Transcript: The science of forces ... Mother of all mechanical advantages Torque HOW to start ? links center of mass mechanical design mechanical advantages let's do it ! is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. cams Fixed = output / input take care of friction simple machines Free body diagram gears pulleys Screws Couplers What does it take to be a mechanical designer ? How to joint parts you need to have problem solving skills You need special eye to see the forces screws joints is the point where all of the mass of the object is concentrated. When an object is supported at its center of mass there is no net torque acting on the body and it will remain in static equilibrium. force stress " normal & shear " strain is simply the science of manipulating forces to solve specific problems wheel mechanics stability levers Moving Welding Bearing concepts Mechanical design inclined plan
Transcript: A 16oz bottle was used as the rockets body.The length of the cone was 1.25cm.1cm by .5cm fins where also used. Thread and a ping pong was used as a parachute. Background Research Criteria and Constraints Materials Redesign/Retest What We Are Trying to do We are trying to create a rocket with a very high altitude. We had to do this by using different amounts of water and different fins sizes. Mechanical Design We did not make any modifications and we did not retest our water rocket. However, we did make straw rockets before this project, and we did make modifications on that and we retested it. WE shortened the length, and it improved. Our conclusions were that the less water that was applied into the rocket, the farther up it went. That is because the weight of the water makes it go lower. I don't think there would be any changes that could be made, except making the fins larger for more stability. Conclusions The fins and the length of the rocket were relatively large for the rocket. But it still flew high. We also discovered the less water there is, the further the rocket went. Our group discovered that the bigger the fin size, the more stable the rocket is. Background Research Visual Aids
Transcript: Is the project worth it or even realistic? DO THE CALCULATIONS IDEA SKETCH But even before that you need to have a clear idea: what, when, how much and most importanly WHY? PROJECT REQUIREMENTS No work can start before you have a well-documented project ZOOM ANYWHERE in the template and insert your own content Get this Prezi Template from: https://prezibase.com No project can be completed without hard work START WORKING MECHAN CAL GREAT SUCCESS Last finishing touches Is someone checking the quality and making sure everything is safe? PROJECT SUPERVISION PREZI TEMPLATE BY PREZIBASE.COM
Transcript: Fixed Screws Welding Moving Bearings Couplers Examples : six machines What does it take to be a mechanical designer ? What is mechanics? Mechanical design levers screws is simply the science of manipulating forces to solve specific problems Mother of all mechanical advantages Then.. Mechanical design is? Force Springs Free body diagram Torque Friction The science of forces Actuators wheel Test Mechanical Design How to joint parts pulleys Motors gears inclined plan use every thing you learned You need special eye to see the forces
Transcript: But then.. What is Mechanical Design? The acceptance rate is 44% which is almost half, its like flipping a coin. Sources The good 'Ol University of Minnesota Twin Cities What you have to do BUIlDING ENGINES!! You have to design the engine on a computer Schooling But there is help Sadly you do need to know what you are doing so you have to get some schooling, 4 years of it Money Isn't the U of M expensive?? The average financial aid is $13,165, that is half of the cost! YOU GET TO BUILD IT!! The internet, mncis.com and the U of M website What would be a good school? design engines for cars and trucks What else do i need to talk about to entice you into wanting this job? Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Design Mechanical Engineering classes involve a bunch of math, physics, biology, chemistry, mechanic and electric engineering classes Isnt it hard to get into the U of M? The only thing that teens care about, a typical mechanical designer gets 80,000 crisp dollars a year "If you want to live a happy life, tie it to a goal, not to people or things." - Albert Einstein With tuition and cost of living at about 26,719 dollars it does seem pretty scary
Transcript: Mechanical System Design Project Price Skimming The purpose of price skimming is to set an initial high price to maximise profit per unit which will create a quicker way to achieve the breakeven point. Penetration Pricing This price strategy is a way to introduce a new product at a lower price than competitors which helps to gain market share quickly. Prestige Pricing As may be indicated this strategy is to set a high price to reinforce a product’s luxury image. Cost- plus Pricing This strategy adds a percentage on top of the cost to produce the product. This product will be sold in all major toy stores. This product could also be sold at gadget store primarily aimed at men Pricing Strategies design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi This product will take inspiration from an older style car this model is inspired by a Da Vinci's Self-Propelled car model. The branding for this product will promote the unique quantifiable variables. Focus will be on what separates this product from the current products on the market. Feedback shows that making the product link to popular children’s characters makes the product more identifiable for the child. • Children’s toys are mainly made from plastics due to the of the environment and the properties • Polymers such as Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Polypropylene (PP), and Polythene (PE) are extremely durable and easily manufactured; this is why they are often used for this purpose. • PVC is a soft vinyl plastic that, according to studies has been found to be toxic due to phthalates, lead or cadmium • According to the Eco-Healthy Child Care website, PVC may lead to health concerns such as cancer, birth defects and developmental disorders. • Polypropylene is an alternative plastic to PVC that is also used in toy production • Polythene is a durable, versatile polymer that varies from hard to soft and has some of the same properties as polypropylene. Teething rings are an example of a toy made from polythene because it is so safe. • For this reason PE is chosen for the toy car. Aim And Objective Design a toy car model based on Da Vinci 1478 car model. which should be self propelled and low cost manufacturing Product Design Specification F = k × e F is the force in newtons, N k is the 'spring constant' in newtons per metre, N/m e is the extension in metres, m We have used Hooke’s law to justify why a rubber band would work for moving the car SWOT - Incorporates mechanics - Will able to be driven by a number of elastic bands across a number of surfaces and then disengages - Material has been chosen wisely - Works in all styles of environment e.g. dusty and unclean (studio) - Can be bumped and carry on working - Maintenance should be minimal - Cost is small and compares to existing products - Has been designed around anthropometric data - Designed towards our target market well (colour, form) • Outsourced Injection moulding – low cost after tooling has been manufactured • Injection moulding – Protomold quote - $ for tooling, $ (per 100,000 units) Component Price as follows: Injection moulding (tooling and material per 100,000 units) 8$ TOTAL 8$ per unit • RRP = 10$, unit cost =8 $ therefore profit per unit = 2$ Materials Mechanical System Design Project Manufacture and Costing Material Thank you for listening, any questions? - How did the product idea come about? - What's included in this presentation? • Low density and linear low density • High Density – more durable and used for heavy duty products – car could be dropped down the stairs and receive large impacts and has to protect the mechanism • Food safe (good for children who put things in their mouth and well as their hands after using the product), and easy cleaning due to the surface, it can also be recycled. • Strong, rigid, durable and resistant to impacts and scratches • Could be made from recycled HDPE but not sure on contaminants from the source so will be manufactured from ‘clean’ HDPE. On the plus side the car shell can be recycled after use. Conclusion - Marketing Strategies - Mechanism that has been used - Materials, Manufacture and Costing Introduction Strengths Educational, market is expected to grow, unique features with limited direct competition, it is interactive Weaknesses Saturated toy car market, price will be higher than other kinetic toys, the product can’t be differentiated with graphics only Opportunities Cheap method to work the car, toy manufacturers may be diversifying out of the market to follow the technological trends leaving opportunity for new brands, room for product development to teach the child coding, coding now follows the current cirriculum Threats Major brands have products in this market e.g. Hot Wheels- Mattel, they have already established brand loyalty, children are using technology more and more e.g. smartphones, games consoles, can this product compete? This product is aimed at children age 5-10 years of age. Mainly this will appeal to boys due to social convention. This is a toy that may
Transcript: basic Outline Upright Ergonomic ISO Standards Stability Brakes Coefficient of friction Maneuvering space Speeds and accelerations Cost Environmental factors Maximum power requirement 627W Mostly uphill with steep sections Critical data for electronic system Any Questions? Application of SMART Initial route map - to find elevation changes Yield the power required for the route Future Work Disk brakes Brakes activated by levers ergonomic - Engine (motor): o Reversible machine: Motor or Generator o Motor gears o Power: about 300 W per motor o Weight: 3 kg each - Integrated batteries: ♣ Charging point ♣ Ring-shaped. Concentric to the motor. ♣ Li-ion based - Case: ♣ Compact to hold all components ♣ Sealed -- Weather proof ♣ Material: metal (aluminium), plastic, composites, carbon-fibre…. - Placed on both wheels >> FEA analysis Rear Support for upward incline Celia Sainz Power Usage Initial concepts OPTION 2 Operating environment - Withstand year round outdoor weather Size Weight - Dimensions according to anthropometric data (Paquet et al. 2004) Material - must be durable; no specific requirements Aesthetics - Modern, appealing to look at Costs - frame must not exceed £200 Frame Analysis Component Specification Anthropometric analysis Concept Generation Future Work >> Need to know COG location from frame analysis to calculate the necessary wheel extension using Pythagoras Forward, neutral and reverse gears Dual reversible hub Toggle switch to change motion Brakes activated through handle Around 5 kg added -Electric system components: Based on Electric Bicycles Required features Calculations for Centre Of Gravity Independent movement and braking between wheels Forward and reverse motion Use of levers to propel the wheelchair Outline Lack of outdoor accessibility for disabled SMART Wheels Design improvements Ergonomic seating and frame (Tom) SMART (Andy) Electronically assisted (Alberto) Increased stability (Josephine) Alternate manual propulsion (Celia) hubless • This presentation: some specifications and components Stability Agree Final Design Solidworks Modeling FEA Analysis Mechanical Analysis Future Work Reclining Supporting wheels extending behind major wheel Stronger design with two wheels Initial Route Map Design Constraints Egg stylish - Transmission movement gear: o Connected with propulsion system - Sensor: o Provide motion, velocity and torque information to Electronics - Electronics: o Control the engine behaviour: Activating electric supply/Regenerative braking o Bluetooth or Wi-Fi modules: Connectivity with App and remote buttons Different options for wheel extension: Hydraulics Notch and Clip Thread and screw Wheel will lengthen to set extensions depending on the incline ELECTRIC SYSTEM Component Specification How will the wheels extend? Outline Focus on stability for a cross slope surface and an upward incline Camber: Performance requirements - Quiet, Sturdy, ergonomic, easy to use Safety - Safe to use and transport Accuracy and reliability - consistently relocate to independent positions Life in service - 5 years Component Specification Recap Further research Initial design Design iterations Closing in on final Design Concept Work Mechanical Design Project - SMART Wheel Celia Sainz Celia Sainz Only one wheel provides a lighter design Is it still strong enough Manual propulsion system OPTION 1 Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites Alberto Pérez Vieites
Transcript: Manufacturing Processes: Forming Manufacturing technologies are economically important because they are the means for adding value to raw materials by converting them into useful products. There are many different manufacturing processes, and each is well suited to a particular need based on environmental impact, dimensional accuracy, material properties, and the mechanical component’s shape. Engineers select those processes, identify the machines and tools, and monitor production to ensure that the final product meets its specifications. The major classes of manufacturing processes are casting, forming, machining, joining, and finishing. Engineer better medicines Reverse-engineer the brain Prevent nuclear terror Secure cyberspace Enhance virtual reality Advance personalized learning Engineer the tools of scientific discovery Product archaeology is the process of reconstructing the lifecycle of a product – the customer requirements, design specifications, and manufacturing processes used to produce it– to understand the decisions that led to its development. 1. Preparation: background research about a product including market research, patent searches, and benchmarking existing products. 2. Excavation: component description, dissection and analysis 3. Evaluation: benchmarking existing products, conduct material and product tests. 4. Explanation: draw conclusions about the issues that shaped the design of the product. Production Focus On: Product Archaeology Utility Patents Guiding principles in this stage are simplicity, iteration, and usability. At this point, many design and manufacturing details remain open, and each one must be resolved in order to produce the hardware for the product. In the detailed design of the product a number of issues must be determined, including: Develop product layout and configuration Select materials for each component Optimize final geometry including appropriate tolerances Develop completed digital models of all components and assemblies Simulate system using digital and mathematical models Prototype and test critical components and modules Develop production plans Another prototyping technique moves a print head to spray a liquid adhesive onto a powder and “glue-up” a prototype bit-by-bit. Curriculum Topics Manufacturing Processes Mechanical engineers will play important roles in each of these 14 challenges over the next few decades, most notably the highlighted ones. ME’s will need to know and use solid design principles to be successful. Patents are granted for a new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or an improvement of them. Some rapid prototyping systems use lasers to fuse layers of a liquid polymer together (a process known as stereolithography) or to fuse raw material in powder form. Design Process Focus On: Global Design Teams Manufacturing Processes: Casting Initially, a design engineer will develop a comprehensive set of system requirements considering the following issues: Functional performance – what the product must accomplish. Environmental impact – during production, use, and retirement. Manufacturing – resource and material limitations. Economic issues – budget, cost, price, profit. Ergonomic concerns – human factors, aesthetics, ease of use. Global issues – international markets, needs, and opportunities. Life-cycle issues – use, maintenance, planned obsolescence. Social factors – civic, urban, cultural issues. Documentation Forming encompasses a family of techniques in which a raw material is shaped by stretching, bending, or compressing it. Large forces are applied to plastically deform a material into its new permanent shape. Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness of a flat sheet of material by compressing it between rollers. Forging is another forming process, and it is based on the principle of heating, impacting, and plastically deforming metal into a final shape. Detailed Design Most commonly encountered in mechanical engineering, the utility patent protects the function of an apparatus, process, product, or composition of matter. Conceptual Design Joining operations are used to assemble subcomponents into a final product by welding, soldering, riveting, bolting, or adhesively bonding them. Many bicycle frames, for instance, are welded together from individual pieces of metal tubing. Finishing steps are taken to treat a component’s surface in order to make it harder, improve its appearance, or protect it from the environment. Some finishing processes include polishing, electroplating, anodizing, and painting. Extrusion is used to create long straight metal parts with their cross sections having round, rectangular, L-, T-, or C-shapes, for instance. In extrusion, a mechanical or hydraulic press is used to force heated metal through a tool (called a die) that has a tapered hole ending in the shape of the finished part’s cross section. Conceptually, the process of extrusion is not unlike the
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