun." SFGate. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 June 2014. <http://www.sfgate.com/science/article/Bay-Area-in-extreme-drought-might-as-well-5150296.php>. "Heavy Rain Arrives in Marin and Bay Area, Easing Drought Fears." MarinIJ.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 June 2014. <http://www.marinij.com/marinnews/ci_25246719/heavy-rain-has-arrived-bay-area>. Improvements Harvest Our Care Methods our garden bed sources Purchased data Trends Jorlandra, Qualiesha. "Use Organic Compost Not Fertilizer - EcoScraps." Compost Is Competing. Ecolabs, 9 Feb. 2014. Web. 04 June 2014. Introduction/hypothesis Composting will always be important! By making homemade compost, homeowners can reduce their waste by 30% while improving plant growth and health. Compost not only benefits the plants, but it can positively impact the environment because studies from the Eco-scraps Organization show that by using compost, you can achieve similar crop yields to synthetic fertilizer in home gardens with such plants as lettuce and corn. This greatly can reduce the impact of synthetic fertilizers that contain high levels of nitrogen into our water supply. 4 trials: no compost (control) Mr.Stewart's purchased compost farm made compost our homemade compost Density/Biomass was greater in the spring semester for both the quadrant and transect data collections Hypothesis: Quadrant Data There was a greater number of species for biodiversity in our quadrant data, ranging from 11.4-14.2 species vs.our transect data (7) Transect Data Farm-Made End of Semester: Diversity: 7 species Density: 3.67 individuals per meter Coverage: 48.3% Leek Watered regularly When we put compost into our garden bed, we did not disrupt the soil by digging We used a "laying down and gently tossing" method If we measure the change in plant height based on type of compost, the plants planted in store bought compost will grow the most, followed by the garden compost, our scraps, and lastly no compost. Kale 1:no compost (control) spinach yielded the most growth 2:farm made: onions yielded the most growth 3: purchased compost: leeks and kale yielded the most growth 4: homemade compost: nothing yielded the most growth Onion Spinach Scraps Although the Farm Made Compost had the highest average plant height at the end of the experiment, the No Compost trial had the steadiest growth. Highest weekly growth rate occurred with the Kitchen Scrap Compost between weeks 10 & 14 "To dig or not to dig – the debate continues." Grow Organic Food. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2014. <http://www.organicgarden.org.uk/gardening/soil/to-dig-or-not-to-dig-the-debate-continues/>. Brief Debrief Our plants -Leek:Need nitrogen and moisture in the soil. Moderate light. Space 8-10 inches apart -Spinach: Can be planted in winter or early spring. Roots are shallow and susceptible to damage. (all died) -Kale: Can grow in poorer quality soil. Avoid planting in high nitrogen soil and keep in sunlight constantly. -Onion:Need colder weather at first and then need sunlight to grow bulbs (storage unit) Do this experiment with different types of plant species, for longer periods of time, and with different varieties of compost Water our plants even more Consistently refill our compost Grow plant species that are better suited to our specific climate Pictures and Sources Pictures/Sources Average class biodiversity Garden (spring): 13 species Garden (winter): 11.4 species Garden (summer): 14.2 species Average class biomass Garden (spring): 4.336 kg/m squared Garden (winter): 1.8 kg/m squared Garden (summer): 2.05 kg/m squared Ecology final assessment Sources: http://bonnieplants.com/growing/growing-onions/ <http://www.organicgardening.com/learn-and-grow/onions-growing-guide?page=0,1 http://bonnieplants.com/growing/growing-leeks/ http://bonnieplants.com/growing/growing-kale/ http://www.almanac.com/plant/spinach Experimental Design Data and Data Summary -we experienced unexpected warm spells -record setting highs (72-78 degrees) in January -less rainfall than normal (drought) -"we're still less than 50% of where we should be this year" -possibility of people stepping in our garden -rapid aphid infestation Research Pictures and Sources Start of Semester: Diversity: 7 species Density: 2.33 individuals per meter Coverage: 40% We chose this care method because we do not want to harm our soil by constantly digging into it. According to an online source that teaches gardeners how to grow organic food,"There are other very good reasons to limit the disturbance of top soil. Over recent years research has been carried out into the bacteria and fungi that live in soil. We all know that there are some nasty fungi around... but there are also many beneficial fungi that work with plants." The article also points out that "another major benefit of not digging is the decrease in the number of weeds. Every time you turn over soil more weed seeds are exposed to light and can germinate." Case
Transcript: Lydia Zhang PD 1 Ecology Assessment Lions, tigers eagles snakes, foxes, wild dogs 30 more species (species diversity) herbivore birds rabbits squirrels with diversity of genes (genetic diversity) Grass leaves/fowers trees Commensalism Producers 10000 kcal One organism benefits and onr is un affected. One example is moss and trees: Moss do not have roots so they wrap themselves around branches of trees to get water. They make their own food, so their host trees are unaffected by them. Mutualism Primary consumers 1000 kcal One example of mutualism is oxpecker and zebra because oxpeckers land on zebras and eat parasites that live on their skin. The oxpeckers get food and the zebras get pest control. Also, when there is danger, the oxpeckers send a warning signal. They work together and benefit from their relationship. Parasitism Secondary consumers 100 kcal One organism is harmed, while the other one is benefited. Fleas and dogs: Fleas harm their hosts, such as dogs, by biting their skin, sucking their blood, and causing them to itch. Competition Two organisms depend on the same resource and expend energy to use the resource. One example is cheetahs and lions because they both feed on the same prey such as zebras, deers, etc. They compete for the same resources. Therefore, if they live in the same area, one or both species will have less food. Tertiary consumers 10 kcal Nutrient Cycles Water&Nitrogen Cycle Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle
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