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Knowledge Management

Transcript: SALARY GAP BY GENDER Ann Y.E Loh MBA from University of Bradford Management Centre Currently based in Singapore as Marketing Communications Manager at the PSB Corporation AUTHOR PROFILE Conclusion Types of Knowledge: tacit vs explicit Data series of meaningless outputs from any operations symbolic representation of numbers, letters, facts, or magnitudes stored and transfer Very practical and useful Recommended reading Title : Learning Throught Knowledge Management Language : English Author : Pervaiz K. Ahmed K.K. Lim Ann Y.E. Loh Publisher : Butterworth Heinemann First published 2002 ISSUE IN HRM Pervaiz K. Ahmed Chairs in Mgmt, University of Wolverhampton. Head of the centre for Enterprise Excellence and Director of the Japanese Management Research Unit 3 Knowledge Learning Improvement Level Mechanism KM systematic programme (explicit) organization wide implementation mandated by senior management driven by middle management organization - wide implementation organization - wide involvement Approaches to Organizational Learning Polanyi's (1996) "we know more than we can tell" Tacit difficult to describe or express usually transfer by demonstration, rather than description, encompasses such things as skills Explicit easily written down or codified easy to articulate and communicate resides in formulae, textbooks or technical, documents Knowledge Management Strategies Defining Knowledge and Knowledge Management Knowledge experience, skills, intuition, ideas, judgement, context, motivations and interpretations Knowledge is information that changes something or somebody Information data arranged in meaningful pattens Reactive KM adhoc programme (implicit) piecemeal implementation narrow department/group focus lacking senior management support driven by small group of middle mgmt poorly understood benefits by individual empoyee INTRODUCTION Organic KM systematic programme (explicit) organization wide implementation mandated by senior management driven by middle management organization - wide implementation organization - wide involvement alignment with strategy Lim Kwang Kok graduate with an MBA from the University of Bradford Management Centre. started career with Matsushita Electric Components Malaysia Learning = P + Q P : Programme learning that comes from books, lectures, or secondary resources Q : asking question, looking at the evidence, discussing or drawing, conclusion base on experience Succesfull Knowledge Management Improved innovation leading to improved products and services Improved decision making Quicker problem solving and fewer mistakes Reduced product development time Reduced research and development costs Key Elements in Knowledge Management Nonaka & Takeuchi SECI Models Case Study Singapore Airlines

Knowledge Management Presentation

Transcript: Currently there are three FIFA approved Goal Line Technology providers. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIs The last ball used for the FIFA World Cup was called the Jabulani. The Jabulani received criticism from players and coaches for being ‘unpredictable’ in the air. Another new addition to the 2014 World Cup is the 9-15 Vanishing Foam Vanishing Foam. Game ball redesign 2010 FIFA World Cup: 3.2 Billion People (Hint: The number is not in the Millions and currently the world is estimated to have a population of 7 Billion) GoalControl has been selected by FIFA to be utilized in the Brazil 2014 World Cup. Vanishing Foam Whilst the ball itself is not a new invention the ball for the 2014 World Cup with nearly 600 players accepting the new design prior to the World Cup. It was tested in the FIFA U-20 World Cup Final, however was disguised as a different ball (The ADIDAS Cafusa) This year. The host of the World Cup is: Some negativity against the foam has been voiced due to it seems that the referee is not enforcing the rules of the game by stopping the defending players from overstepping the 10 yard distance. The Foam does have its advantages. It will help eliminate cheating from players moving the ball from the penalty point or the ‘wall’ moving closer to the ball. GoalControl is equipped with 14 high-speed cameras located around the pitch, with seven cameras focusing on each goal. The ball’s position is continuously and automatically captured in 3D and tracked by the Goal Control system. The vanishing foam is used to mark positions of free kicks so the attacking player does not move the ball past the penalty point and to stop defensive players becoming closer than the 10 yard (9.1 Meters) distance from the ball. The Referee has full discretion about when the foam is utilized. It is not usually utilized when a free kick is awarded in the attacking players defensive half of the field. Hawk Eye GoalControl won a tender process in April 2013, with confirmation for Brazil 2014 World cup being subject to the system’s performance during the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2013. The system met all necessary FIFA requirements and indicated every one of the 68 goals correctly during the FIFA Confederations Cup. There was also a high-level of satisfaction reported by match officials in relation to the system. Another important thing to note about Goal Line Technology is that the IFAB (International Football Association Board) requested that is must not interfere with gameplay and must assist the official NOT Replace the official The 2014 FIFA world Cup is using a ball designed and developed by ADIDAS over a two year period. ADIDAS has been a FIFA partner supplying the official game balls for the World Cup since 1970. Goal Line Technology Last but not least the bright and fun colors on the Brazuca depict the fun and vibrant culture of Brazil. In 2005 a game between Manchester United and Tottenham: The Goalie Caught the Ball and dropped it over the line before hitting it back out. Was not seen by the Referee or linesman. Based from the Marketing Reports from both London 2012 Olympics and the 2010 FIFA World Cup. How many people globally do you think watched these events? 4K is the next stop for consumer televisions and is already available in retail outlets however the price is still quite high. 4K basically means you have 4000 pixels horizontally over the screen. Most TV’s currently have 1080p which is 1080 vertical pixels and 1920 horizontal pixels. Effectively the quality is doubled with a 4K Television. Answer How it Works: Benefits of the Goal Control Technology. New Technologies for 2014 Meet: The Brazuca 4K Once Goal Line Technology has been installed it must be tested and Certified by the FIFA accredited test institute. Testing is performed under varying conditions, Night and Day and varying weather The certification only lasts 12 months and must be re-certified at this time. To play in the World Cup each team needs to qualify over the three years leading up to the World Cup. 32 Teams will qualify to compete in the World cup to be crowned the Champions The 32 qualifying teams will compete within the host nation to determine the champion. Question: Brazil has won 5 out of 32 World Cup Championships and they are very much a soccer mad nation!! The Brazuca’s colors and ribbon design symbolise the traditional multi-colored wish bracelets worn by Brazilians. A Wish bracelet is tied around a wrist with 3 knots, A wish is made for each knot you tie. Once the Wish ribbon wears out and falls off your wrist it is believed that your 3 wishes will come true. Sony and FIFA have partnered to provide some 4K content of the 2014 World Cup. They are preparing to have one match of Round 16, one Quarter Final, and The Final all in 4K after the World Cup has concluded. The FIFA World Cup, or the World Cup, is an international football (Soccer) competition between the members of FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football

Knowledge Management Presentation

Transcript: E5 - Wall fixation set A32 - Place base and bottom panels Fit frame to wall C2 - Weight resistance drawer Object State Transition Network (OSTN) I4 - Back drawer assembly Process Flow Network (PFN) E1 - Frame A322 - Introduce bottom panel in groove Outline: G. Lemaitre, A. Ribot and S. Quiles A52 - Choose wall screw / plug Custom Chart A54 - Safety insurance Activity A243 Join side and top panels E4 - Back frame panel Activity A322 Introduction MOKA forms - IDEF0 model IDEF3 diagrams UML class diagram Conclusion Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class Diagram Custom Chart IDEF3 Activities - Rules - Illustrations A3 - Assemble drawers A4 A2 R2 - Safety insurance for frame fixation A1 Activity A5 Informal and formal model were presented allowing to capture implicit knowledge and convert it to explicit knowledge. The following model were used: IDEF0 model MOKA informal model IDEF3 diagrams UML class diagram IDEF3 R1 - Selection of wall plug E2 - Drawer Introduction Conclusion Entities - Constraints - Illustrations A53 - Fix the frame to the wall C1 - Weight resistance chest E3 - Top frame panel Hammering nails The main objective is to identify and capture implicit knowledge of chest assembly process from the use of informal model to the use of formal model. Knowledge Management Information Management Techniques Introduce bottom panel in groove I2 - Wall plug 2 IKEA Malm - Chest of two drawers I1 - Wall plug 1 Activity A234 I3 - Wall plug 3 Activities - Rules - Illustrations A5 - Fit frame to wall Introduction Objective: Custom Chart A51 - Check wall material E0 - Chest of two drawers

Knowledge Management Presentation

Transcript: Knowledge Management and& Organizational Learning To better improve their Flagship Beer's taste, Coors was able to identify Key components of Beer by measuring analytical elements in an Sensory way. A more dynamic range of factors/variables was intruduce to better the Neural Network's abilty to extract data. By implementing an exhaustive search approach, the network was able to compute millions of variations of the given inputs. 1. Why is the beer flavor important to Coors' profitability? The customers' have rapidly and constantly changing moods in regards to beer flavor. Coors must meet their needs or fall behind to the wide variety of competing options in today's market. Coors faces the challenge of keeping their brand fresh and attractive, while remaining somewhat consistent with the quality and recognition of their brand. Failing to maintain a up-to-date appeal their product may cause the brand to fall by the wayside and contribute to a loss of large amounts of revenue. 2. What is the objective of the Neural Network used at Coors? A neural network is a powerful data modeling tool that is able to capture and represent complex input/output relationships Neural network technology performs "intelligent" tasks similar to those performed by the human brain. It acquires knowledge through learning and then stores that knowledge Coors worked with NeuroDimension to model and support the network. The purpose of Coors' neural network was to link together the objective analytical inputs to more subjective sensory outputs. The network is designed to take inputs and allow the users to see the relationships, comparing them to taste tests and other data collection methods 3. Why were the results of coors' neural network initially poor, and what was done to improve the results? Coors initially utilized a Single Neural Network, but due to the concentration on a single variables data on variation was low. Results were poor. Also, the Single Nueral Network was inefficient of extracting useful relationships from the data. The first factor was readily addressed by extending the training data to cover a more diverse product range. a "genetic switch" was implemented to reduce errors in the network, and adjust the software switch accordingly. This drastically increased the information that could be extracted from the network's processed data 4. What benefits might coors derive if this project is successful? Faster Tweaking of Flavor based on customers subjective demands Reduces cost by expediting process. Easier to adjust. No longer requires "expert tasters" at every step of the process Potential ability to track progression of customer tastes to help predict future demand Opportunity to expand into new areas with new products at a lower cost. What modifications would you make to improve the results of beer flavor prediction? Coors could expand their neural network to incorporate the entire drinking experience, and not just the flavor. Though not directly related to beer flavor, they are part of the customer's experience. Improving the experience will improve profitabilty Other factors include: "Mouth Feel" Ingredients Physical Contributors Customer Response Product Innovations Pairings with food Single Sensory Output Food Quality and Preference Volume 18, Issue 2, March 2007, Pages 275-285 http://www.nd.com Analytical Inputs NeuroDimension, Inc.: Single Sensory Output Analytical (Inputs) Sensory (outputs) Neural Network Analytical Inputs Lindsey DonFrancesco Drew Amacker Will Hoke Zach Martin Software Switch Alcohol Color Calculated Bitterness Ethyl Acetate Isobutyl Acetate Ethyl butyrate isoamyl acetate ethyl hexanoate Food Quality and Prefence: Prediction of consumer liking from trained sensory panel information: Evaluation of neural networks Neural Network Coors Improves Beer Flavors with Neural Networks Initial attempts at modelling the relationship between the analytical and sensory data were restricted to a single quality and flavour and focussed on mapping all available inputs through a single neural network Alcohol Estery Malty Grainy Burnt Hoppy Toffee Sweet (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2006.01.001)

Knowledge Management

Transcript: With whom are we sharing? ”Det är klart att de som har levt och verkat flera år i företaget, de vet vem de kan kontakta, vem som är specialist på det och det. Men för någon ny utifrån är det helt omöjligt att hitta den rätta personen. ” ”Min stora förvåning var att det fanns oerhört mycket spetskompetens i koncernen, men att man inte kunde hitta den, utan man var tvungen att prata med någon som hade mycket erfarenhet om företaget.” What are we transferring? Knowledge Differentiators Traditional Information-transfer ”knowledge capture” Codification Knowledge Definition What are we transferring? Most important is not what you know, it's how you deal with what you don't know. With whom are we sharing? It can only be expressed fully when it is applied Questions to Answer New Goals for Knowledge Management Familiarity Relevance Context Social Media Swedish MNCs Strong and Weak Ties For knowledge-transfer to be possible you need to achieve: It is generated from personal experience and action Conferences, meetings, trips Education, training, and development Moving employees around, relocation Mentoring and trainee programs Centers of Excellence Personalization New Goals Knowledge-transfer ”knowledge-osmosis” Personalization Status updates Social networking Social bookmarking Accenture Cap Gemini Ernst and Young Deloitte and Touche McKinsey and Company Knowledge is information in context codification Social Media is about personal marketing People marketing If you ask... New ideas New opportuninites New perspectives New contacts New solutions

Knowledge Management

Transcript: Human resource Organisatioal culture Identify core knowledge that led to business success Evaluate and Audit KM development Instrumental Acquire and stimulate knowledge creation (Chan and Chau 2005) Output Our Solution: Strategy and Leadership Consistent and systematic reviews and follow up of KM (Chen and Chau 2005). Focus on long term capability development. Facilitate gathering focused on KM and not merely socialising (Soliman and Spooner 2000). Provide a wide set of flexible work arrangements in order to retain key knowledge workers (O'Neal 2005). Remove misconceptions and negative views towards KM and support KM from all levels of the organisation through effective and encouraging communication (Chan and Chau 2005). Build an environment based on trust (Tuason 2010). Encourage knowledge sharing (Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995), creativity and innovation (Gurten 1998) through monetary and non-monetary rewards (Chen and Chau 2005). Knowledge sharing through socialisation and informal gatherings Information technology Define what relevant sources are i.e. not all knowledge is good knowledge (Kalling 2003). In implementing IT KM systems, provide sufficient relevant training (Ansari, Youshanlouei and Mood 2012). Such an IT system should have a clear purpose and be user friendly i.e. the staff it is intended for should be able to learn how to use it (Ansari, Youshanlouei and Mood 2012). "Organisations where the focus is on the acquisition, sharing and utilisation of knowledge" (Stone 2005, 332). Confusion and negative perceptions due to unframed socialisation Ineffective HR policy to retain KW led to increased loss of knowledge Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995. “The knowledge-creating company”. New York: Oxford University Press Organisational Strategy and leadership Determine knowledge gap HS (actual name is confidential) is a Hong Kong based enterprise. Founded 1983. Produces and exports handbags and leather premium products to US and Europe. 10 administrative staff in Hong Kong and a munufacturing plant with 450 employees. Knowledge was not shared Learning initiatives were low due to organisational silo effect When skilled workers left HS knowledge was lost to competitors Knowledge was not appropriately defined, captured and retained Knowledge creation and development was not encouraged, motivated and nurtured systematically Knowledge Management Initiatives in 2001 KM was reviewed infrequently and not followed up properly Overly focused on short-term rather than long term Kalling, Thomas. 2003. "Organization-Internal Transfer of Knowledge and the Role of Motivation: A Qualitative Case Study." Knowledge and Process Management 10 (2): 115-126. http://search.proquest.com/docview/215189067?accountid=10382. Chan, Ivy and Patrick Y.K. Chau. 2005. "Why Knowledge Management Fails: Lessons from a Case Study." in Case Studies in Knowledge Management. Edited by Murray Jennex. Hershey: Idea Group Publishing. Gurteen, David. 1998. "Knowledge, Creativity and Innovation." Journal of Knowledge Management 2 (1): 5-13. http://search.proquest.com/docview/230327374?accountid=10382. Organisatioal structure Stone, Raymond. 2005. “Human Resource Management.” 5th ed. Edited by Caroline Hunter. Milton: Wiley. (Ansari, Youshanlouei and Mood 2012) O'Neal, Sandra. 2005. "Total Rewards and the Future of Work." Workspan. 48 (1): 18-26. http://search.proquest.com/docview/194726433?accountid=10382. Unlimited definition of sources of knowledge Monetary rewards led to self-defeating mechanisms and unfriendly team culture IT was seen as cutting-edge solution which led to unnecessary investment in technology Tuason, Innocenza Jay. 2010. "The Relationship between Trust and Organizational Culture Change."University of Calgary (Canada). http://search.proquest.com/docview/848965892?accountid=10382. Conducted periodic review and measured organisational performance Knowledge Management Icebreaker Definitions Case Study Outline Class Activity Our Solutions Case Study Strategic Icebreaker Top management should set clear, relevant and reachable KM goals (Chan and Chau 2005). Top management should give consistent support and invest time and effort into the promotion of development and sharing of knowledge (O'Regan, Ghobadian and Sims 2005). Rewards should promote knowledge sharing, creativity and innovation, and should be monetary and non-monetary (Chen and Chau 2005). Unrealistic aims Volatile support (Chan and Chau 2005) Reference List KM Results from 2001 to 2003 Our Solution: Information Technology Results in 2003 Establish knowledge friendly culture (Chan and Chau 2005) Facilitation Outline Learning Organisation KM Focus Ryan Edmunds – 16091207 Zachary Addenbrooke – 15484592 Carlos Andrés Muirhead – 16210879 Eirik Bjornstad – 14480311 Implement job rotation. Establish efficient and effective communication channels special emphasis on horizontal communication to avoid silo effect. Involve staff in manufacturing in planning and strategy (Chen and Chau

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