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Transcript: Mochica Term arose from when the origin of monuments that were considered mysterious American Polytheistic Gods of weather God of sun-Huitsilopochti Pyramid temples Strong Government Education-Priests and Scribes (Girls) Had good schools & steam baths Aztec city is now Mexico City There was a city payment to victors 1200-1600 A.D Mississippians Mayans Known as the "rubber people" Carved massive stone heads Made calendars with carved writing Located in Mexico on the Gulf Coast Lasted from 1400 to 500 BC La Venta was a religious center Existed from 900 to 200 BCE Named after Chavin de Huantar, the archaeological site It is located on the northern highlands of present day peru Considered the jaguar a sacred animal Carved stone heads called tenon heads Mound Where is the Aztec Civilization located? Where is the Olmec Civlization located? Where is the Mayan Civilzation located? Where is the Incas Civilization? Where ia the Iroquois civlization located? Toltecs Incas Civilizations Questions Aztecs Builders/ 900-1300 A.D Polytheistic Animism-everything in nature has a spirit Mesa Verde-huge 200 room cliff dwellings Kiva-large undeground chamber for religious ceremonies Southwest U.S society declined but Pueblo and Hopi Indians took over their traditions Meso Nazca 300-900 A.D Priests and sacrifices Polytheistic Pyramid Temples Corn, beans and squash Great carving skills Large Armies 365 day calendar and had scribes Tikal and Chichen Itza are the major Mayan Cities Animism-everything in nature has a spirit Flourished on the southern coast of peru between 200-600AD They were strongly influenced by their predecessorst the Paracas They had impressive textiles and pottery The Nazca lived in a series of chiefdoms They are famous for the geoglyphs etched into earths surface known as the Nazca lines Anasazi Culture of North America and were important elements in the Southeastern ceremonial complex of American prehistory 1000-1850 A.D Polytheisitic Animism-everything in nature has a spirit Large nomadic hunters and gatherers Matrilineal- Women held upper rank Dekanawidah-Iroquois prophet that urged peace among all the iroquois Jobs shared by Tribes people Northeast U.S Olmecs Iroquois 1438-1600 A.D Polytheistic Sapa Inca-emperor of the Incas written laws & records terrace 12,000 miles worth of roads Quechua is the Incan language Quipe-Knotted strings to keep records Cuzco-capital of the Incan Empire Also known as the Moche civilization They flourished along the northern coasts of peru Its capital of Moche is found at the foot of the Cerro Blanco mountains Worshipped Al Paec the creator god Lived from 100 to 700 AD Burial mounds represented various social groups which oriented themselves to the center Chavin They founded their god Quetzalcoatl They practiced human sacrifice They dominated the area of present day central Mexico from their capital city of Tollan Scientists speculate their decline is a mystery Toltec warriors wore headdresses, chestplates and padded armor and a small shield on one arm Built also from the Mississippi River to the Appalacian Mountains Who was Sapa Inca? Who was Dekanawidan? Who had the 365 day calendar? Who is the God of the sun? What is Mesa Verde? Aztec city is now what? What is animism? What is Kiva? The Olmces began when? The Mayans began when? The Aztecs began when? The Incas began when? The Anasazi began when? The Iroquois began when? What did Mayans have? People who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf of Mexico


Transcript: La Venta was the most prominent Olmec center and lasted for about 500 years, and they sustained Olmec cultural decisions but displayed great power and wealth. La Venta Olmec stonemasons carved giant basalt heads. They may represent Olmec rulers. At any rate they are shown wearing the helmets players wore during the rubber ball game. These huge heads are 3 meters high and weigh more than 20 tonnes. Archeological record does not include explicit representation of Olmec bloodletting, researchers have found other evidence that the Olmec ritually practiced it. For example, numerous natural and ceramic stingray spikes and maguey thorns have been found at Olmec sites, and certain artifacts have been identified as bloodletters. There is an arguement that the Olmec did not sacrifice it is only speculated that they did. There is no known evidence of tools used in sacrifice. The most recognized aspect of the Olmec civilization are the enormous helmeted heads Concept of Zero Bloodletting and Sacrifice Speculations San Lorenzo was the first Olmec center and was abandoned around 900b.c. It is believed that there was an internal uprising or invasion that led to the decline of San Lorenzo. The latest thinking is environment changed could have been the reason the center was abandoned. Art San Lorenzo Social and Political Organization Military and Standing Armies The Olmec were the first civilization in the Western Hemisphere to develop a writing system. Tombs The villages were located on higher ground and consisted of several scattered houses. Individual dwelling a house had a storage pit, nearby garden, and fruit trees available. River banks were used to plant crops between flooding periods and fields were located outside of the village. The Olmec's lands were prone to flooding. So Olmec farmers built their houses on artificial hills. However the floods did deposit silt and mud, which made the land fertile. So Olmec farmers were able to grow two crops a year. The ball game was created for recreational and religious purposes. A dozen rubber balls dating to 1600 BCE or earlier have been found in El Manatí, an Olmec sacrificial bog 10 km (6.2 mi) east of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan.These balls predate the earliest ball court yet discovered at Paso de la Amada, circa 1400 BCE, although there is no certainty that they were used in the ballgame. Considered an important realization of Olmec mythology. The youth holds a were-jaguar infant, while four iconic supernaturals are incised on the youth's shoulders and knees. The Olmec practiced slash and burn to create fields for crops such as maize, various squash, and sweet potatoes, as well as cotton. The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. The Olmec flourished between 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE Through research their is evidence that there were long distance trade networks. High value materials like green stone and marine shell were moved in significant amounts along long distances. During the Olmec period there was a significant expansion of inter regional trade routes. Olmec merchants traded with many other cultures. They lived in jungles, which had abundant plant and animal life. However they lacked mineral resources. Obsidian, chert and jade had to be brought from far away. In return for them the Olmecs traded jaguar skins and feathers. The were-jaguar was both an Olmec motif and a supernatural entity, perhaps a deity. Village Life Long Count Calender Sources The Long Count calendar required the use of zero as a place-holder within its vigesimal (base-20) positional numeral system. A shell glyph –MAYA-g-num-0-inc-v1.svg – was used as a zero symbol for these Long Count dates, the second oldest of which, on Stela C at Tres Zapotes, has a date of 32 BCE. This is one of the earliest uses of the zero concept in history. Trade System of writing/records They didn't have a standing army or any militaristic tactics. There is no evidence that the Olmec had any warlike activity. The Olmec culture was once defined as an art style and made cutting tools from hard stone like chert and from obsidian (volcanic glass, which when cut is extremely sharp). Jade was used to make ceremonial axes and jewelery. Coe, Michael D., and Rex Koontz. Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs, 6th ed. London: Thames & Hudson, 2008. Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs & Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1997. Leon-Portilla, Miguel. Fifteen Poets of the Aztec World. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992. Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. New York: Alfred Knopf, 2006. “Olmec.” 18 March 2014. 18 March 2014. “Were-Jaguars.” 7 August 2014. 18 March 2014. "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE OLMECS."


Transcript: MesoAmerica By Ashley Hartt The Maya civilization started around 300 AD in the Central American rainforest. Their government is ruled by kings to independent city-states. Their economy is based on the agriculture and trade around them. Some of their biggest achievements in science and technology would be the charting of the planets, moon, and sun, the Mayan calenders, numbers, and glyphic writing. They believe in a polytheistic religion that they perform sacrifices for the gods' pleasure and the belief of reincarnation. The civilization finally fell in 900 AD from invasion and famine from soil exhaustion. Maya They played a game called Pok-A-Tok that would sometimes sacrifice the losers Many temples were built alligned with celestial events Mayas considered crossed eyes, flat foreheads, & big noses beautiful and often used makeup to make their noses appear larger Maya Fun Facts The Aztec civilization started around 1200 in the arid valley of central Mexico. Their government had brought individual city-states with neighboring city-states to make an empire. Their huge technology invention was their floating islands called chinampas. Their economy was based off their agriculture and conquest. They believed in a polytheistic religion were they performed human sacrifices for the gods' pleasure. The Aztec civilzation finally fell when their emperor was captured by the Spanish and when neighboring tribes joined Hernan Cortes and the Spanish to invade. Many Aztecs also died from disease and warfare. Aztecs Generally, slaves were treated well and could buy their way out of it If laws were broken regarding clothes, the punishment was often death The Aztec government usually hired merchants as Aztec spies Aztec Fun Facts The Inca civilization started around 1400 AD in the Andes Mountains in South America. They had a strong central government that was important to the civilization. They believed in a polytheistic religion that had them perform human and animal sacrifices for the gods' pleasure along with cranial deformation. They had many technology advances including the coca plant, surgery, herbal medicine, complex road systems, and quipus used to record stories. They finally fell around 1532 with the war, smallpox and being conquered by Francisico Pizzaro. Incas Many men carried woven purse like bags to carry coca leaves and good luck charms They payed their taxes through labor The only people allowed to travel through the empire were the wealthy Inca Fun Facts


Transcript: By: Joshua Newton MesoAmerican Civilizations Maya Maya Government Government The Maya was ruled by a king. The civilization was broken down into city-states. The Mayans would play a sport called Pok-A-Tok, and in the game you had to get a ball through a hoop without using your hands or feet. Pok-A-Tok Fun Fact! The Mayans were excellent astronomers, and they studied the patterns of the movement of the sun and moon. They also created the calender that we use today, and the calender was based on the movement of the moon. Science and Technology Science and Technology Religion Religion The Mayans believed in a polytheistic religion. They built temples to hold human sacrifice ceremonies to communicate with the gods. Some of the major citys inculed Tikal & Chicnen Itza. Major Citys Fun Fact! The Mayans had an economy based on agriculture and trade. Economy Economy The Maya lived in a rainforest. Location Fun Fact! No one knows what exactly happened to the Mayas, but some predictions are that there was invasions from outside tribes, or that they used all the soil and people couldn't eat. This is called Famine. Fall of the Maya Fall Aztec Aztec During the ages of the Aztez empire, the many city-states they had formed to become an empire. Government Government The Aztecs belived in a polytheiestic religion. They built temples to hold human scrafice ritulas to speak with and please te gods. Religion Religion One of the Aztecs major citys was Tenachtitlan. Major city Fun Fact! The Aztecs used floating islands called Chinampas to farm on. Science and Technology Science And Technology The Aztecs loved warfare, and there religion was emphasised around it. Religion and warfare Fun Fact! The Aztecs economy was based on argculture and war. Economy Economy Many things happened to wipe the Aztecs out. First, their ruler was taken hostage by the spanish. Second, and diesese went through and wiped them out. Fall of Aztecs Fall The Aztecs loved war, and they eventully went to war and wiped themselves out. War Fun Fact! Inca Inca The Inca had a strong central government. Government Government Some major citys in the Inca city-states would include Macchu Picchu and Cuzco. Major citys Fun Fact! The Inca belived in a polytheisitc religion, and held human and animal sacrifice cerimones to please the gods. Religion Religion The Incas were quite advanced, as they invented the coco plant, a complex road system, and could preform surgery. Science and Technology Science and Technology One of the things that wiped the Incas out, War, was aculley the rler at war with his own brother. War Fun Fact! Each family was given a differnet job to do and if they did the job they would get what they needed from other familys. These familys were called Allyu- Familys. For example, one family is in charge of growing food for everyone. Then other family is in charge of making clothes for everyone. If the people who make clothes get food from the people who make food, then they give them clothes. They di this in order to get everything they needed. Economy Economy The Incas recorded stories in Quipus, which are stringed knots. Quipus Fun Fact! The Inca fell due to an outbreak of smallpox and they were invaded and destroyed. Fall of Inca Fall Thanks for watching! Thank You!

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