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National Flag

Transcript: NationalFlag Conflicts and Consequences Intro Did you know? Was initially proposed in 1833. The first variation of our flag came to light in 1905. Mahatma Gandhi popularised our nations flag - mass mobilisation. Initially the flag/s carrying on them the earlier variations of the colours represented different predominant religions. Later on the colours on the flag were signifying certain moral & spiritual principles. Our flag has evolved and it’s been modified over 6 times The Commission THE COMMISSION ● Initial flag: Hindu + Muslim religious symbols: 8 white lotuses, crescent, star in 3 colors red, saffron, green representing Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims ● Gandhi’s proposal: ○ Religious symbols to be removed- divisive ○ Red+Green- Hindus+Muslims ○ Spinning wheel (centre) - dignity of manual labor, plight of poor, responsibility of Indians to eradicate poverty & importance of traditional industry ● Drawbacks: ○ Representing 2 religions alienated the other communities ○ Not clear how one color could represent a religion ○ Green was associated with Muslims but not red ○ Hindu leaders claimed ‘gherua’ (red ochre/deep saffron) to be their color ○ Sikhs protested their exclusion ● Gandhi proposed ‘white’ to symbolize other religious communities ● Gandhi+Congress- disturbed by communalization of colors. Since they had precisely chosen colors for a purpose and couldn’t discard them ● Colors- didn’t represent religion anymore but certain moral and spiritual values ● Saffron: courage+sacrifice; white: purity+truth; green: faith+relation to nature ● Colors were denied of communal significance but a representation of moral+spiritual values by Gandhi+Congress ● Congress appointed 7-member committee- recommended one color: to avoid controversy over colors and symbolize India’s unity; saffron: aesthetic + heraldic reasons ● The reason was not clear and raised suspicion that the real reason had to with Hindu associates as Saffron was associated as part of tradition ● Sikhs+Hindus sympathized with saffron. Muslims called it ‘color of the bandit Shivaji’. ● Gandhi thought the unity was not achieved even after a single colored flag hence accommodated the change ● Old 3 colors- perpetuate growing unity. ● Congress Working Committee passed resolution to effect: saffron: courage+sacrifice; white: peace+truth; green: faith+chivalry ● Poorna Swaraj Flag-1931, remained Congress flag until independence ● Nehru in the Constitution Assembly during independence claimed that the colors didn’t have communal significance but contradicted himself that they designed it to represent the ‘tradition of synthesis which had characterized us for thousands of years’. ● Ambiguity laid at the heat of the flag. Hindus and Muslims still believed that the colors represented their communities. The constitution assembly realized that this couldn’t not be solved and the colors are left free to read as pleased. Conclusion Conclusion ● Only change constituent assembly- charkha. Few objections- negative image of India; poverty; Nehru argued that it had an aesthetic problem. Spindle appeared to the left of the spinning wheel when the flag was seen frontally and to the right when seen on reverse. He did not want the spindle but only the wheel Ashoka’s chakra- was like the spinning wheel representing righteousness, universalism and India’s ancient culture. This was a more feasible and artistic form to the flag. ● Wheel of charkha – dignity of manual labor, concern for poor, setting aside quiet and solitary contemplation none of which Ashoka’s chakra symbolized ● Constituent assembly unanimously approved Ashoka’s chakra ● Flag- differences +systematic ambiguity. Many leaders were keen on Ashoka’s chakra but couldn’t ignore the charka for its historical, political and emotional reasons. ● The way out was that they claimed Ashoka’s chakra was similar to the charkha ● Similarly, the colors were not supposed to represent religious communities rather different moral and spiritual values Gandhi's Cryptic and Guarded Response The Harsh Reality The ‘nationalists’ now in power in India are consumed by hatred and vengefulness. They use the flag only as a cover to promote division and violence. The then National Leaders patriotism, on the other hand, was inclusive and constructive. Rather than induce an unthinking worship of the flag, they sought to redirect Indians to the ideals for which the flag stood — namely, non-violence, humility, communal harmony, and the dignity of labour— ideals, which, 75 years after Independence, we are not even remotely close to fulfilling.

National Flag

Transcript: Majority: Shona Minorities: Ndebele Victoria Falls Hwange National Park Matobo National Park Khami Ruins National Flag English, Shona, Norther Ndebele Zimbabwe 7.6% Government Mainly agriculture and mining Export: tobacco, nickel, postage stamps, gold, cotton Imports: petroleum, cars, delivery trucks, corn, telephones GDP: 29%/$600 Leader/Dictator: Robert Mugabe US began imposing sanctions on Government of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe is Unitary Name comes from stone structures called "Great Zimbabwe" British colonized the country 1800-1963 Independence- 1965 Landforms Natural Resources Literacy Binga Bulawayo Zambezi Valley Matopo and Chizaraira Hills Mafungabusea Plateau Lake Kariba Zambezi, Munyati, Save, Runde, Limpopo River English is tied to colonizers 14.7% or 1,368,100 people with AIDS Death from AIDS: 39,500 people History Religions Unemployment Rate Important Sites BY: Terrina Barnes & Allie Zueger Temperature ranges 70-85 degrees Fahrenheit Rain falls in months Janurary through April and October through December Most rain in December, January, and February. AIDS Ethnic Groups Climate Binga- pop. 118,824, two different districts, people speak Yulu Gweru- pop. 141,260, high river banks, founded in 1894 Bulawayo- pop. 653,377, known as "City of Kings", industrial and business capital Major Cities Population Languages Map 83.6% Christianity- 85% African traditional religions- 3% Non-Religious- 12% Gweru Size: 13,771,721 people Growth rate: 4.36% Birth Rate: 32.47/1,000 deaths Death Rate: 10.62/1,000 population Median Age: 20.2 Distribution: 20% Purely based on money Facing a power deficit Landlocked, primary agriculture Britain provides aid to suffering Zimbabweans

Indian Flag

Transcript: Political map Physical map Natural Resources India is rich in natural resources. The country produces as many as 87 minerals including fuel, metallic, non-metallic, and atomic minerals. Among the minerals, reserves of coal, iron ore and bauxite wich wil last a long time. Food Food in Daily Life. About half the people eat rice as their staple, while the remainder subsist on wheat, barley, maize, and millet. Barley Maize Rice Every major world religion is represented in India. Like, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism all originated in India. About 80% of Indians are Hindu. Muslims are the largest minority in India and form approximately 13% of the country’s population. India has the third largest population of Muslims in the world, after Indonesia and Pakistan. It is traditional to wear white, not black, to a funeral in India. Widows will often wear white in contrast to the colorful clothes of married or single women. The temples of Khajuraho are famous for their sculptures and the sculptures are one of the most popular tourist attractions in India. many people stop to see them but are weirded out Some of the famouse landforms in india are the, Himalayas, Ganges River, Thar Dessert On India’s Independence Day, August 15, 1947, the country was split into India and Pakistan. The partition displaced 1.27 million people and resulted in the death of several hundred thousand to a million people.g Government History India is a federal state with a parliamentary form of government. It is governed under the 1949 constitution (effective since Jan., 1950). The president of India, who is head of state, is elected for a five-year term by the elected members of the federal and state parliaments. India has 'Tropical Monsoon' type of climate. The word monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' which means seasonal reversal of the winds during the course of the year. Himalayas Granges River The lotus is sacred to both Hindus and Buddhists. The Bahá’í house of worship in Delhi, known as the “Lotus Temple,” is shaped like a lotus flower with 27 gigantic “petals” that are covered in marble. India is about 1/3 the size of the United States, yet it is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of 1,166,079,217. India is the world’s largest producer of dried beans, such as kidney beans and chickpeas. It also leads the world in banana exports. Traditions Sikhism Fun Fact The Indian flag means tiranga and it also has has many interesting attributes creating it unique. Then Indian flag represents India's long freedom struggle. It shows howIndia and Independent republic. The Sikh tradition was founded by Guru Nanak in the late 15th century C.E. in the Punjab region of what are today India and Pakistan. Climate Art Indian Flag Jainism History Of The Indian Flag Hindi and English are the official languages of India. The government also recognizes 17 other languages (Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Nepali, Manipuri, Konkani, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu). From these languages, about 1,652 dialects are spoken in the country. Language The history of Buddhism religion dates back to the year 580 BC, which started with the birth of Buddha Siddhartha Gautama The National flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom and, In the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel which represents the chakra. Jainism dates back to the 6th century B.C.E in india. The religion dirives its name from the jinas a title given to twenty-four great teachers. Culture Religion Fun Fact famous landforms Buddhism Natural/Unatural Resources Fun Fact Hinduism Hinduism is the oldest religion on the planet. It is very, very big and has a ge number of beliefs compard to other religions Fun Fact India is the world’s largest tea producer, and tea (chai) is its most popular beverage. INDIA

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National Flag

Transcript: Democracy In 1904 England satisfied 74% of its requirements for petrol on the account of Baku. Overall Features History & Background Art & Culture Entertaining competition Dances & Live Music Architecture went through many different stages over the centuries. Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshahs’ Palace and Maiden Tower included in UNESCO World Heritage Site Games round 2 Content Classical music and opera Jazz The territory of Azerbaijan has been included on the map of the most ancient inhabitants of Europe. Natural Resources Foundation of jazz was laid to the by maestro Niyazi and Tofig Quliyev. The improvisation of jazz was realized by Vagif Mustafa-zadeh and he created a new tendency in music-“jazz-mugham” at the beginning of the 1960s. Mammad Amin Rasulzade: "The flag once raised will never fall!" Ilham Aliyev with British Prime Minister David Cameron TAR: Tar is quite similar to any of the string instruments. Tar has 11 strings. Literary name for Baku, because it is windy almost throughout the year. Ancient History Oil and Art Defacto Recognition of Independence of Azerbaijan (ADR) by Paris Peace Conference SOCAR - State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic - is the state-owned oil and natural gas corporation of Azerbaijan. At present the Company which was established in 1992 has great financial and human resources (more than 70000 staff members). Mugam Azerbaijani language is the state official language of Azerbaijan. 26/03 Baku National Attributes Novruz is a holiday of spring. Celebration includes various rituals, singing songs, dancing, jumping over the fires, preparations of various traditional meals, painting eggs and visiting relatives. Many of them remind us of Easter Baku is the largest city in the world located below sea level Interesting Language and Religion Uzeyir Hajibeyov recognized as the father of Azerbaijani composed classical music and opera. He was the first composer of an opera in the Islamic world. KAMAN: It’s played on the knee with a bow which is tightened with a hand while played The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) was the first successful attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world. Culture (1918-1920) The law of the Republic of Azerbaijan (1992) "On freedom of faith" ensures the right of any human being to determine and express his view on religion and to execute this right. Food is an important part of the country's culture and is deeply rooted in the history, traditions and values of the nation The Azerbaijani cuisine is one of the the most ancient, delicious and varied cuisines of the world. There about 2000 dishes, which comprise the foundation of the Caucasian Cuisine. YES, WE LOVE TO EAT !!! :) 26/03 Music Mountains cover 60% of the total area of the Azerbaijan republic Dance Games Round 3 Paris Peace Conference Words: Ahmad Javad Music: Uzeyir Hajibeyov The art of mugam that is considered to be Eastern music and eastern culture has its national forms and genres as well as names peculiar of all eastern people. Oceana - 10 pm Tricolor flag officially adopted on February 5,1991. 1920- Azerbaijan was occupied by 11th Red Army (Soviet Army) Azerbaijan Cuisine Games Round 1 Enjoy your Food! City of Winds Ilham Aliyev (President of Azerbaijan Republic) and Mehban Aliyeva (First Lady) Nowrouz Holiday Symbol was decided after a competition declared on January 30,1930 Azerbaijani–British relations 1908 Azerbaijan has 9 climate zones out of 11 in the world ZURNA: Wind musical instrument with a strong high sound. The zurna is usually carved out of apricot, walnut or mulberry wood. Is also used for folk songs, and traditional music performances. SAZ : Mainly used for folk songs by travelling singers called Ashiq Icheri Sheher/Old city Culture Boring Big boom in construction over the last decade. 26/03

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