Transcript: What recent event is having a similar effect in America? Include details about events that have happened recently that are effected by your event. You may use these resources: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/r/race/index.html http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/issues/racism.htm http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/27/freddie-gray-funeral_n_7150750.html?ref=topbar Income inequality - http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/02/income-inequality-in-america-chart-graph Research Project How can a novel like To Kill A Mockingbird lead to positive change? How was your event changed by protests and laws after 1960? 2. What were the effects of your event? details Insert a graphic or video to support More information about effects How is the event related to the novel To Kill A Mockingbird? Be specific about events in the novel that are influenced by the real-life event you are researching. You may include a you tube video from the movie of the novel Insert a video from the research Time Place What led to it? Your research presentation must answer five questions: 1. What is your historical event? 2. What were the effects of your event? 3. How is the event related to the novel To Kill A Mockingbird? 4. What recent event is having a similar effect in America? 5. How can a novel like To Kill A Mockingbird lead to positive change? 1. What is your historical event? Information from research about how the event impacted people To Kill A Mockingbird
Transcript: Motivation : Likert items are used to measure respondents’ attitudes to a particular question or statement. To analyse the data it is usually coded as follows. • 1 = Strongly disagree • 2 = Disagree • 3 = Neutral • 4 = Agree • 5 = Strongly agree One must recall that Likert-type data is ordinal data, i.e. we can only say that one score is higher than another, not the distance between the points. Likert scale Likert scale data Parametric analysis of ordinary averages of Likert scale data is justifiable by the Central Limit Theorem, analysis of variance techniques incude; • t-test. • ANOVA. • regression procedures Inference A Likert scale is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that represent similar questions combined into a single composite score/variable. Likert scale data can be analyzed as interval data, i.e. the mean is the best measure of central tendency. Chi-Squared Test measuring attitudes likert scales Mann Whitney Test Kruskal Wallis Test Inference Design considerations Likert Scale With Likert scale data we cannot use the mean as a measure of central tendency as it has no meaning i.e. what is the average of Strongly agree and disagree? The most appropriate measure of is the mode the most frequent responses, or the median. The best way to display the distribution of responses i.e. (% that agree, disagree etc) is to use a bar chart. To test hypotheses one must initially think carefully about the questions you are trying to answer. Once you have identified your hypotheses, you will have a dependent variable, that which is measured and your independent variable/s that which defines your groups. Analysis of variance techniques include; •. Mann Whitney test. •. Kruskal Wallis test. Data may also be combined into say two nominal categories Agree/Accept and Disagree/Reject, which allows us to carry out the; •. Chi-square test The data analysis decision for Likert items should be made at the questionnaire development stage. •. If you have a series of individual questions that have Likert response options for your participants to answer - then analyze them as Likert-type items i.e. Modes, medians, and frequencies. • . If you have a series of Likert-type questions that when combined describe a personality trait or attitude - use means and standard deviations to describe the scale. ANALYSING LIKERT SCALE/TYPE DATA Distortion Basic analysis : Likert scales are subject to distortion from several causes; • Avoidance of using extreme response categories - central tendency bias. • Agreeing with statements as presented acquiescence bias. • Attempt to portray themselves or their organization in a more favorable light social desirability bias.
Transcript: ICEBERG Debt Monitoring and Analysis Division Deanne Patrick A. Rubio Date 1 Data Collection Data Collection Timeline Timeline Step 2 Release Step 1 Data Preparation Data Preparation Data Visualization Data Visualization Arranged the Data Arranged Data Analysis Data Analysis Data Presentation Data Storytelling "What we see often is only a fractional part of what it really is." Lesson "Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things." -Theodore Levitt Digest
Transcript: Likert Scale is a psychometric scale where questions based on this scale are normally used in a survey. 1. Unipolar Likert Scale 2. Bipolar Likert Scale Likert Scale Questionnaire And Examples Bipolar Likert Scale Example How helpful was the content presented at the professional event? Unipolar Likert Scale Example LIKERT SCALE – Very satisfied – Somewhat satisfied – Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied – Somewhat dissatisfied – Very dissatisfied Overall, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with our company? – Extremely helpful – Very helpful – Somewhat helpful – Not so helpful – Not at all helpful Rensis Likert Be accurate Be careful about adjectives Better to ask Bipolar or unipolar? developed the Likert Scale in order to assess the level of agreement or disagreement of a symmetric agree-disagree scale. How to write Likert Scale Survey Questions? widely used in surveys there are specific choices based on "agreeing" or "disagreeing" on a certain question essential in measuring a respondent's opinion or attitude towards a given subject typically a five, seven, or nine point agreement scale is used to measure respondents' level of agreement
Transcript: FT2-201 Marta Rjabcenko: 0964070 Jorge Amor Gutierrez: 0965695 Romi Kondrlová: 0950898 LIKERT Theoretical concept Participative Method Main characteristics: -All employees have a degree of responsibility -Rewards = Completion of objectives -Trust is given to subordinates when it comes to decision making -Degree of communication and teamwork = High This method creates a higher involvement of all employees in at all levels Application - “We feel more liberated, appreciated, and fully in control of how we can provide the best possible healthcare to our clients” - “ Teams can apply to run their own neighborhood. Once they start, they mostly rely on their own.” Responsibility through all the levels Trust and confidence in subordinates High-degree of teamwork and communication “At Buurtzorg, the circa 1000 teams are completely self-organised and they therefore take care of the entire health care process” "Buurtzorg has established IT infrastructure to allow and promote knowledge sharing, client focus, and constant alignment: - Nurses post questions on the internet, where they receive answers from colleges within few hours. -A comprehensive overview of the percentage of hours spent with clients is shared on the intranet and used to gain insights into the client focus of the various teams. - Employees communicate with founder and the others in the organization through internet, moreover Jos writes blog posts with info about important topics and gets advice about them." "Buurtzorg empowers its staff to deliver all the care that patients need, allowing each nurse to organize their own work, make personal judgments and build strong community relationships." "Each neighborhood has a small self-steering team which focuses on their locality." Leadership involves trust and confidence in subordinates. Responsibility is widespread. High-degree of teamwork. "...staff are trusted to do the best for their patients." "... empowering its nurses to provide a full range of care to patients, with very little management direction." Participation "Such hierarchical delayering..."
Transcript: Interpretation: the p value of 0 indicates that 0% of students chose this distractor PLAN has evolved into ACT Aspire it is no longer being administered (unless someone still remains under contract) it was administered to students in the 10th grade 145 questions in multiple choice format Malaine Kelley J.D. Not Steve Rachel Spongebob Katrina Marie Shania Anastasia Group 4 Median = 7 points or 70% Interpretation: 1/2 of the students scored below 7, while 1/2 of the students scored above 7 D value = .4 Interpretation: No D value can be calculated for this distractor because no student chose this answer; therefore, this is an ineffective distractor. ACT PLAN Item Analysis Easiest Items: 40 % of the students got this question right #2 Standardized Test 60% of students got #1 right 40% of students got #2 right 90% of students got #3 right 50% of students got #4 right 70% of students got #5 right 50% of students got #6 right 50% of students got #7 right 90% of students got #8 right 70% of students got #9 right 80% of students got #10 right Mode = 7 (70%) Interpretation: the most obtained raw score was 7 (which equals a "C") Interpretations of D Values Created By: Stacy A. Amanda D. Steven M. Alex S. ACT PLAN #2 - Which of the following dates did the Allies begin the assault on Normandy during the Second World War? a. June 6, 1943 p=.5; D= -.6 b. July 6, 1943 p=0; D= 0 c. January 6, 1944 p=.1; D=.2 d. June 6, 1944 (correct answer) p=.4; D=.4 How the school system uses the test score? p values & interpretations of the test items: English, Math, Reading, and Science this test shows how proficient a student is in a subject, and which area(s) need to be improved prior to taking the ACT 20% 50% 60% 60% 70% 70% 70% 80% 80% 90% b. July 6, 1943 D=0 Class Mean How to interpret the test scores? www.act.org www.act.org/plan/results.html www.act.org/planstudent/score/ #2 - Which of the following dates did the Allies begin the assault on Normandy during the Second World War? a. June 6, 1943 b. July 6, 1943 c. January 6, 1944 d. June 6, 1944 (correct answer) p = .4; D = .4 Statistical Information: focused on the attitude towards social studies How and when is it administered? C. January 6, 1944 D=.2 Likert Scale this test assessed the knowledge of various subjects that make up social studies as a whole there were 10 questions -- each question worth 1 point What does it measure? test scores range from 1-32 each section is graded individually and then the composite score is determined by averaging out each section graded similar to the ACT -- 15 or below (student is not on track); 16-24 (student is average); 25-32 (student is proficient in their grade level p values of the distractors: 2/10 5/10 6/10 6/10 7/10 7/10 7/10 8/10 8/10 9/10 Item Analysis #2 - Which of the following dates did the Allies begin the assault on Normandy during the Second World War? a. June 6, 1943 p=.5 b. July 6, 1943 p=0 c. January 6, 1944 p=.1 d. June 6, 1944 (correct answer) p=.4; D=.4 Likert Results the test enables parents to see exactly which area(s) their child needs to work on in order to be as successful as possible in their future parents are able to see what their child needs to focus on for the ACT Item Analysis Range = 7 [9-2 = 7] Interpretation: The range between the scores was 7 points Item Analysis Individual Test Scores (Raw Scores & Percentages) a. June 6, 1943 D= -.6 #8 - Which of the following branches includes the President of the United States? a. Legislative b. Executive (correct answer) c. Judicial d. none of the above Hardest Item: Interpretation: the p value of .5 indicates that 50% of students chose this distractor How the scores can be explained to a parent or guardian? a. June 6, 1943 p=.5 Likert Results b. July 6, 1943 p=0 the overall class mean = 42.8 this indicates that the class had a positive attitude towards social studies #3 - Which of the following languages did Roman citizens use to speak and write? a. Gaelic b. Greek c. Latin (correct answer) d. Roman D values of the distractors: Interpretation of D values 1. p = .6 2. p = .4 3. p = .9 4. p = .5 5. p = .7 6. p = .5 7. p = .5 8. p = .9 9. p = .7 10. p =.8 total points possible: 50 lowest score = 33 although this was the lowest score, it is still a positive attitude toward social studies What type of test scores are reported? Standard Deviation = 1.86 Interpretation: a mean of 6.5 and a SD of 1.86 shows that majority of students scored between 4.64 and 8.36 for the distractors total points possible: 50 Highest Score = 48 indicates a positive attitude towards social studies Item Analysis of the distractors How is it scored? c. January 6, 1944 p=.1 of the distractors ACT PLAN Mean = 6.5 points or 65% Interpretation: "D" was the average test score ACT PLAN the number of correctly answered questions in each section is translated into a score between 1 and 32 the complete score is determined by adding and averaging each score from each section and rounding it to a whole
Transcript: Likert believed that the key to good leadership is: - To establish a climate and system of management that creates an effective organization. -Examined different types of organizations and leadership styles -To achieve maximum profitability, good labor relations and high productivity, every organization must make optimum use of their human assets. System 3 - Consultative System 4 - Participative -Leadership is by superiors who have; complete confidence in their subordinates, -Motivation is by financial rewards based on goals which have been set in participation -Personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organizational goals, - Effective communication -Substantial amount of cooperative teamwork. END -1 and 2 were least productive -3 and 4 were most productive LIKERT System 2 -Decisions imposed on subordinates -Motivation through FEAR & THREATS -High levels of management:great responsibilities -Lower levels have virtually none SOME COMMUNICATION -Are Work Centered -keep workers busy through a prescribed work cycle at a satisfactory time rate- with trained people to do them-constant pressure to achieve output using all the resources available. Varying in Degrees of Control High efficiency departments have supervisors who: System 1 Low efficiency departments Supervisors who: Communication: Vertical: (face to face, same dept) Horizontal: From bosses to employees where the leader uses rewards to encourage productivity, -management is responsible for all decisions and there is no teamwork -Where management does listen to subordinates and incorporates some employee ideas. -Most subordinates do not feel responsible to achieve the organization’s goals -Motivation is by rewards and some involvement Advantages: Exploitative Authoritative -people centered (work groups, goals) -The supervisors attempt to know employees as individuals. -They give general rather than detailed supervision, with overall targets rather than prescribing methods. -They accept maximum participation in decision making and see employees as capable of joining in the decision making processes. -With the help of the profile developed by Likert, it became possible to quantify the results of the work done in the field of group dynamics. -Likert theory also facilitated the measurement of the “soft” areas of management, such as trust and communication very little communication and no joint teamwork. Benevolent Authoritative
Transcript: Although the KWL chart was used at the beginning of the lesson, the following thinking stems should have been used during or after the lesson by students to encourage metacognition: I'm thinking. . . I'm noticing. . . I'm wondering. . . I'm seeing. . . I can relate. . . I'm feeling. . . I'm remembering Active In-Depth Learning The assessments in this lesson's activities are formative assessments. Students are creating lists of family eye colors, class eye color. They are analizing the class data and classifying and forming groups based on the data. Students are practicing addition facts based on observations of eye colors. They are also making predictions and then analyzing their predictions. The lesson is weak in formative assessment. An idea for formative assessment would be for students to create their own bar graphs when given new and different data. Likert Scale for Math Lesson Plan Needs Further Fully Development Developed 1 2 3 4 5 Knowledge Organized Around Core Concepts and Connections Authentic Formative Assessments Attention to Prior Knowledge, Experience, and Development Students were given multiple opportunities to interact and communicate with one another. They began by making predictions of eye colors. Students then created a "human line graph." They then used the class data to create a group bar graph using eye artwork created by each student. Students shared and discussed family eye colors incorporating key vocabulary such as dominant and recessive genes. In the next activity, students worked as a group to sort and classify socks in the dark. They had to demonstrate working together through collaboration. Finally, students have the opportunity to further research and investigate nocturnal and non-nocturnal animals. Key math skills were modeled and practiced. Students displayed use of addition/subtraction skills. They also practiced data analysis through the creation of graphs. Animal science content was learned through use of science vocabulary terms: dominant, recessive, genes, nocturnal, non-nocturnal, etc. Life cycles would make sense to incorporate into content as well. Development of Metacognitive Skills In this lesson I should have had students create a KWL chart with three sections. "K" standing for what do the students know about their eyes? "W" standing for what do they wonder about their eyes? "L" standing for what would the students like to learn about their eyes? Students should also create their own lists of nocturnal and non-nocturnal animals. Opportunities for Collaboration Students are creating a living graph based on their eye colors. They then take the data from their living graph and apply it to create a bar graph. Students make predictions of how many students will have a certain color. Actual data is examined and recorded in the "eye bar graph." Students continue to makeobservations of family member's eye colors. They organize this data, in particular the eye color of their parents. Students further analize eye color history of grandparents, etc. Students classify socks by forming and categories of socks while unable to see clearly in the dark. Students compute the data and record using tally marks.
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