Transcript: Compound Words Defining Medical Terms Is a WR plus a vowel, usually an « o «. Usually indicates a body part. Listed as word root/vowel ( e.g. cardi/o). Makes many words easier to pronounce Suffixes Examples of Suffixes Combining Forms Root Words. Combining Forms. Prefixes. Suffixes. Basic Rules. colon/o + scope = colonoscope (colon) (instrument to view) instrument to view the colon Rule #1 A suffix is a word ending. In the words tonsill/itis and tonsill/ectomy, Where are the suffixes? Meanings? Changing a suffix gives medical words a new meaning. Indicates a procedure, condition, disease, or part of speech. Derived from Greek and Latin words. Beginning of a word. Changes the meaning of a word. Indicates a number, time, position, direction, color, or negation Word Root Suffix Medical Word Meaning scler/ + osis sclerosis abnormal condition (hardening) (abnormal condition) of hardening Prefix + Word Root + Suffix = Medical Word Meaning hyper therm -ia hyperthermia condition of (excessive) (heat) (condition) excessive heat intra muscul -ar intramuscular within the muscles (in, within) (muscle) (relating to) macro gloss -ia macroglossia condition of a (large) (tongue) (condition) large tongue micro card -ia microcardia Condition of a small heart A combining vowel is used to link a WR to a suffix that begins with a consonant and to link a word root to another word root. Basic Rules The main part or stem of a word is called a word root (WR). WR is usually derived from the Greek or Latin Indicates a body part. Most medical words have one or two roots. Root Words Examples Examples of CF's Words with more than one root are Compound Words oste/ o/ chondr/ o/ + itis = osteochondritis (bone) (cartilage) (inflammation) inflamation of bone and cartilage oste/ o/ arthr/ + itis = osteoarthritis (joint) inflammation of bone/joint Greek Word Word Root kardia (heart) cardi gaster (stomach) gastr hepat (liver) hepat Nephros (kidney) nephr Osteon (bone) oste Prefixes Rule #2 Examples of WR Medical Terminology A WR is used before a suffix that begins with a vowel. Combining Form + Suffix = Medical Word Meaning arthr/o -centesis arthrocentesis puncture of a joint (joint) (puncture) thorac/o -tomy thoracotomy incision of the chest (chest) (incision) gastr/o megaly gastromegaly enlargement of the stomach (stomach) (enlargement) erythr/o -cyte erythrocyte red blood cell (red) (cell) cyt/o -logy cytology study of a cell (cell) (study) Word Root + Combining Vowel = Combining Form Meaning cardi o cardi/o heart gastr o gastr/o stomach arthr o arthr/o joint derm o derm/o skin cyt o cyt/o cell cephal o cephal/o head cerebr o cerebr/o brain Three Steps . First, define the suffix, or last part of the word. . Second, define the prefix, or first part of the word . Last, define the middle of the word gastr/o enter/ itis stomach intestin inflammation (2) (3) (1)
Transcript: The outer ear The Inner Ear. Otomycosis: swimmers ear. Treatment and Procedures Infectious myringitis: is a contagious inflammation that causes painful blisters on the eardrum. eustachitis: inflammation of the eustachian tube. The Middle Ear. Otoscerosis: is the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear. Myringotomy: Surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes. Otopyorrhea: flow of the pus from the ear. Barotrauma: pressure related ear discomfort. Tinnitus: is a ringing, roaring, or buzzing sound in both ears. Otorrhagia: bleeding from the ear. Mastoidectomy: The surgical removal of mastoid cells. Tympanostomy tubes: Tubes placed through the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure. Vertigo: is a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, that is often combined with nausea and vomiting. Eyes and Ears.
Transcript: Cell structure Cell membrane surrounds & protects Nucleus: controls operations of the cell Chromosomes are rod-like structure within the nucleus Karyotype is the analysis of chromosomes The karyotope contains regions called genes Mitochondria is where foods are and burned to produce energy, which is the process of catabolism Anabolism is the proces of building up complex materials from simpler parts Four Types of Tissue: 3. Epithelial tissues 4. Fat Cells 5 Body Cavities Cranial Thoracic Pelvic Spinal Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Divisions of the back Cervical: Neck region Thoracic: Chest region Lumbar: Loin (waist) region Sarcral: Five bones to form the sacrum Coccygeal: Tailbone Positional Terms Anterior/ Ventral: Front surface of the body Deep: away from surface Superficial: on the surface Inferior (caudal): below another structure Superior (cephalic) : Above another structure Medial: middle or near the medial plane of the body Lateral: side Supine: lying on the back, face up Prone: lying on the belly, face down Proximal: near the point of attatchment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure Posterior/ Dorsal: Back side of body Distal: Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of the structure 2. Nerve Cells Abdominal 1. Muscle Cells Chapter Two
Transcript: Medical Terminology The Letter "O" By: Briana Watts odont- (o) --means tooth olig- (o) --means few, less than normal, small -ologist --means person who does/ studies -ology --means study of, science of -oma --means tumor, a swelling onco- --means mass, bulk, tumor oophor- (o) --means ovary, female egg cell ophthalm- (o) --means eye -opia --means vision -opsy --means to view opt- (ic) --means vision, eye orch- (ido) --means testicles, testes -orrhea --means flow, discharge orth- (o) --means normal, straight ost- (e, eo) --means bone -oscopy --means diagnostic examination -osis --means condition, state, process ot- (o) --means ear -otic --means pertaining to a condition -otomy --means cutting into -ous --means full of, containing, pertaining to, condition ovi-, ovario --means egg, female sex gland, ovary -ode, -oid --means form, shape, like, resembling or- (o) --means mouth ocul- (o) --means eye
Transcript: TOPIC why doctors shouln't make decisions for patients? Treatment decision Aids (DAS) in advanced cancer: When the GOAL is not cure and the Answer is NOT CLEAR Treatment decision making in advanced cancer is complex for many reasons. The goals of treatment are often palliative: to improve diseas-related symptoms and life quality for a limited period of time, and in some cases, to prolong average survival by weeks or months. When the goal of trearment is not cure, treatment decisions are further complicated by patient and caregiver denial. anxiety, physical distress and emotional distress.In addition, potential misunderstandings of information, avaiable through physicans, the health care team, media, and other sources, can make for a complex decision- making process for patients. Patients increasingly define themselves as consumers of health care. Many cancer patients today want detailed information about their cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options,and many wish to be active participants in mecidal decision making. Support for involving patients in making decisions about their care is mounting with an increasing weight evidence in several areas of medicine, demonnstrating that this can contribute to better quality decisions and can improve health outcoms. Among cancer patients, those offered choices in their treatment show better psychologic adjustment and health-related quality of life, while those feeling that thry have had little control over their disease and treatment have a poorer psychosocial outcome. Moreover, patients who preceive that their physicans are making an effort to facilitate their involvement in decision making tend to be more involved in that process and have greater satisfaction and physician loyalty. While many decision supports exist for early-stage cancer patients, there are few for advanced cancer patients, who arguably have a greater need for decision support.The potential benefits of "DAS" include enhanced patient understanding, reduced decisional conflict, enhanced harmonization between patient values and treatment decisions, and greater patient invovement and satisfaction with decision making. cancer statistics A survey of 1,012 canadian women with early breast cancer revealed that most of these women wanted detailed information about their disease, - that 22% wanted to select their own treatment - that 44% wanted to select collaboratively with their doctor - and that 34% wanted their doctor to select the trearment when patients can't make a decision when a person is mentally incapacitated because of illness, disease, mental illness or development disabilities, others must make major decisions for them. sometimes patients are not able to make decisions about their medical care. this applies to newborns, yong children, people in trasient unconscious states, and people with psychiatric or psychological conditions that disrupt ordered thought, others must make major decisions for them. patients' preferences Patients have variable preferences for information and involvement in their cancer care,with predective variable including : age,sex, education, and performance status. only those patients who understand their prognosis can make choives about their care, or participate in treatment decisions accordance with their values. But even when patients receive the required information, a significant proportion misunderstands this information. A small study of 48 patients with colon cancer reported that while these patients have similar information needs compared with patients with breast cancer, they have strikingly lower involvement preferences. indeed, 78% wanted to play a passive role in decision making and 80% preceived that they did so. similarly, a study of 57 men with prostate cancer found that the men wanted to be well informed, though 58% prefered that their doctor make the final treatment decision. Estimates of the proportion of cancer patients who achieve their desired involvement in their treatment decision making range from 34% to 42%. who can make a decision? when the patients are clearly unable to make decisions for themselves, physicians may turn to surrogate decision- makers. surrogate may act in the following order of priority: 1- a legally appointed guardian, 2- a spouse, 3- an adult child 4- a parent, 5- an adult sibiling, 6- a close relative or friend 7- doctor in emergency case support limitation Treatment decisios in advanced cancer are difficult. The uncertain benefits of systemic anticancer treatment must be weighed against likely toxicity, in a situation where the goal of treatment is not cure. while many decision supports exist for early stage cancer patients, there are few for advanced cancer patients, who arguably have a greater need for decision support. Why doctors should not make a decision unless it needed: because there are legally priority.... first 5 types of cancer: Each year one and half million Americans will be diagnosed with some form
Transcript: Suture Ruptured Myocardium Pericardial Effusion Pericardiocentesis Obstructive Shock Angina Pectoris An abnormal accumulation of fluid (more than 50 mL) in the pericardium cavity, What is a synonym for the word Suture? Carbiac Temponade is also known as? Pericarditis is the INFLAMMATION of the PERICARDIUM What can an Echocardiograph show you? Pulsus Paradoxus is an ___________ ___________ in systolic blood pressure __________ than _________mmHg. Echocardiograph Stitch, Sew etc What is the abnormal level of fluid found in a Pericardial Effusion? Serous Fluid is used for various bodily fluids that are typically PALE YELLOW and TRANSPARENT, and of a benign nature, that fill the inside of the body. Pericardial Tamponade Pulsus Paradoxus is an ABNORMAL INCREASE in systolic blood pressure MORE than 10mmHg. Cardiac Tamponade What is Obstructive Shock? Serous Fluid is used for various bodily fluids that are typically ______ ______ and ________, and of a benign nature, that fill the inside of the body. Angina Pectoris is chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscles. What is ischemia? Pericarditis Echocardiograph is a type of ultrasound that creates images of the heart Pericarditis Pericardiocentesis Cardiac Temponade What type of procedure is Pericardiocentesis? Pericarditis is the ____________ of the ___________. Obstructive Shock is a form of shock associated with physical obstruction of the great vessels or of the heart itself. Serous Fluid Ischemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism Pulsus Paradoxus Pericardiocentesis is a procedure in which fluid is aspirated from the pericardium.
Transcript: Side Effects: seizure rigid muscles, high fever, uneven heartbeats, tremors restlessness blurred vision, eye pain, seeing halos chest tightness, trouble breathing, SOB easy bruising dry mouth (most common) decreased sex drive Claim: When taken at 7 AM, Vyvanse provided improved attention at 2 hours after taking and was effective throughout the day, even at 14 hours after taking Sam-E Claim: Strattera is a non-stimulant that helps manage ADHD symptoms. Side Effects: chest pain SOB Dizziness unusual thoughts hallucinations stomach pain Side Effects: insomnia irritability mania impulsivity !!!addictive!! Intuitive (guanfacine) Prozac (fluoxetine hydrochloride) Panax Ginseng Green Oats Side Effects: loss of appetite, skin rash, sweating, ringing in the ears, shakiness, stomach pain, agitation, anxiety, muscle pain, fast heartbeat, and more frequent urination Aromatherapy Hypericum perforatum, an herbal medicine, works better than a placebo in helping out with sadness, anxiety and insomnia. Side effects may include fatigue, indigestion and dry mouth. Folate is a vitamin B, that people with depression usually lack in. Folic Acid could be found in leafy greens and vegetables. Taking Folic Acid has little to NO side effects. Pristiq (Desvenlafaxine) Passion Flower By Alicia Holden Caffeine is found to be an effective stimulant for ADHD as opposed to prescriptions like Ritalin. Cons to Caffeine is withdrawls and weight changes I will list 10 man-made medicines starting from the worst possible outcome to the least possible outcome. I will state their side effects, show you their chemical formation and a few statements about the medication itself. My theme for these ten medications are Depression and ADHD Natural Supplements Claim: It may give you what you need to help manage your child's ADHD symptoms Wellbutrin is an anti-depressent. It contains another medication called Zyban which helps smoking cessations. Wellbutrin can be prescribed as an extended release or an Instant release. Never exceeding 300mg a day. Wellbutrin is also know for low sexual side effects. Lexapro is an SSRI, and can be also thought of as the ONLY SSRI, that is the most effective. Lexapro is also the medicine that has less intense side effects than the rest. fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats; decreased blood pressure (feeling light-headed, fainting); dangerously high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, buzzing in your ears, anxiety, confusion, chest pain, shortness of breath,... Celexa (citolapram hydrobromide) Strattera (atomoxetine Hcl) Warning!!: Paxil in a new form of birth defect. St. Johns Wort Omega 3 Fatty Acids 10 Pharmaceutical Medications Claims: Patients treated with WELLBUTRIN were significantly less likely to experience a loss in sexual desire than patients taking ZOLOFT®* (sertraline)6,7 Vyvanse is part of a controlled treatment to ADHD. It is a Stimulant. It helps the patient to focus more, controll their actions, and to lessen the hyperactivicty. Vyvanse works by changing the amounts of a few natrual substances in the brain. Desvenlafaxine is an extended release anti-depressant/anxiety tablet. Pristiq is a part of a group called SNRIs (selective seotonin and norephinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Vyvanse (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) also short for S-adenosyl-L-methionine, is a natural chemical in the human body that increases the levels of neurotransmitters, seratonin and dopamine. Of course helping out depression. Only cons are constipation and nausea. Panax Ginseng can stablize body function, reduce stress and raise levels of motivation and confidence helping out people with Depression AND ADHD. Only cons is the usual constipation. Wellbutrin (Buprorion Hcl) Side Effects: Centella Asiatica Paxil (paroxetine hydrochloride) Claim: Celexa effectively raises the serotonin levels in your brain by letting your synapses soak in serotonin for longer than usual by slowing (inhibiting) the mechanism of serotonin transmission deeper into the neurons (reuptake) Folic Acid Lexapro (escitalopram oxalate) Celexa is also an SSRI for depression. Celexa could also be prescribed to people with OCD, anxiety and PTSD. Celexa is a good med to switch to if the SSRI you’re already taking stops working Medical Terminology Project Wednesday Class Side Effects: drowsiness weight changes insomnia nausea Side Effects: nervousness dizziness sleep problems weight changes decreased sex drive constipation Passion Flower helps with insomnia and mainly anxiety, helping to reduce the stress and tension for those who suffer ADHD. It improves job performance and has less intense side effects. Cons are rapid heartbeat and constipation. Diet Paxil, being an SSRI, treats depression, OCD, PTSD, and PMDD. Prozac is second to last on having least amount of side effects. Massage oils and infusers are known for meditation and relaxation. It sooths the nerves and undo the tension that is in your body. A great treatment for ADHD/Anxiety with no side
Transcript: In medical terminology there are three possible word parts which are: 1.-PREFIX 2.-ROOTS 3.-SIFFIX SUFFIX LESSON combining vowels SUFFIX is a word ending that modifies a root and indicates that the word is a noun or an adjetive and often determines how the definition of the word will begin PREFIX combinining vowels between word root and suffix if the suffix begins with a vowel 1.-Do not use a combining vowel If suffix begins with a consonant 1.-use combining vowel Make it possible to pronounce long terms usually an "o" combine two word parts between two word parts between word root and suffix Example: Medical terms are formed by combining word segments. A root can be combined with prefixes, roots or suffixes. For example, the prefix dys (difficult) can be combined with the root pnea (breathing). This forms the term dyspnea meaning difficulty in breathing. ostomy — creating of an artificial opening plegia — paralysis pnea — breathing thorax — chest pseudo — false/fake therm — heat thromb — clot thyroid — thyroid gland urin — urine/urinary tract Language that is used to accurately describe the human body and associated components, conditions, processes and process in a science-based manner. Most medical term have greek or Latin origins prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning, a prefix is also called a preformative, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed. Medical terminology ROOTS Preffix lesson: medical terminology anti-against brady-slow hemi-half hypo-below/deficient polu-many semi-half They are never used alone examples: tachy-fast/rapid dys-difficulty/labored hyper-above/excessive Making words many medical words have special plural forms based on the ending of the word Example: word ending: a plural ending:ae singular example:vertebra plural example: vertebrae MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY The root of a wod contains its basic meaning, it can be conbined with another root, prefix or suffix to form different medical terms Examples Suffix deffinition example -algia pain neuralgia Forming plurals
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