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Mechanical Design Project - Presentation 3

Transcript: basic Outline Upright Ergonomic ISO Standards Stability Brakes Coefficient of friction Maneuvering space Speeds and accelerations Cost Environmental factors Maximum power requirement 627W Mostly uphill with steep sections Critical data for electronic system Any Questions? Application of SMART Initial route map - to find elevation changes Yield the power required for the route Future Work Disk brakes Brakes activated by levers ergonomic - Engine (motor): o Reversible machine: Motor or Generator o Motor gears o Power: about 300 W per motor o Weight: 3 kg each - Integrated batteries: ♣ Charging point ♣ Ring-shaped. Concentric to the motor. ♣ Li-ion based - Case: ♣ Compact to hold all components ♣ Sealed -- Weather proof ♣ Material: metal (aluminium), plastic, composites, carbon-fibre…. - Placed on both wheels >> FEA analysis Rear Support for upward incline Celia Sainz Power Usage Initial concepts OPTION 2 Operating environment - Withstand year round outdoor weather Size Weight - Dimensions according to anthropometric data (Paquet et al. 2004) Material - must be durable; no specific requirements Aesthetics - Modern, appealing to look at Costs - frame must not exceed £200 Frame Analysis Component Specification Anthropometric analysis Concept Generation Future Work >> Need to know COG location from frame analysis to calculate the necessary wheel extension using Pythagoras Forward, neutral and reverse gears Dual reversible hub Toggle switch to change motion Brakes activated through handle Around 5 kg added -Electric system components: Based on Electric Bicycles Required features Calculations for Centre Of Gravity Independent movement and braking between wheels Forward and reverse motion Use of levers to propel the wheelchair Outline Lack of outdoor accessibility for disabled SMART Wheels Design improvements Ergonomic seating and frame (Tom) SMART (Andy) Electronically assisted (Alberto) Increased stability (Josephine) Alternate manual propulsion (Celia) hubless • This presentation: some specifications and components Stability Agree Final Design Solidworks Modeling FEA Analysis Mechanical Analysis Future Work Reclining Supporting wheels extending behind major wheel Stronger design with two wheels Initial Route Map Design Constraints Egg stylish - Transmission movement gear: o Connected with propulsion system - Sensor: o Provide motion, velocity and torque information to Electronics - Electronics: o Control the engine behaviour: Activating electric supply/Regenerative braking o Bluetooth or Wi-Fi modules: Connectivity with App and remote buttons Different options for wheel extension: Hydraulics Notch and Clip Thread and screw Wheel will lengthen to set extensions depending on the incline ELECTRIC SYSTEM Component Specification How will the wheels extend? Outline Focus on stability for a cross slope surface and an upward incline Camber: Performance requirements - Quiet, Sturdy, ergonomic, easy to use Safety - Safe to use and transport Accuracy and reliability - consistently relocate to independent positions Life in service - 5 years Component Specification Recap Further research Initial design Design iterations Closing in on final Design Concept Work Mechanical Design Project - SMART Wheel Celia Sainz Celia Sainz Only one wheel provides a lighter design Is it still strong enough Manual propulsion system OPTION 1 Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites

Mechanical Design

Transcript: Manufacturing Processes: Forming Manufacturing technologies are economically important because they are the means for adding value to raw materials by converting them into useful products. There are many different manufacturing processes, and each is well suited to a particular need based on environmental impact, dimensional accuracy, material properties, and the mechanical component’s shape. Engineers select those processes, identify the machines and tools, and monitor production to ensure that the final product meets its specifications. The major classes of manufacturing processes are casting, forming, machining, joining, and finishing. Engineer better medicines Reverse-engineer the brain Prevent nuclear terror Secure cyberspace Enhance virtual reality Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery Product archaeology is the process of reconstructing the lifecycle of a product – the customer requirements, design specifications, and manufacturing processes used to produce it– to understand the decisions that led to its development. 1. Preparation: background research about a product including market research, patent searches, and benchmarking existing products. 2. Excavation: component description, dissection and analysis 3. Evaluation: benchmarking existing products, conduct material and product tests. 4. Explanation: draw conclusions about the issues that shaped the design of the product. Production Focus On: Product Archaeology Utility Patents Guiding principles in this stage are simplicity, iteration, and usability. At this point, many design and manufacturing details remain open, and each one must be resolved in order to produce the hardware for the product. In the detailed design of the product a number of issues must be determined, including: Develop product layout and configuration Select materials for each component Optimize final geometry including appropriate tolerances Develop completed digital models of all components and assemblies Simulate system using digital and mathematical models Prototype and test critical components and modules Develop production plans Another prototyping technique moves a print head to spray a liquid adhesive onto a powder and “glue-up” a prototype bit-by-bit. Curriculum Topics Manufacturing Processes Mechanical engineers will play important roles in each of these 14 challenges over the next few decades, most notably the highlighted ones. ME’s will need to know and use solid design principles to be successful. Patents are granted for a new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or an improvement of them. Some rapid prototyping systems use lasers to fuse layers of a liquid polymer together (a process known as stereolithography) or to fuse raw material in powder form. Design Process Focus On: Global Design Teams Manufacturing Processes: Casting Initially, a design engineer will develop a comprehensive set of system requirements considering the following issues: Functional performance – what the product must accomplish. Environmental impact – during production, use, and retirement. Manufacturing – resource and material limitations. Economic issues – budget, cost, price, profit. Ergonomic concerns – human factors, aesthetics, ease of use. Global issues – international markets, needs, and opportunities. Life-cycle issues – use, maintenance, planned obsolescence. Social factors – civic, urban, cultural issues. Documentation Forming encompasses a family of techniques in which a raw material is shaped by stretching, bending, or compressing it. Large forces are applied to plastically deform a material into its new permanent shape. Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness of a flat sheet of material by compressing it between rollers. Forging is another forming process, and it is based on the principle of heating, impacting, and plastically deforming metal into a final shape. Detailed Design Most commonly encountered in mechanical engineering, the utility patent protects the function of an apparatus, process, product, or composition of matter. Conceptual Design Joining operations are used to assemble subcomponents into a final product by welding, soldering, riveting, bolting, or adhesively bonding them. Many bicycle frames, for instance, are welded together from individual pieces of metal tubing. Finishing steps are taken to treat a component’s surface in order to make it harder, improve its appearance, or protect it from the environment. Some finishing processes include polishing, electroplating, anodizing, and painting. Extrusion is used to create long straight metal parts with their cross sections having round, rectangular, L-, T-, or C-shapes, for instance. In extrusion, a mechanical or hydraulic press is used to force heated metal through a tool (called a die) that has a tapered hole ending in the shape of the finished part’s cross section. Conceptually, the process of extrusion is not unlike the

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