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Transcript: Pencil Pencil materials MAJOR MATERIALS IN A PENCIL - Graphite, the most important ingredient, is the part of the pencil that leaves the mark on the paper. It is most commonly referred to as "lead". All graphite used today is a manufactured mixture of natural graphite and chemicals. The more graphite, the softer the pencil and the darker the line. The eraser part of the pencil is made of pumice and Synthetic rubber. The metal ring called the ferrule clasps the eraser to the pencil. The ferrule is made of zinc and copper. The ferrule was chosen because it is very strong and the most equipped material to hold the eraser to the pencil. Synthetic rubber is made from chemicals like styrene and butadiene. Added to the rubber are sulfur, pumice, vegetable oil and pigments. Once mixed together, the mixture is heated and the erasers are formed. The mixture is forced through a long cylinder, then cut into little plugs. The plugs are then attached to the pencils by ferrules. Sulfur is mined in: the USA (Michigan, & Ohio), Sicily, Poland, and Chile. Pumice is found mainly in Italy, Spain,Chile, Turkey, Greece and the United States. In the United States, pumice is found in Arizona, California, Oregon, and New Mexico. Though he did not create the entire concept of the "pencil", NJ Conte discovered the best possible graphite mixture. Bibliography "Pencil." How Products Are Made. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2013. "Pencil History." Pencilscom. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. "How Products Are Made." How Eraser Is Made. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013 Jones, Tom. "What Are Erasers Made Out Of?" EHow. Demand Media, 25 May 2011. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. "GENERAL PENCIL COMPANY, INC." General Pencil Co., Inc. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. "Everyday Chemistry - The History behind Your Eraser." Everyday Chemistry - The History behind Your Eraser. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. MAJOR MATERIALS The pencil originates from pre-historic times when chalky rocks were used to draw on cave walls. Greeks and Romens drew faint lines on papyrus with lead, but it wasn't until the late 1400s, when the earliest direct ancestor of the pencil was created. The pencil is a writing utensil, most commonly used to write and draw. Its handy eraser end lets you erase a mistake rather than scratch it out. Sulfer can be found Sulfur is mined in: the USA [Michigan, & Ohio], Sicily, Poland, and Chile. In the late 1500s the pencil was a strip of natural graphite covered in twine to provide a handle. Today pencils have a manufactured mixture of graphite with a wooden holder and an eraser top. Graphite was chosen because it is a plentiful mineral, a safe alternative to lead, and leaves a darker mark than lead. 2011 Eraser 2010 2009 An eraser is needed to ensure that making mistakes while writing with a pencil is not the end of the world. With a handy dandy eraser you can easily erase your mistake and try again. Synthetic rubber erases quickly, easily, and neatly. ORIGIN OF AN ERASER FUNCTION OF A PENCIL Ferrule The pencils now are much different then they used to be... 2013 Wood is needed to hold the graphite in place. Cedar wood specifically is used because it has a nice odor, doesn't loose its shape, and is always available. History of the Pencil 2012 - The wood used to manufacture pencils is most often Cedar trees. 0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c


Transcript: Barboza, David. "U.S. Group Accuses Chinese Toy Factories of Labor Abuses." The New York Times. The New York Times, 22 Aug. 2007. Web. 31 May 2012. <>. This is a valid source because it is from the New York Times which is a well known news paper and is reliable. The author David Bardoza is a reliable source because he attended Yale University and has been a correspondent for The New York Times since 2004. "Hasbro, Inc." - Web. 01 June 2012. <,_Inc.>. This is a valid source because it contains no grammatical or spelling mistakes. This means that the writer is experienced and a reliable source. "The National Labor Committee." New Report: Hasbro Transformer Toys Made in Miserable Sweatshop Conditions - Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights. Web. 31 May 2012. <>. This is a valid source because it was written by Institute for Global Labor and Human Rights committee. This is a group of professionals dedicated bringing attention to labor rights violations around the world. "The Toy Industry in China: Undermining Workers' Rights and Rule of Law-Toy." The Toy Industry in China: Undermining Workers' Rights and Rule of Law-Toy. Web. 31 May 2012. <>. This is a valid source because it was written by the China Labor Watch which is a well known organization dedicated to exposing and stopping the harsh working conditions in China. Beneficial Body There have been two main disadvantages of Hasbro making toys in china, which are child labor and Harsh working conditions. The Hasbro toy factory in the impoverished Guangxi Province hired 1,000 junior high school students to work in its factory (Bardosa). This shows that globalization has had negative effects because foreign Hasbro factories in China cause others to commit crimes such as child labor. Secondly, China has harsh working conditions such as work schedules that surpass the legal limit by at least 36.5 hours per week, pay rates as low as only 59 percent of the local minimum wage, unsanitary cafeterias, dorm rooms housing 22 people each, and employees forced to foot the entire cost of their work-injury insurance and, in some instances, lack of insurance of any kind (Toy industry in China). This reenforces the idea that globalization has had negative effects because it has led to disgusting living conditions. one Conclusion The toy production in China, overall has more problems due to lack of labor rights. Children are forced to work 14 hours a day and usually have to work longer to make enough money to survive. Many people lose fingers in machines that produce the toys. Instead of receiving a break due to their injuries they are yelled at by their supervisors and are forced to continue working. Hasbro's transformers from hell Ever wondered where the little transformer toys come from? or other marvels action figures? Hasbro is an American multinational toy and board game company. It is one of the largest toy makers in the world. The majority of its products are manufactured in China (developing country) and sold mostly to the US (developed country). POSITIVE NEGATIVE Effects of Hasbro in America Thesis NEGATIVE Chinese economy Positive effects of Globalization one America imports a lot of goods from china without exporting any significant product in return, this means that the US is in a trade deficit with China. This has significantly brought down the growth of US economy. Detrimental Due to Hasbro china exports toys for millions of dollars which has definitely had a positive effect on its capitalist economy. American consumers three Globalization of Hasbro has had horrible negative affects and positive effects. The negative effects include the harsh working conditions in china and the US economy. The positive effects, which include China's economic growth will help pave China's path towards being a developed country in the future. two The Hasbro Corporation Chinese workers Effects of Globalization Globalization has had positive effects on the US citizens,Chinese economy and the Hasbro corporation. Due to cheap labor in China the people in the US receive cheap toys which saves them money. Hasbro corporation can make a greater profit by paying the workers lower wages. The Chinese economy benefits from this because China exports the Hasbro toys to foreign countries. Thus, globalization has helped developing countries like china improve an take a step closer to being a developed country. two three (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Works Cited Negative effects of Globalization The Chinese toy labor gives the American consumers cheap toys and brings kids lots of joy. This can potentially save consumers a lot of money because toys can be seen in almost every home in America. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Workers housed in filthy,

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