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Transcript: Advantages/ Disadvantages Hydroelectric it is a type of energy that comes from the sun through wind wind is the uneven heating of the earth's rotation it is therefore a renewable resources because solar energy is an indefinite resource for billions of years wind power does not release any wastes except from heat due to the second law of thermodynamics wind energy is found on the earth and generates/ electricity through wind turbines this type of energy is a nonrenewable resource this energy is created by the fission of uranium-235 atoms High level waste is a serious problem of developing nuclear energy this type of energy is usually found in uranium ores in the earth but the uranium has to be processed through a special system to become useable energy Adv: the only waste product is water Adv: regular water from oceans can be used to get hydrogen Adv: it can be easily transported in pipelines Dis: it is very expensive to produce Dis: hydrogen gas is explosive Dis: its difficult to have hydrogen work in personal cars facts: 9 million tons of hydrogen is made every day in the U.S Hydrogen fuel cells never run out of energy Advantages/Disadvantages Adv: no air pollutants when used right Adv:,water pollution is low Adv: disruption of land is low to moderate Dis: Nuclear wastes take a very long time to degrade Dis: there is a low net energy yield Dis: there would be severe consequences if anything goes wrong with the plant facts: Nuclear energy provides the U.S with 19% of its energy the half life of Uranium-235 is 700 million years it is a renewable energy resource it comes from a battery that converts oxygen and hydrogen into electrons and negatively charged hydrogen ions there is no waste product except pure water this type of energy is created using a fuel cell battery it is used for refining, treating metals, and processing foods this is a renewable energy resource this energy is produces as flowing water moves through a turbine and the kinetic energy provides electrical energy there are no waste products of hydroelectric energy thus type of energy is found in the streams and rivers of the earth, and are used at hydroelectric plants that are most likely near dams adv: it is a naturally replenished renewable resource adv: there is an abundant supply adv: it creates little air pollution dis: the reservoirs are location specific dis: high electric costs dis: sources can be degraded without proper management facts: Most geothermal reservoirs are near plate boundaries geothermal energy supplies 1% of the energy for the U.S Biomass Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages/ Disadvantages adv: this energy is a clean fuel source, so it doesn't pollute the air adv: it is a U.S produced source of energy so there is so need to import resources from other countries adv: it is a renewable power source that is dependent on the sun dis: fish populations are impacted if they can swim upstream or downstream to spawn dis: droughts can heavily impact the productivity of plants due to lack of water resources facts: This energy supplies 10% of the electricity in the U.S There are roughly 75,000 dams in the U.S today Geothermal Wind Adv: It is a clean energy source and does not add pollutants to the air. Adv: It does not require water Adv: It is a renewable resource because solar energy inexhaustible Dis: wind turbines take up a lot of land and are most likely not able to be built in high concentrated areas in terms of populations Dis: causes noise and is visually displeasing some Facts: one wind turbine could stop at least 1,500 tons or carbon dioxide from being placed into the atmosphere A large group of wind turbines placed next to each other is called a wind farm It is a form of energy coming from the sun this energy is made from the nuclear fusion processes of the sun during this process energy is wasted in the form m of heat and light (electromagnetic radiation) Solar energy is commercially used and stored through solar panels Advantages/ Disadvantages this is a renewable energy resource the energy comes from organic materials that have stored nutrients from the sun one waste of biomass is heat biomass is found on earth in the form of plants and manure it is used for energy after being burned or extracted for its nutrients Solar Energy Advantages/Disadvantages By: Hillary Jean-Bart Fuel Cells/ Hydrogen Advantages/Disadvantages Energy PowerPoint Adv: it is a clean source of energy Adv: It is an abundant and renewable resource Adv: It decreases wastes in landfills by incinerating the organic materials for energy adv: could supply half the world's demand fir electricity Dis: Biomass is inefficient compared to fossil fuels Dis: Requires more land Dis: Consumes more fuel Dis: the use of inorganic pesticides and herbicides is harmful to the environment facts: 15% of the world energy supply comes from biomass one type pf biomass is bagasse which is the wastes of sugars after they have been extracted for their juices this is a renewable


Transcript: APPLICATIONS Crystalline-bridging cause bacterial asphyxiation Held in place only by friction CONCRETE CRACKING AUTOGENOUS HEALING Websites: CFA. (2005). CFA: Concrete Cracking Overview. Concrete Foundations Association. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from Journals: Achal, V., Mukherjee, A., & Reddy, M. S. (2010). Microbial concrete: way to enhance the durability of building structures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 23(6), 730-734. Boquet, E., Boronat, A., and Ramos-Cormenzana, A. (1973). “Production of calcite (calcium carbonate) crystals by soil bacteria is a general phenomenon.” Nature, 246, 527–529. ICRI (2006). A Vision for the Concrete Repair, Protection and Strengthening Industry . Vision 2020, 1. Retrieved March 9, 2014, from Ramachandran, S. K., Ramakrishnan, V., & Bang, S. S. (2001). Remediation of concrete using micro-organisms. ACI Materials Journal, 98(1), 99. Wiktor, V., & Jonkers, H. M. (2011). Quantification of crack-healing in novel bacteria-based self-healing concrete. Cement & Concrete Composites, 33(7), 763-770. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.03.012 Books: Concrete Society (2010) Non-structural cracks in concrete: a Concrete Society report. (4th ed.). (2010). London: Concrete Society. Dove, P. M., Yoreo, J., & Weiner, S. (2003). Biomineralization. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America. Malhorta, V. M., & Ash, S. F. (1993). Fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete : proceedings; fourth international conference, Istanbul, Turkey, May 1992. Detroit, Mich: American Concrete Institute. Bacteria cells facilitate precipitation of calcium carbonate Biochemical healing agents 600% less absorption of water Decrease in porosity due to decrease in void space Mechanical blocking of crack with particles Bacteria populate voids Ideal for wet environments METHODOLOGY Increase in activation period MICROBIAL CONCRETE Calcium carbonate from cementitous surfaces Fractures sealed which prevents corrosion 28% increase compressive strength strength REDUCED ABSORPTION Crystals chemically bonded to cementitious surface Reduces structural capacity CRACK PREVENTION Bacterial solution embedded into clay particles INCREASED STRENGTH 7 day inactivation period TAKE-AWAY POINTS BIOMINERALIZATION Decreased probability of contaminant penetration or reinforcement corrosion Evidence of improved crack healing Economic and environmental challenge Calcium carbonate formed through biomineralization METHODOLOGY CRACK HEALING Bacteria produce urea which combine with carbonate and ammonia Direct Mixing Creates a pathway for moisture to reach reinforcement Preventative approach to crack rehabilitation OVERVIEW 28 day bacterial lifespan Increased durability by filling voids in concrete REFERENCES AUTOGENOUS HEALING VS. BIOMINERALIZATION


Transcript: Plants shape their rhizospheric microbiome by secreting root exudates ex. organic nutrients- sugar, vitamins etc. Microbes in return also provide several benefits to plants – growth promotion and stress relief Plant recruitment of beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere References Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an appropriate and suitable form of resistance which increases the level of resistance of host plants for a few months after pathogen challenge Following onset of pathogen infection, defense responses start at the place of infection and systemic response is activated in the entire plant to defend the uninjured tissues and restricts further infection Induction of systemic resistance (ISR) by single microbial strains is well demonstrated. However, the use of microbes in consortia for exploiting the ISR phenomenon is not explored to the desired extent so that it is effective against a large number of pathogens Most of the microbes capable of inducing ISR in host plants also possess antagonistic activities, nutrient mobilization activities, and many of those are superior rhizosphere colonizers. More emphasis should be given to develop microbial consortia having enhanced capability of inducing ISR activities in plants. Understanding the plant recruited microbial communities has become even more significant so that similar benefits could be provided to crop plants through artificially developed microbial consortia. Microbial consortium Activation of antioxidant mechanism ISR mediated host defense has attracted much attention in recent times as the ISR inducers can protect plants from pathogens even in the distant parts of the plants. ISR is generally modulated by interconnected cascades of signal transduction in which polyphenols act as a sounding alarm and results in obstructing pathogen development. Phenolics are produced when plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) distinguish pathogens from the non-pathogens by recognizing the conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) resulting in activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Enhanced activation of the pathway leading to sudden increase in concentration of phenolics was achieved when the plants were inoculated with beneficial microbes Activation of systemically induced resistance ! Activation of phenylpropanoid pathway 1. The rationale behind selection of the microbes that were used in consortia was mostly their ability to fix atmospheric N, solubilize phosphorous in soil, produce phytohormones, and antagonistic activities against the pathogens. 2. Later on microbes capable of inducing systemic resistance These microbes are able to do their work individually! Therefore, applying microbes as a consortium has great potentiality particularly in modern agriculture where minimization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is one of the priorities SAR Negative impact of the dual inoculation treatment was attributed to involvement of independent signaling pathways in the two microbial species. One of the major causes for such contrary results with microbial mixtures may be attributed to incompatibility of the microbes in the mixture with each other. These findings thus clearly advocate for screening of compatible microbes for development of microbial consortia. The basic objective of developing microbial consortium will fail if the microbes used in the consortium do not have any additive or synergistic effects on disease suppression. Microbial consortium in disease suppression Mechanisms of rhizosphere microbe-mediated defense responses in plants against pathogenic stresses Sarma B.K., Yadav S.K., Singh S., Singh H.B., 2015. Microbial consortium-mediated plant defense against phytopathogens : Readressing for enhancing efficacy. Soil&Biology, 87, 25-33 Hsiang T., Goodwin P.H., Cortes-Barco A.M., Using plan defence activators to control turfgrass disease: Activated resistance against plant diseases Zingaretti S.M., Inácio C.M., Pereira L.M.2, Tiago Antunes Paz T.A., França S.C.,2013. Water stress and agriculture. Agricultural and Biological Sciences ISR Current trend is to mix biocontrol agents (BCAs) of diverse microbial species having plant growth-promoting activities to achieve desired agricultural outcomes Application of microbes in a consortium may improve efficacy, reliability and consistency of the microbes under diverse soil and environmental conditions Duffy et al. (1996) showed that Trichoderma koningii when applied with some fluorescent Pseudomonas strains suppressed the take-all pathogen of wheat greater than T. koningii alone. One of the most universal and earliest resistance reactions against invading pathogens by plants is oxidative burst, and considered to be required for plant defense. Plants regulate the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a way that the levels of ROS such as H2O2 is sensitive to the pathogen but not to the host. H2O2 further provides strength to the cell wall through helping the process of


Transcript: what is needed to detect drift in microbial communities? Endemic taxa ITS intergenic transcribed spacer Animals Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) Putting the geography into phylogeography Figure: Landscape sampling scheme. King et al. 2010. Nature. Biogeography and habitat modelling of high-alpine bacteria SSU small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene mechanistic differences in how these processes operate within and across various taxonomic scales. Plants Hanson et al. 2012 Classification Active member of the community or a dormant transient Genetic similarity patterns among microbial taxa in different locations? 2.1 ‘‘Earth and life evolve together’’ Croizat (1964) Phylogenetic biogeography Alles is overal: maar het milieu selecteert Becking 1934 geographic regions or habitat types (hot springs) 1. Processes driving the patterns Global tectonics Ch. Julián Villabona-Arenas Lab. de Evolução Molecular e Bioinformática CEP 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Principles and historical processes governing the geographic distribution of genealogical lineages at intraspecific level 2.2 Cosmopolitan distribution Biogeography Areas 3. Viruses (ubiquity hypothesis) Taxonomic resolution Urban settings Limits to detecting patterns Taxa Cosmopolitan Species concept? Bacteria and Archaea Collecting day COI Cytochrome c oxidase gene The study of the distribution of organisms across space and time Rare taxa Genomes, Env, Pol 1. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Microbial biogeographic patterns Molecular systematics Protists 2. Is everything small everywhere? Viruses bacterial species can be found wherever its environmental requirements are met: The distribution of microbes requires no historical explanation, but can be understood solely in terms of habitat properties Beijerinck, 1913 Microbial biogeography: perspectives 4. Passively dispersed What are protists, really? Effects of current environmental factors versus the effects of historical ones? 2. Phylogeography A cladogram of a given taxon as the basis for inferring its biogeographic history Human samples Descriptive Interpretative Figure: Global distribution of Chroococcidiopsis variants. Bahl et al. 2010. Nature. Ancient origins determine global biogeography of hot and cold desert cyanobacteria Defined only by creating the group after excluding all plants, animals and fungi. Evolutionary history of Dengue virus type 4: insights into genotype phylodynamics. Villabona-arenas and Zanotto 2011 Worldwide spread of dengue virus type 1 Villabona Arenas and Zanotto in press Different locations harbour microorganisms that differ in genotypic composition Distance–decay relationships observed for microorganisms in a range of habitats at various taxonomic resolutions Functional groups of species and environmental constraints Taxonomic groups and historical biogeographic events Phylogeny of dengue virus type 3 circulating in Colombia between 2001 and 2007 Villabona-Arenas, et al. 2009 Time Direction of Migration Evolutionary history and phylogeography of human viruses Holmes 2008 (recognizing distributional patterns) (searching of causal explanations of such patterns) Locations as character states Parsimony Optimization Dengue Ocurrences Size (< 2 mm) Huge population sizes Resting stages Asexual/parthenogenetic reproduction Genetic data Spatial data Temporal data Beast Sampling trees MCC tree Vicariance Dispersal and extinction Phylogeny Occurences Time Area of endemism: geographical unit inferred from the combined distributions of endemic taxa. Endemism: being unique to a defined geographic location Ecological biogeography Historical biogeography To compare the genetic diversity within locations to that among locations (measure of divergence among locations) To correlate taxonomic similarity with geographic distance On The Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type Darwin Wallace different areas were inhabited by different species Histoire Naturelle, Buffon mutation selection gene flow genetic drift) speciation selection dispersal ecological drift Causal explanations of the distributional patterns in short temporal scales Evolutionary processes over millions years Environmental heterogeneity Temporal seasonality (within/across years) Distance genetic composition and diversity Within species Among species Ecological processes Microevolutionary processes Bayesian Framework Discrete sites Time-Scaled Phylogenies Increasing endemism with increasing phylogenetic resolution What matters is the amount of genetic variation captured by this resolution Increased the data available (diversity) Infer molecular clocks

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