Transcript: CSS Draining area 460ha (19,500 inhab.) Side weir CSO structure Mur River transboundary river avg flow 117m/s Full equipped monitoring station 11 Evaluate the performance and support for maintenance of CSSs Large Small S1 (2) Design and analysis of new and existing sewer systems Duration approach Objective function evaluation Low effectiveness closely related to the characteristics of the structure HOBO UA-002-64 - 63% 300 min OUTLINE - Mediterranean stream (15km) - avg flow 0.14 m/s (large variation) After rain.. 5 Conclusions CSO End Duration approach · 27 CSS Sant Feliu (Costa Brava) CSO9 - EP: 40% Weir 126% 5 so, what is the problem? - Policy and legislation development 36 6,000-17,000€ Sensitivity analysis Double T-sensor Duration 30 Sewer modeling Overflow approach Tot. Duration Potential applications return to dw cond. 25min 100 Rain to runoff Overland flow (runoff) Flow transport in the sewer (surface flooding) 2.2mm 33min 1% CSO Volume CSO 4 NSGA-II algorithm 5 rain episodes (S1,S2,M1,M2,L1) 3 Materials & Locations 7 EVALUATION PERFORMANCE of CSSs Calibration against flow or level measurements from the main sewer trunk PhD Programme on Experimental Sciences and Sustainability Case Study and Reference Model - Flow and quality measurements since 2002 CSO 3 Evaluating compliance with guidelines 1% 500-1,000€ disparity in the results 3 hypothetical regulation Large 91 Inflow channel by... 2015? (2021-2027) - Rain measurements Adapted from Devesa (2006) Support for CSS maintenance Similar results for both approaches Minimal investment 4 Main contributions 17 Motivations (3 min resolution) sensor clogging (higher maintenance) (1) CSO 6 ·High cost ·Technical knowledge requ. management strategies Rsqr.>0.7 37 86 Wide range of types of sewer models 15 - But CSOs? Now, calibration results CSO Occurrence For low SNRs further research Sensor in contact with the water in dry conditions CSO Duration (overflow approach) breaking point! The Urban Wastewater System 54 Overflow app. -> better CSO volume/peak Using CSO duration to calibrate a sewer model better CSO durations better than Reference Model Simultaneous monitoring Towards better management of combined sewer systems – a methodology based on low-cost monitoring - Other devices CSO Volume 29 0.31 4 Nash-Sutcliff coeff. Sum of Squared Errors Mean Absolute Errors Peak/Volume Absolute Errors Peak/Volume Weighted Errors (CSO Control Strategy, 1989) Data collection 5 mm Medium M1 Data retrieval manually Volume Graz West Catchment thorough implementation in 36 100% detections 32 100% (EPA, 2004) 29 Overflow approach Conductivity sensor Case study and installation setup 18 1% La Garriga CSS David Vantage Vue Tipping bucket rain sensor 0.2mm resolution (SUBMITTED) Support for CSS maintenance CSO Structure ·Moderate cost ·Low autonomy ·High maintenance CSO structure CALIBRATION 81 Key model parameters (SWMM5) Observed limitations The proposed methodology - max. deviation (predefined) CSO 12 CSO Start looking for problematic structures CSO duration Vs. Rain volume Visual Inspection Flow sensor CSO Volume Explanatory variables 25CSOs / year CSO14 136% CSO11 - EP: 54% Temperature sensors Aid the decision making Detection effectiveness compromised with low SNR - Waterproof casing - 240€ u. Characterizing performance of CSO structures Goodness of model calibration/validation - 20,000€ (Gruber et al., 2005) Legal framework 1 Introduction (PUBLISHED) CSSs in numbers Support for CSS maintenance (limited resources) La Garriga UWWS - CALIBRATION IS A MUST - Water level sensor - CSO occurrence - CSO duration Automatic calibration Response variables 11 (J48 algorithm) temperature Small 22h La Garriga CSS 13 CSO structures Total investment 900€ 2.2mm Stainless steel solid bar Battery+data logger Overflow definition depending on the rain, all 4 parameters important Temperature measurements for CSO detection Contribution 3 Both calibration appr. better performance than Reference model Null Response 29h High robustness (UNEP, 2002) 8 13 Calibration results so we have this method that works... Flow measurements 1 T sensor CSO 11 Besòs River Basin Graz West catchment measurements & key model parameters - Not Clear Response SUMMARY RESULTS PhD Thesis Expected Potential ·High cost ·Technical knowledge requ. ·Sometimes difficult to implement 26 2 1948 - FWPCA 1972 - CWA Sewer modeling Probability Personal thanks to... 27 Characterizing performance of CSO structures 4 Water quality sensor ENDERUS project (CTM-2009-13018) FPI PhD grant (BES-2010-039247) FP7 grant (PCIG9-GA-2011-293535) ICRA consolidated research group (2014 SGR 291) 3 days Useful to assess the behavior of CSO and CSSs MAIN PROCESSES 1 CSO structure equipped with flowmeter (for verification) Principle temperature differences between the sewer gas phase and the CSO ·Easy to implement Avg. order 34 Contribution 2 Overflow discharge Q measurements 1991 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive Understand the behaviour of CSO
Transcript: Introduction PAR Ethnography Post-analysis data Analysing the data Literature Review Critique of Humean causality: much work in PA and H attempts to explain action (level of activity) by analysing variables (measurable independent variable). This can only lead to knowledge of behaviour through a closed account of linear and simplified causality. (eg. Little Jimmy watches too much TV because his dad watches too much TV). 5, 000 words... leave til last to write this section Research Aims Offering chaotic causality: Thousands of different influences which are in constant flux, the sum total of which manifest in action. 5 parts, each 8,000 words (publishable) total 40,000 words 10,000 words... Oct - Mid Nov Interview transcripts Epistemological consistency - using quant work. Having my cake and eating it? Heuristics 10,000 words - mid Nov - Jan Short summary of aims and questions Key Literature 5 - 10,000 words Discussion Empirical Findings How is the choice of methods and interpretation of data affected by particular questions and the nature of scientific objects? Present creative non-fiction at the start of each chapter which illuminates my point Producing data Knowledge (about health) and power (as a mediator) Language as a structured structuring structure Discourse and public knowledge - what we can and can't say, and what we can and can't think Methodology A Sociology of Physical Activity Promotion for Young People Methodological Approach Implications Visual Methods: Burke Sarah Pink Gillian Rose D. Macdougall What is important is not whether person X is a boy or a girl, but rather how that person perceives gender, how they relate to gender and how important gender is to their involvement with PA. Begin with summary Ethnography: Philosophy of science: Kuhn, T. The structure of scientific revolutions, 501/KUH Baskar, R. A realist theory of science... Reclaiming Reality Smith, John. The Logic of Justification Peters and Hurst Kant, Critique of Pure Reason Popper Hempel Hume Feyerabend The questions are about meaning, subjectivity, and influence of the social world. The objects are interpreted and socially constructed. Therefore it is better not to assume that (a) the structure has been interpreted the same by everyone, and (b) the structure has the same causal power Reflexivity Multiple Analysis (IPA, FDA) Coding process
Transcript: DIETARY INTAKE AND TAILORED FERMENTATION TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUNCTIONAL CEREAL FIBRE-RICH FOOD PRODUCTS: BRIDGE BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE Ph.D. in Biotechnology Food Science and Engineering Supervisor: Prof. Doutora Elisabete Pinto Co-supervisor: Prof. Doutora Ana Gomes Catarina Pereira de Melo Vila Real June 2021 Outline WELCOME Background Objectives Methodology Main Results Conclusions Future Work
Transcript: Title of report Papadaki Andriani Department University of Crete Introduction Introduction Methodology Methodology Key players Key players Timeline Timeline Key Results Results Analysis Analysis Subtopic 1 Subtopic 1 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 2 Subtopic 3 Subtopic 3 Conclusion Conclusion What’s next What’s next Thank you Thank you Title Title
Transcript: b Y 2 X g m 1 p A Pharmaceutical study on an analgesic drug under supersvision of : Kaadadf F E Add more content here Next Topic Add More Slides Present all the details Life is an Open Book.. D Ready to Turn the Next Page? C A Perfect Template for Various Topics: A Perfect Template for Various Topics: B "There is no friend as loyal as a book." - Ernest Hemingway "So many books, so little time." - Frank Zappa "Don't read books. Make prezis!" - Author Thank you! A
Transcript: Supervisor: Prof. F. Matteucci Student: Carlo M. De Masi University of Trieste - Final PhD Presentation 15/02/2019 THE EFFECT OF THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION (IMF) ON THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES Introduction Intro Chemical evolution 01 Interpreting the chemical abundances observed in the dominant stellar population and in the gas of galaxies, which allow us to obtain constraints on their formation and evolution. Chemical evolution 02 Convenient to: use a logarithmic scale (small absolute values of quantities involved); refer to the analogous abundances in the Sun. Chemical evolution 03 Time-delay model abundance ratios as clocks; -elements → massive stars, short time-scale; Fe → Type Ia SNe, long time-scale; Early times: both alpha-elements and Fe produced → [ /Fe] ≈ constant; Later times: Type Ia SNe, new born stars “polluted” with Fe → [ /Fe] ratio decreases ; little to no gas → chemical abundances derived for stellar populations; few or no signs of recent star formation; increased strength of metal absorption lines with mass (mass–metallicity relation, MZR); higher stellar [ /Fe] ratios in more massive galaxies → stars in more massive ellipticals stopped forming before Type Ia SNe started polluting the ISM with Fe (“downsizing” in star formation); Elliptical galaxies Elliptical galaxies MZR [ /Fe]-mass Chemical Evolution Model Chemical evolution model Basic assumptions initial infall episode → burst of star formation thermal energy by SNe overcomes gas binding energy → galactic wind (GW) drives residual gas away from the galaxy, quenching star formation; star formation rate Direct/inverse wind models “Direct wind” models (Larson, 1974): SF efficiency constant/inversely proportional to mass; later wind in more massive galaxies (deeper potential well), prolonged star formation → MZR; lower [alpha/Fe] ratios!!! “Inverse Wind” model (Matteucci, 1994): higher nu in more massive galaxies; more efficient metals production → MZR; in spite of deeper gravitational potential well, GW starts faster, stars not “contaminated” by Fe (“downsizing” in star formation) → [alpha/Fe]-mass relation; Downsizing Two final steps: average abundances in the dominant stellar population: Mass/light-weighted abundances averaged chemical abundances to spectral indices (e.g. Mg2, <Fe>): Chemical evolution equation IMF 01 mass distribution of new-born stars Low-mass stars: bulk of Fe; lock baryonic matter away from ISM over Hubble time; dominate mass budget in galaxy. High-mass stars: alpha-elements; dominate integrated light; strongly influence energetic feedback by stellar winds and SNe. IMF 02 Solar vicinity: direct star counts (Kroupa/Chabrier invariant IMF): External galaxies: indirect methods one/multi-slope power law universal, time/space dependent skewed towards: small masses (bottom-heavy) high masses (top-heavy) Part I Part I Testing the downsizing scenario MOSES dataset (Thomas, 2010): 3360 galaxies, morphologically selected by visual inspection from the SDSS, in the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.06 (Thomas 2010); stellar population parameters (luminosity-weighted ages, total metallicities and ratios) derived from the fitting of the 25 Lick absorption line indices to spectro-photometric models (Thomas 2003); MOSES Dataset Model 01: constant Salpeter (1955) IMF “inverse wind” model → increasing SF efficiency with galacticmass; Model 01 Comparison 01 Comparison 02 Model 02 Model 02: top heavier IMF in more massive galaxies : Comparison 01 Comparison 02 Model 03 Model 03: IGIMF basic idea: SF mostly in star clusters; within clusters → clusters → gwIMF → all the IMFs in all of the clusters: two main factors: → increases with SFR; → increases with IGIMF Comparison 01 Comparison 02 Conclusions - Part I: Downsizing in star formation not enough to reproduce the increase of with mass; Evidence for the necessity of assuming a top-heavier IMF in more massive galaxies; A variation of the IMF, passing from Scalo to Salpeter to Chabrier gives the best agreement with data; The IGIMF also predicts the right slopes of the observed relations, but produces too high abundances and abundance ratios; Conclusions I Part II Part II Bimodal IMF SPIDER (La Barbera et al. 2013) : 39993 nearby (0.05 < z < 0.095) ETGs from SDSS DR6 SPIDER sample; IMF constraints → high S/N needed; 20 mass-stacked spectra; total metallicity [Z/H] defined as: [Z/H] = [Fe/H] + 0.75 x [Mg/Fe] [Mg/Fe] ratio from the proxy derived from the spectra. SPIDER Dataset MZR Bimodal IMF (Vazdekis 1997, 2003) Bimodal IMF Model 04: bimodal IMF, bottom heavier in more massive galaxies. Model 05: explicitly time dependent form for the bimodal IMF (Weidner et al. 2013), slope value changing after a time interval tswitch (top → bottom heavier). Models grid Comparison 01 Model 01 Comparison 02 Model 02 Comparison 03 Model 03 Comparison 04 Model 04 Comparison 05 Model 05 Best models 01 Best models 02 all models matching the [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] simultaneously switch slope at the same
Transcript: IL-5 TGF-B T-regs Amostras de sangue + -Dra. Silke Paust -Dra. Laura D'Angelo -Dra. Mayra Sanabria-Hernandez -Duy Lee -Satya Bellamkonda Produção Sujeitos -Investigar a produção de adenosina pelas células tumorais de ovário e mecanismos de inibição das células NK através do receptor de adenosina A2A nas células NK. Expressão de ectonucleotidases CD39 e CD73 Células T-reg Modulação da resposta imune TGF-B Isolação do sobrenadante Artigo 1 -Dr. Fernando Guimaraes -Dra. Sophie Derchain -Dra. Adriana Yoshida -Dr. Rodrigo Jales -Dra. Daniela Cardozo -Carol Natania -Coletadas por paracentese guiada por ultrasonografia. -Isolamento da fração solúvel. -Isolamento da fração celular. Artigo de revisão TGF-B Referências 1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2017) Cancer Statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 67:7-30. 2. da Silva RF, Petta CA, Derchain SF, Alici E, Guimarães F (2014) Up-regulation of DNAM-1 and NKp30, associated with improvement of NK cells activation after longterm culture of mononuclear cells from patients with ovarian neoplasia. Hum Immunol 75:777–784. 3. Lotzova E, Savary CA, Freedman RS, Edwards CL, Wharton JT (1988) Recombinant IL-2-activated NK cells mediate LAK activity against ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer 42:225–231. 4. Carlsten M, Björkström NK, Norell H, Bryceson Y, van Hall T, Baumann BC, Hanson M, Schedvins K, Kiessling R, Ljunggren HG, Malmberg KJ (2007) DNAX accessory molecule-1 mediated recognition of freshly isolated ovarian carcinoma by resting natural killer cells. Cancer Res 67:1317–1325. 5. Trzonkowski P, Smit E, Mysliwska J, Dobyszuk A, Mysliwski A (2004) CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells inhibit cytotoxic activity of T CD8+ and NK lymphocytes in the direct cell-to-cell interaction. Clin Immunol 112:258-67. 6. Ghiringhelli F, Ménard C, Terme M, Flament C, Taieb J, Chaput N, Puig PE, Novault S, Escudier B, Vivier E (2005) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibit natural killer cell functions in a transforming growth factor-B-dependent manner. J Exp Med 202:1075– 1085. 7. Carlsten M, Norell H, Bryceson YT, Poschke I, Schedvins K, Ljunggren HG, Kiessling R, Malmberg KJ (2009) Primary human tumor cells expressing CD155 impair tumor targeting by down-regulating DNAM-1 on NK cells. J Immunol 183:4921–4930. 8. Pesce S, Tabellini G, Cantoni C, Patrizi O, Coltrini D, Rampinelli F, Matta J, Vivier E, Moretta A, Parolini S, Marcenaro E (2015) B7-H6-mediated downregulation of NKp30 in NK cells contributes to ovarian carcinoma immune escape. Oncoimmunology 4(4):e1001224. 9. Kulbe H, Thompson R, Wilson JL, Robinson S, Hagemann T, Fatah R, Gould D, Ayhan A, Balkwill F (2007) The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha generates an autocrine tumor-promoting network in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res 67:585–592. 10. Landskron J, Helland O, Torgersen KM, Aandahl EM, Gjertsen BT, Bjorge L, Tasken K (2015) Activated regulatory and memory T-cells accumulate in malignant ascites from ovarian carcinoma patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother 64:337–347. 11. Young A, Mittal D, Stagg J, Smith MJ (2014) Targeting cancer-derived adenosine: New therapeutic approaches. Cancer Discovery 4:879-888. 12. Häusler SFM, del Barrio IM, Strohschein J, Anoop Chandran P, Engel JB, Hönig A, Ossadnik M, Horn E, Fischer B, Krockenberger M, Heuer S, Seida AA, Junker M, Kneitz H, Kloor D, Klotz KN, Dietl J, Wischhusen J (2011) Ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 on OvCA cells are potent adenosine-generating enzymes responsible for adenosine receptor 2A-dependent suppression of T cell function and NK cell cytotoxicity. Cancer Immunol Immunother 60:1405-1418. Amostras de ascite Heparina % CD107a nas células NK -Cromossomos afetados pela CNVs incluiu 10.523 genes. 8.798 genes com CNVs em ambas as células primárias malígnas e CAISMOV24, 710 somente na CAISMOV24 e 1.015 somente nas células primárias malígnas. -Serosos de baixo grau tem mutação nos genes KRAS e BRAF e são exclusivas. Ao contrário do de alto grau, ao qual a mutação está no TP53 e raramente no KRAS (Fernandéz et al 2016 e McIntyree et 2017). -CAISMOV24 contém mutação no gene KRAS e é wild type para TP53, caracterizando-a em uma linhagem de carcinoma seroso de baixo grau de ovário. Agradecimentos Avg=58 Condições fisiológicas -Linhagens de carcinoma seroso de baixo grau de ovário são limitadas na literatura. -Células malígnas de ovário podem ser cultivadas in vitro por um período limitado, somente uma minoria se tornam linhagens. -A imortalização espontânea não ocorre com frequência. O´Donnell et al. 2014, relatou a imortalização de 1 amostra entre 156. -A imortalização é frequentemente atribuída à instabilidade genética das células malígnas e acumulação de alterações genômicas, como o ganho e perda de sequências genômicas. -Essas alterações podem afetar as linhagens celulares, afastando-as do perfil inicial do tumor, ao qual limita sua utilidade em modelos experimentais. Imunomodulação por adenosina Citocinas Imunossupressoras Tratamento de tumores de estádio avançado Coleta
Transcript: Reduced mortality among adults with a smallpox vaccination scar in Guinea-Bissau Reduced susceptibility to chronic diseases in high income countries Reports of "positive side-effects" on infections Studies of lower Crohn's disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and asthma Lower risk of cancers Longer survival of melanoma patients Hypothesis Children in CSHRR born 1965-1976 Background cohort n=47.622 Eligible cohort n=46.239 Possible Non-targeted Protection against Infections and Inflammatory Diseases by Smallpox Vaccination Outline of the presentation Smallpox vaccination in Denmark Photo: History of vaccine.org This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund. Studies in the thesis Information entered for the vaccination project: Family factors Health factors Vaccinations Danish Study Population Smallpox vaccination protects against non-targeted infections and inflammatory diseases Photo: FynskeBilleder.dk BCG reduce overall mortality Marie Villumsen Effects of a vaccine on morbidity and/or mortality that cannot be explained by the protection of the vaccine-targeted disease. Vaccination scar survey 2005-07 Hypothesis Results Perspectives 496 cases of IBD was identified No difference in smallpox vaccination status between cases and individuals in the subcohort HR=1.01 (95% CI: 0.77-1.32) No effect was seen when analysing Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's diseases separately. No sex differential effects Paper IV Risk of lymphoma and leukaemia after bacille Calmette-Guerin and smallpox vaccination: a Danish case-cohort study Paper V Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guerin and Smallpox Vaccination: A Population-based Danish Case-Cohort Study Vaccinated before age 3.5 years may be most protective Variola virus The studies add to the evidence of non-targeted protection against infections by smallpox vaccination No interaction between smallpox vaccination and year of birth Studies of smallpox vaccination and infections should be repeated in other populations PhD defence 10 April 2014 Compulsory by law 1810 DTP increase overall mortality in girls The narrow time window of phase out of smallpox vaccination and the size of the study population limit the conclusion of effects of smallpox vaccination and inflammatory diseases Study area of Bandim Health Project Evidence of non-specifics effects of vaccination Available information: Name, year of birth (CPR number) and sex HIV survey 2004-06 Paper II Smallpox vaccination scar and Prevalence of HIV-1 in Guinea-Bissau Paper III Smallpox vaccination and incidence of HIV hospital admissions: A Danish register-based case-cohort study Sampling of study population PhD defence 10 January 2014 Smallpox vaccination Copenhagen Municipal Archives of School Health Records Measles vaccine reduce overall mortality Cow pox Smallpox Smallpox vaccination scar reduce prevalence of HIV-1 in women in Guinea-Bissau (OR=0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.91) Smallpox vaccination reduce incidence of HIV-1 in women without IDU in Denmark (HR=0.29; 95% CI 0.09-0.93) No effect of smallpox vaccination in males Paper I Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization: a Danish register-based cohort study Marie Villumsen No difference in smallpox vaccination status was seen in cases of leukaemia, lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease. However, the number of cancer cases included in the analyses were small. Study population Variolation First vaccine 1801 Paper III, IV and V Paper I Pilot study of vaccinia antibodies Objectives African Study Population Photo: CDC James Gathany Measles vaccine reduce overall childhood mortality DTP increase mortality in girls BCG reduce overall mortality in neonates and children Sex differential effects of vaccines History of smallpox vaccination Copenhagen School Health Record Register a unique source for studies of smallpox vaccination Discussion Copenhagen School Health Record Register Aaby et al. BMJ 2010 Non-specific effects of vaccines Possible Non-targeted Protection against Infections and Inflammatory Diseases by Smallpox Vaccination Phased out in the 1970s Introduction Background Methods Results paper I: Infectious disease hospitalisation Results paper IV and V: Inflammatory diseases Results Paper II and III: HIV Pilot study: Vaccinia antibodies Discussion and perspectives Methods To investigate non-specific effects of smallpox vaccination on infections and inflammatory diseases Paper I Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization: a Danish register-based cohort study (Int J Epidemiol 2011) Paper II Smallpox vaccination scar and Prevalence of HIV-1 in Guinea-Bissau (Manuscript submitted 2013) Paper III Smallpox
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