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Transcript: Today's Quest: What do all of these items have in common? Digging up the Past with Ms. Bailey "Papyrus" A long time ago, in a place called Egypt... The people of Egypt did not have paper and notebooks like we do today. Because the ancient Egyptians did not have access to YouTube or Google, they needed to create their own means of record keeping. And so, they turned to the papyrus plant that grew by the Nile River. Using its stem and its sugary and sticky qualities, they created papyrus paper that they would use as paper for writing on. Because papyrus was easy to make, it quickly became very popular amongst the Egyptian people. And just like of our paper today, papyrus paper was recyclable and easy for everyday use. Origins of the "Paper Plant" But why was papyrus so important to ancient Egyptians? Papyrus was big business to the people of Egypt, because it was used to make everything. And I mean, EVERYTHING! The ancient Egyptians used papyrus to make paper, baskets, sandals, mats, rope, blankets, chairs, mattresses, medicine, perfume, food, and even clothes. Truly, papyrus was an important "gift of the Nile". They even tried to make boats out of papyrus, but that did not work out very well! The boats quickly became waterlogged and sank. But nevertheless, papyrus continued to be used to make lots of other things. Big Business So how was papyrus made? How is Papyrus Paper Made? Papyrus grew in abundance on the banks of the Nile River. Once picked and cut to the desired size, stems of papyrus were then carefully peeled into thin strips. They were then soaked for several days before the strips were placed horizontally and vertically atop one another. They were then pressed or hammered flat, and left for days (sometimes in the hot sun) before they formed individual sheets of papyrus. But how were the large scrolls made? And why are papyrus so well preserved? Scrolls underwent the same construction process, but instead of doing the process once, the pieces of dried papyrus were glued together to form one long scroll. Due to Egypt's dry weather and dry climate, papyrus are perfectly preserved even when buried deep under rock and sand. In fact, papyrus have only been discovered in Egypt even though this ancient technique was later used by other civilisations such as the Romans and Greeks. Scrolls So what exactly was written on papyrus? What was Paper Used For? Originally, papyrus was mainly used to record religious and government texts of the ancient times, including Greek, Egyptian, and Roman texts. Overtime poems, notes, letters, logs, even shopping lists were written in the ancient language of hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphs were the main written language of Egypt for over 4,000 years. The Ipuwer Papyrus (previously the oldest piece of papyrus found) was first thought to be a poem. It was later translated as a government document about the Kingdom that was in power at the time, telling us lots about how the Pharaoh ruled Egypt. In later years, papyrus was used for drawing and depicting everyday Egyptian life. Ancient Egyptians: V.I.P ONLY! Even though it was uncertain which people could read or write hieroglyphs, today papyrus tell us a lot about the life of ancient Egyptians. The oldest papyrus ever found is over 4,500 years old. It was found in a cave by archaeologists only 9 years ago (2013) and written at the time of King Khufu’s ruling, for whom the Great Pyramid of Giza was built. It is called “The Diary of Merer”, and it logs information in neat hieroglyphs about the lives of the pyramid workers at the time, including the transportation of building materials across the Nile River, farming and the types of food supplies and animals used at the time. It also tells us that Inspector Merer’s job was to transport limestone from the nearby quarry to use as cladding for the pyramid in the construction's final stages, which tells us more about how the Great Pyramid was built. Over 30 pieces of this papyrus were found, but so far only 6 have been translated. This amazing and important part of history is now on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. What does it tell us? Digging deeper Today, only about 1% of all of the papyrus found by archaeologists and papyrologists has been translated. We still have so much to learn about the secret life of the people of ancient Egypt hidden in papyrus. Papyri are extremely important as they are the oldest historical documents that tell us about the past. By continuing to dig deeper we can learn so much more about the ancient life of the Egyptians, and who knows what other mysteries we may yet uncover! But there is still so much more to learn


Transcript: Papyrus Calendar Papyrus an important role in keeping their land vigorous. Papyrus brought nothing but satisfaction and benefits to the Pharaoh and his people. The papyrus reed was used as a universal materiel by the Egyptians. It will amaze you in how many ways it pervaded the lives of the ancients. The plant Papyrus was found along the banks of the Nile River. Today we don't use Papyrus as the material to make paper, we use trees but we use paper the same way. It is helpful today because even though we make paper with trees, if Egyptians didn't make paper with Papyrus we wouldn't know how to create paper. Ancient Egyptians had medical knowledge. The treatment of illnesses was no longer carried out only by magicians and medicine men. We have evidence that people existed who were referred to physicians and doctors. Their knowledge almost came from the discoveries of papyrus documents. Today it helps people get better from the illness. Without medicine a lot of people would have died already. Everyday at least one person Ancient Egyptians Contributions Hieroglyphics Egyptians wrote the calendar in Hieroglyphics. It was based on the lunar cycle of 12 months the Egyptians grouped into three seasons of four months. The seasons of the Egyptians calendar were believed o have been chosen to correspond t the cycles of the Nile which was central to the life of the Egyptians. The calendar today helps us a lot by keeping us track by what moth, day, year we are in. It also helps us in the seasons. Back in Egypt there calendar only had 360 days but toady's calendar has 365 days. Hieroglyphics was an important contribution to the Egyptians because they wold use hieroglyphics to communicate. Egyptians used hieroglyphics for writing or carvings. Today we don't use hieroglyphics for writing, we use letters, and numbers. Now we don;t use hieroglyphics because people don't know what each symbol would represent only Egyptians would know. Ink is one of the greatest invention and most used contributions Egyptians invented. Its was made out of soot mixed with vegetable gum and beeswat, subtituted soot with other organic material to make ink of different colors. Now in days we make ink by mixing tannates, gallates of the proto and sesquioxide of iron. Today we don;t use ink like egyptians did now we use it on pens. Ink Medicine


Transcript: (Zibas, "The History of the Horses of St Marks Cathedral Venice Italy.") (Zibas, "The History of the Horses of St Marks Cathedral Venice Italy.") Napoleon invaded Venice in 1797 and took the horses from St. Marks Square to the Arc de Triomphe (Wikipedia, "Lysippos") "Fotos Brandenburger Tor, Fotos Siegessäule Und Bilder Vom Ku'Damm."(Bilder) "Arc De Triomphe Du Carrousel." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Nov. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. "HIPPODROME." HIPPODROME. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. Island of Chios "Horses of Saint Mark." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. The horses were moved to Venice in 1204 after the sack of Constantinople during the 4th crusade and were installed on the terrace of St. Mark's Basilica in 1254 Renaissance Example "Wallpapers Creativity Cosmos." Old Europe Map Wallpaper. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. Journey of the Horses of St. Marks Inspiration on the Renaissance (Wikipedia, "Lysippos") This piece along with many other Hellenistic pieces were the founders of a new style of art called "Realism". This involves the body in natural positions without being setup in a fake pose. Showing the body or bodies are natural and free flowing. (Wikipedia, "Lysippos") Horses of St. Marks Square ("- St. Mark's Basilica -." ItalyGuides) (Zibas, "The History of the Horses of St Marks Cathedral Venice Italy.") "Horses of Saint Mark." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. "Lysippos." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Oct. 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. "Lysippus." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. "- St. Mark's Basilica -." St. Mark's Basilica ( The Basilica of San Marco ), Venice Italy. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. "The History of the Horses of St Marks Cathedral Venice Italy." By Christine Zibas. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. "The Horses of St. Mark's." The Horses of St. Mark's. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. Paris The horses were believed to had been transported to Constantinople around the 8th-9th century . The horses were placed on the Hippodrome. An artists rendition of the Byzantine Hippodrome Why did it move? St. Marks Basilica Museum Since the Horses of St. Marks Square were one of the first pieces of realism, many of the renaissance pieces were inspired by it. (Wikipedia, "Lysippos") These horses were very valuable because every time they were taken, they were taken as a token of the conquerors success. An example of this was when the Venetians pillaged Constantinople and took the horses with them back to Venice. They did this because the horses represented/represent, strength and and freedom. These horses were made between 370-300 B.C. by Lysippos Horses were brought back to Venice after Napoleon was defeated. Then around the 1980's the horses were replaced by exact replicas because of the damage done to the originals from modern day air pollution. Constantinople This piece shows realism because the body is in a relaxed and natural position Thank You Venice • Sculpture of 4 bronze horses (although 96% is made of copper & tin) • Sculpted by the Greek sculptor Lysippos - Known as one of the 3 greatest sculptors of the Classical Greek Era - Helped the transition into the Hellenistic Era - Was sculptor to Alexander the Great • Original sculpture had a chariot - Believed to be apart of a Quadriga (Zibas, "The History of the Horses of St Marks Cathedral Venice Italy.") The original horses were moved to the St. Marks Basilicas museum, where they can be seen to this day What are the horses of Saint Mark's Square? Works Cited ("Lysippus." Encyclopaedia Britannica) Venice


Transcript: "Since 1980, the Make-A-Wish Foundation has enriched the lives of children with life-threatening medical conditions through its wish-granting work. The Foundation's mission reflects the life-changing impact that a Make-A-Wish experience has on children, families, referral sources, donors, sponsors and entire communities. The Make-A-Wish Foundation was founded in 1980 after a little boy named Chris Greicius realized his heartfelt wish to become a police officer. Since its humble beginnings, the organization has blossomed into a worldwide phenomenon, reaching more than 250,000 children around the world. Although it has become one of the world's most well-known charities, the Make-A-Wish Foundation has maintained the grassroots fulfillment of its mission. A network of nearly 25,000 volunteers enable the Make-A-Wish Foundation to serve children with life-threatening medical conditions. Volunteers serve as wish granters, fundraisers, special events assistants and in numerous other capacities. As the Foundation continues to mature, its mission will remain steadfast. Wish children of the past, present and future will have an opportunity to share the power of a wish" Step 1: Referral We rely on medical professionals, parents and children themselves for referrals. Children who have reached the age of 2½ and are under the age of 18 at the time of referral who have not received a wish from another wish-granting organization may be eligible for a wish.

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