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Instructional Design

Transcript: Behavioralism Behavioralism is a theory of animal and human learning. Fosuses on objectively observable behaviors Classic Conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to stimulus. Behavioral or Operant Conditioning occurs when a response to stimulus is reinforced. Cognitive Perspectives Types of Knowledge... Declarative Knowledge- facts, data, concepts & principles. Procedural Knowledge- how to perform a task, action or process. Strategic Knowledge- applying knowledge & principles to new situations. Metacognitive Knowledge- self knowledge & awareness of how one learns. Constructivism Radical Constructivism Elimination of standardized curriculum Curricula based on students' prior knowledge Hands-on problem solving Elimination of grades & standardized testing Learners construct their own understanding by interacting with information, tools & materials along with collaborating with other learners Inquiry-Based Learning Students discover answers through their own hands-on experiences and their own research. This type of learning is less teacher-focused and more student centered. The End :) (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Project-Based Learning 1. Behavioralism Budapest San Francisco Theorists try to explain hidden processes occuring inside a learners brain. LEARNER = ACTIVE PROCESSOR OF INFO. Notes Stockholm Instructional Design (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Double click to crop it if necessary Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Psychomotor Domain 2. Cognitive Perspectives By reflecting on our experiences, we construct out own understanding of the world. (less radical) 3. Constructivism During PROJECT-BASED LEARNING, students work together to cooperatively investigate ways to solve a problem while engaging in complex activities. Place your own picture behind this frame! (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Important Details 3 Main Types of Instructional Design

Instructional Design

Transcript: Overhead Projector B.F. Skinner At the start of it all... Instructional Design and Technology By: Megan Ryan EDP 632 Students were not always carrying out research on an iPad or sending their homework assignments through e-mail. Long ago, the instructional materials used for students were very different. Prior to the 20th century, the primary means of instruction were: "the teachers, a textbook and a chalkboard". In the early 1900's, school museums were formed, which held: 3D photographs, slides, films, charts, and more. While these materials seem obsolete now, these materials were the primary source of instruction for teachers. -B. F. Skinner -Benjamin Bloom -Robert M. Gagne The 1940's The History WWII Instructional design today is the process of "...revolutionizing education". This can include: motion pictures, television, computers, mobile learning, games, World Wide Web, simulations, and much more. What is Instructional Media? "Instructional material should... -present in small steps -require active responses -provide immediate feedback -provide the learner with self-pacing" Benjamin Bloom Early theorists played a huge role in the development of instructional design and technology... The war impacted education in the following ways: -Educational films were provided for educating civilians -The U.S. government established the division of visual aids -The invention of: overhead projectors, slide projectors, audio equipment, and simulators -"Military used psychologists and educators to conduct research and develop training". Instructional Media is defined as, "...the physical means via which instruction is presented to learners". How did the war impact education and instructional design? Bloom's Taxonomy While the role of the teacher is constantly changing, the teacher still plays one of the biggest parts in education. The teacher serves as the facilitator in a classroom filled with technology, rich resources, and student-led activities. With advances in technology and instructional design, the teacher may not be considered the only primary means of instruction, the teacher still is a primary form. We are filled with a world of technology and should see it as a huge tool in our classroom. We can go so many places through technology and take our lessons to an all new level. Robert M. Gagne So, what is instructional design and where are we today? Where does the teacher fit in? Slide Projector

Instructional Design

Transcript: Fact #1: owls are nocturnal animals meaning they sleep during the day and are awake at night Fact #2: owls do not have eye balls but have tube shaped eyes fact #3: owls have very good ears that allow them to hear very small sounds that most animals and people cannot hear fact #4: owls have very sharp claws called talons that they use to catch their prey (what they eat) fact #5: owls have flat faces that are sometimes heart shaped fact #6: owls have soft, thick feathers that make flying quiet fact #7: owls are farsighted animals, meaning they see things that are far away better than they can see things up close fact #8: owls have four toes on each foot, one in the back and three on the front to help them old on to things like food or branches fact #9: owls can turn their heads in almost a complete circle (270 degrees) fact #10: owls do not build their own nests but live inside of trees or nests other birds do not use anymore fact #11 baby owls are called owlets or fledglings fact #12 owls eat insects, small mammals, birds, and fish Fact #13 owls eat every part of their prey, including the bones and feathers or fur fact #14 owls cannot digest all that they eat (like the bones) so they throw these things up every day; what they throw up are called pellets fact #15 a group of owls is called a parliament the first photo comes from,r:24,s:36,i:351 the second photo comes from,r:4,s:0,i:168 the third photo comes from,r:3,s:0,i:165 All About Owls By: Liz McMahon play some fun games about owls here! Click here to go back to the class homepage: thanks for learning! facts 1,3,12,13,and 14 come from facts 4,5,7,9, and 15 come from facts 2,6,8, and 10 come from fact 11 comes from


Transcript: - Increase the effectiveness of T&L process - Improve instructional level - Identify the problem & steps to overcome the problem * Teacher should know how to prepare/ create instructional design * Make instructional more effective * Maximize students’ learning System Approach - can determine students learning focus / direction * Teaching can be replicate (used more than once) - Small scale - Focus on planning for one instructional period -Examples: - ASSURE Model - Dick & Reiser Model * Specify students’ need * Specify aims & objectives * Create/ develop evaluation procedure BASIC ELEMENTS FOR ID MODEL Generally similar in functions The differences: - terms use - focus/ target group - when the model is developed - how the model used ADDIE Model INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ASSURE MODEL - Analyse learners - State objectives - Select method, media & materials - Utilise media & materials ADDIE MODEL Kemp, J. & Smellie, D. (1994). ANALYSIS SUMMARY -Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth Model (1990) -Dick & Carey Model (1979) -Diamond Model (1989) -Seels & Glasgow Model (1998) describe in detail clear objectives to be achieved - select most suitable teaching method - plan conducive learning environment - determine the best way/ method to assess or evaluate students’ learning (test items must align with objcetives) INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CONCLUSION Focus on material development - For a long period of time - Involve a group of instructional designers to develop course / program MODEL ISD 7. Prepare feedback 4. Teach the lesson 9. Improve memory and transfer/apply information in other situations Three general categories: 1. Classroom Orientation Model 2. Product Orientation Model 3. System Orientation Model (Gustafon, 1991) Not just prepare only for one subject/ course/ lesson Small scale (lesson/subject) Large scale (course/ program) Teacher must identify - instructional design - most suitable & effective - knowledge & skills use of selection ID DESIGN * Design & choose instructional strategy * Trial run of instructional system * Evaluate system overall CONCLUSION - Teacher must identify: - instructional design most suitable & effective - Have knowledge & skills of ID ARCS Model (Keller) ID MODELS * A discipline * Focus on - Understanding - Improvement - Teaching methods application (Reigeluth, 1983) SUMMARY Purpose: * explain the steps to be taken systematically * achieve instructional objectives INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN EVALUATE ID MODEL Gagne Model (Instructional Events) - Require learner participation - Evaluate & revise 2. State the instructional objectives INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN STRENGTH INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN ID MODEL Attitude Knowledge Skills Why teachers use instructional design? - Needs analysis (teaching & learning) - Design & develop materials - Formative evaluation (improve quality) - Implement teaching/ instructional - Evaluate effectiveness of T & L DICK & CAREY MODEL ID MODEL * Determine what is the suitable instructional method for teacher * Help students in their learning process (Reigeluth 1987) * A process * covers specifications/requirement to learn * Involve activities - instructional system design - instructional message design - teaching strategy - students’ characteristics * use Systems Approach (system design approach) - produce effective T&L DICK & CAREY MODEL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Instructional Design Purpose CONCLUSION * Specification & criteria required * To increase T&L process * Maximum level / expected IMPLEMENT * Identify instructional purpose * Instructional analysis * Students analysis & contexts * Instructional objectives / achievement * Instrument / evaluation tools * Instructional strategy PRODUCT & SYSTEM ORIENTATION MODEL PRODUCT & SYSTEM ORIENTATION MODEL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CLASSROOM ORIENTATION MODEL BASIC ELEMENTS FOR ID MODEL Teacher’s Role - use or adapt available materials - develop new materials (if needed) * ID maximize the effectiveness and instructional efficiency and learning experience * Is a Process – what students needs, aims & instructional objectives & produce intervention activities to achieve objectives DEVELOP 1. Attract students’ attention THANK YOU Gagne Model (Instructional Event) - Science to create detail teaching specification - For development, evaluation and maintainance. - A situation that makes learning easier to the certain unit. - No matter how big or small scale (Richey 1986) ID MODELS * There are a lot of ID Model E.g: ASSURE Model Dick & Carey Model Most are based on the generic ADDIE model Focus on selection and use of available materials Less focus on creating new instructional materials Cost effective (Yusup Hashim 1998) * Choose or produce instructional materials * Instructional formative evaluation * Instructional checklist * Summative evaluation * Check with entry behavior ( to determine if learning takes place) * Use Systems Approach to produce effective T&L * Systems Approach: -Determine what the students should focus/ learn -Involve

Instructional Design

Transcript: Overview Topic: This course examines current training practices for newly hired educators at Sam Rayburn ISD. Training focus will be on providing flexible learning modules that enable learners to gain required knowledge and skills to properly function within the set guidelines of school district policies. Audience: All new members of the Sam Rayburn ISD school district will be offered this course. This training is appropriate for all teachers who will be educating students on the Elementary, Junior High, or High School campuses. Additionally, newly hired administrators may choose to take part in this course, as they must be privy to what is required of the education staff. Problem: The current training methods for new educators is antiquated. New guidelines and technologies are added to staff training each year. If new teachers of the district are encouraged to provide dynamic learning with technology integration within their classrooms, training of these educators on district practices should parallel that mindset. Additionally, last minute hiring of new employees makes it impossible for learners and the District Mentor to sit within the confines of a classroom to train for eight hours each day. The range of technology skills of new hires may also be problematic in completing learning tasks. This requires the design to include a collection of supportive materials to aid trainees during their learning process so that learners are successfully gaining required information. Much of the training will be in an online environment; having a supportive mentor on hand to answer questions in a timely manner will be challenging. Peers may have to rely on each other in addition to the mentor to complete required tasks. Moreover, despite being able to work at their own pace, learners will be required to complete tasks within a one week time-frame in order to be prepared for the start of the semester. Purpose: This course is focused on providing district training for all new staff members at Sam Rayburn ISD. Using a formalized learning approach (Rogers, 2003 as cited in Smith), trainees will be educated on district rules and conduct, communication, productivity, and general school practices within one week's time. Upon completion of course activities, trainees will be able to use campus resources and newly gained knowledge and skills to perform their employment requirements with professionalism and efficiency. TAP (Topic, Audience, Problem) Evaluation and Assessment Assessment: Trainees will be learning individually through the Moodle platform that will give access to all required information and tasks, unless they choose to conduct the modules on campus, with the aid of the District Mentor on hand for support. Learners will use a variety of assessments, which include quizzes, open-ended responses, performance tasks, self-checklists, and document submission. The District Mentor will be available for guidance if a learner struggles and/or requests help through the Moodle platform. Learners will have access to printable instructions, links, and videos for learning, and throughout the year for reference, as needed. Evaluation: Based on performance assessments, document submissions and quiz answers, the instructor will know if the learners successfully achieved their objectives. Reflective questioning of the learners throughout training will give participants the opportunity to express their thoughts and provide feedback about the learning process and/or the instruction. Evaluation Performance Scale: Upon completion of required tasks for each learning module, students will receive an indication of “Complete” or “Incomplete” as an evaluation. A “Complete” indicates successful completion of the training module by the participant. An “Incomplete” will result in training module re-attempt by the participant and/or intervention by the District Mentor for face-to-face instruction. Participants will receive one re-attempt before being required to meet with the District Mentor. Instruction is primarily performance-based and the learning goals can be objectively measured by completion of the required tasks. Additionally, quiz questions will be asked and completed during training; answers will determine what instruction is effective and what areas of instruction may need improvement. Upon completion of training, learners will complete a survey that will help determine if instruction was effective and if modification of the instructional design will need to be implemented. Topic Areas-Timeline Trainees will accomplish problem-based tasks in the order of their choosing, within a one week period. A. District Website (8 hrs) B. Gradebook (4hrs) C. Email (4hrs) D. Kamico software (3-4 hrs) E. Study Island Software (3-4hrs) F. Compliance Certification (8hrs) G. Phone Set-up/Use (1 hr) H. General Practices (7-8 hrs) Instructional Design Document Learning Protocols Course Goals and Objectives Learning Format: This course will utilize the

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