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Transcript: The hybrid flow process combines the dead-end and the cross-flow principle. As in the cross-flow filtration tubular membranes are with the filtration layer on the inside wall are used. With cross-flow filtration a constant turbulent flow along the membrane surface prevents the accumulation of matter on the membrane surface. The process is referred to as "cross-flow" because the feed flow and filtration flow direction have a 90 degrees angle. References Rate = 5c per min Membrane Uses in Wastewater Treatment Membrane characterizations Experiment Types of Membrane Processes Errors in thermal gravimetric analysis: Heating rate. Gases used. Mass of the sample. Difference between sample temperature and temperature inside the furnace. Thermal analysis was carried out by TGA in nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal gravimetric analysis is a type of testing performed on samples that determines changes in weight in relation to change in temperature. TGA is commonly employed in research and testing to determine characteristics of materials such as polymers, to determine degradation temperatures. Ultrafiltration (UF) is the process of separating extremely small particles and dissolved molecules from fluids. Conclusions Rate= 20c per min Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) Microfiltration Composition of Multicomponent Systems. Thermal Stability of Materials. Oxidative Stability of Materials. Estimated Lifetime of a Product. The Effect of Reactive or Corrosive Atmospheres on Materials. Department of chemical engineering Supervisor: The Electrospinning Process Dr. Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel Cross-flow Filtration By: Reverse osmosis (RO) separates salts and small molecules from low molecular weight solutes (typically less than 100 Daltons). Rate= 25c per min SCOPE AND DEVELOPMENTS Membrane in 40 years. Desalination of seawater and brackishwater. In feature. Preparation and Thermal Testing of Hydrogel Polymaric Membrane Used ForWastewater Treatment Feras Al-Qufi INTRODUCTION The most basic form of filtration is dead-end filtration. The complete feed flow is forced through the membrane and the filtered matter is accumulated on the surface of the membrane. Bright future. Environment. Energy. Quality. Hybrid-flow Filtration The polymer: "what's Chitosan" ? chitosan is widely used in many different fields, including medicine, food and chemical . The TGA results provided quantitative information on the chitosan nanofibers functionalization. The TGA of chitosan revealed that the bulk and the electrospun nanofibers decomposed in a single step. However, the onset decomposition temperature for chitosan nanofibers was 220 C, while for chitosan bulk was 300 C. The data obtained with this study demonstrated significant differences in the thermal stabilities between the starting physical form (chitosan bulk) and the electrospun chitosan nanofibers. By: Feras Al-Qufi Supervisor: Dr. Fahad S. Al-Mubaddel Types of Membrane Processes Reneker DH, Chun I. Nanometre diameter fibresof polymer produced by electrospinning. Nanotechnology Bowen, W. R., Calvo, J. I., and Hernandez, A. (1995). ‘‘Steps of membrane blocking in flux decline during protein microfiltration.’’ J.Membr. Sci., 101, 153–165. C.M. Modise, H.F. Shan, R.D. Neufeld, R.D. Vidic Evaluation of Permeate Flux Rate and Membrane Fouling in Dead-End Microfiltration of Primary SewageEffluent,Environmental Engineering Science. Jul 2005, Vol. 22, No. 4: 427-439. Dead End Hermia, J. (1982). ‘‘Constant pressure blocking filtration laws—application to power-law non-Newtonian fluids.’’ Trans. Inst. Chem.Eng., 60, 183–187 Kilduff, J., and Weber, W. J. (1992). ‘‘Transport and separation of organic macromolecules in ultrafiltration processes.’’ Environ. Sci. Technol., 26, 569–577. Ku¨chler, I. L., and Miekeley, N. (1994). ‘‘Ultrafiltration of humic compounds through low molecular weight mass cut-off level membranes.’’ Sci. Total Environ., 154, 23–28. Millipore handbooks Overview of membrane filtration, R.B. Bai, H.F. Leow, Modeling and experimental study of microfiltration using a composite module, J. Membr. Sci. 204 (2002) 359. Yuan, W., and Zydney, A. L. (1999). ‘‘Humic acid fouling during micro- filtration.’’ J. Membr. Sci., 157, 1–12. Iritani, E., Mukai, Y., Tanaka, Y. and Murase, T. (1995). Flux decline behaviour in deadend microfiltration of protein solutions. Journal of Membrane Science, 103, 181-191. Millipore handbooks Overview of membrane filtration, McCrum N. G., Buckley C. P., Bucknall C. B., Principles of Polymer Engineering, Oxford University Press, 1997. Characterizations are important aspect to understand the performance of materials under service conditions. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). Chitosan nanofibers with ultrafine structure were successfully produced by electrospinning


Transcript: Outside cell THE END After it creates a vesicle then can realase it contants in to the cytoplasm this solution is a hypertonic solution because their is more sugar outside of the cell rather then the inside Hydrophopic Tail sticks its tail inside of the membrance because it dislikes water (non-polar) which means most of the non polar molecules will have a easier time getting through the lipid bilayer in totoal is liquidy because without it it would be hard to pass through Hydrophillic heads keep polar molecules outside becuase if theres toom uch water in the cell it could explode. Inside cell Cell Membrane Legend Red Water Grey sugar Carbohydrate chain the carbohydrate chain is like a atenna which sends transmissons to the nucleus stating whats outside of the cell. Carrier Protein: an integral protein which helps the bigger molecules that the cell needs to survive pass through using atp or energy this is required because the solute molecules are too big to pass through the bilayer and its usually for going down a concentration gradient. Channel proteins are the same thing as carrier protiens except the carrier protiens undergo shape change to allow molecules to pass using active transport the arrows show the which way the molecule is moving some cells cannot pass making the cell semi- permeable Phospholipid Bilayer Exocytosis is the oppisite of endocytosis.Particles are moved out of the cell. The Vesicle moves towards the cell membrane and then fuses with the cell and particles are realesed . this is phagocytosis (Endocytosis) the way the cell membrane eats is when its next too a molecule or solute it grabs out hands and closes it making a vesicle then shooting into the cell. then it reforms its shape. Exocytosis is the exact opposite

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