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Transcript: What is Halloween? and What do people do on Halloween? Origins of Halloween Why we (as Ahmadi Muslims) should avoid celebrating halloween? What is Shirk? Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural things? What is Halloween? Celebrated on the night of October 31st Traditional activities include: Trick-or-treating Carving jack-o-lanterns Costume parties Visiting "haunted houses" Origin of Halloween celebration of the end of the harvest season Samhain was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and prepare for winter The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundaries between living and the dead overlapped and the deceased would come back to cause havoc such as sickness or damaged crops Masks and costumes were worn in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or appease them. Why we should avoid celebrating Halloween? Halloween is a harmful innovation among Christians which takes one closer to shirk. The Bible forbids witches, satanic practices etc. but Halloween is generally regarded as fun. Hudhur said it should always be remembered that any ‘fun’ that is based on shirk or any harmful way is to be avoided. We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Faith Matters These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” These practices makes children do wrong things in the name of “fun” Agenda Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 ... small Conclusion Even a hint of shirk is unacceptable to God What is Shirk? Associate anyone in the name, action, or worship of Allah constitutes shirk Condition of Baiat number 6 says that we “shall refrain from following ______________ Ahmadi muslims do not believe in ghosts and other supernatural things (witches, goblins...) Do Muslims believe in ghosts and supernatural being? Heaven is a better reward than the candy get from you get from trick or treat QUESTIONS? “Badness attracts and leads man to adopt it with intensity, while forgetting traditions and beliefs. Some Ahmadis, considering such matters trivial, also get inclined in this way, resulting in very bad consequences” Shirk causes man to sink morally and spiritually. Belief in Divine Unity is a seed out of which grows all virtues, and lack of which lies at the root of all sins Halloween and what do people do on halloween? What other holidays do we not celebrate? Originated from the ancient celtic festival known as Samhain It is extremely wrong to believe in things that are supernatural even if it is for fun We must give up on worldly traditions like these to follow the right path Halloween is a tradition when many people celebrate it with extravagant parties, elaborate costumes and spending more $$$ Hudhur’s Friday Sermon October 29th 2010 Why should Ahmadi Muslims avoid celebrating Halloween? Bringing of dead spirits is WRONG and it goes against what we believe as Muslims

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Transcript: Wisdom does not flow like water Plato’s Critique of Pederasty Pederasty Background Symposium Pederasty My Project Pausanias' Speech Pausanias' Speech Two Aphrodites Uranian Heavenly Pandemos Common Text Text Pictures Pictures "Here, Socrates, lie down alongside me, so that by my touching you, I too may enjoy the piece of wisdom that just occurred to you while you were in the porch. It is plain that you found it and have it, for otherwise you would not have come away beforehand." Agathon and Socrates “It would be a good thing, Agathon, if wisdom were the sort of thing that flows from the fuller of us into the emptier, just by our touching one another, as the water in wine cups flows through a wool thread from the fuller to the emptier. For if wisdom too is like that, then I set a high price on my being placed alongside you, for I believe I shall be filled from you with much fair wisdom. My own may turn out to be a sorry sort of wisdom, or disputable like a dream; but your own is brilliant and capable of much development, since it has flashed out so intensely from you while you are young; and yesterday it became conspicuous among more than thirty thousand Greek witnesses." "You are outrageous, Socrates," Agathon said. "A little later you and I will go to court about our wisdom, with Dionysus as judge, but now first attend to dinner." how water flows Principle at play When they do engage in a contest about love Timeline YEAR Alcibiades' Speech Socrates, he claims, is like “those silenuses that sit in the shops of herm sculptors, the ones that craftsman make holding reed pipes or flutes; and if they are split in two and opened up they show they have images of gods within.” (215b) Alcibiades' Speech You, in my opinion,' I said, 'have proved to be the only deserving lover of mine; and it seems to me that you hesitate to mention it to me. Now I am in this state: I believe it is very foolish not to gratify you in this or anything else of mine—my wealth or my friends—that you need; for nothing is more important to d me than that I become the best possible; and I believe that, as far as I am concerned, there is no one more competent than you to be a fellow helper to me in this. So I should be far more ashamed before men of good sense for not gratifying a man like you than I should be before the many and senseless for gratifying you.' Seduction Scene 'Really, my dear Alcibiades, you're no sucker if what you say about me is really true and there is some power in me e through which you could become better. You must see, you know, an impossible beauty in me, a beauty very different from the fairness of form in yourself. So if, in observing my beauty, you are trying to get a share in it and to exchange beauty for beauty, you are intending to get far the better deal. For you are trying to acquire the truth of beautiful things in exchange for the seeming and opinion of beautiful things; and you really have in mind to exchange "gold for bronze." But blessed one do consider better: Without your being aware of it—I may be nothing. Thought, you know, begins to have keen eyesight when the sight of the eyes starts to decline from its peak; and you are still far from that.' Conclusion conclusion If Socrates were to have sex with Alcibiades, he would perpetuate: 1) the idea that people can make each other wise. impact: prevent Alcibiades from realizing his ignorance about wisdom 2) Alcibiades belief that his physical attractiveness is the most important thing about him impact: the belief could harm Alcibiades as he begins to decline from his physical peak, when “Thought begins to have keen eyesight.” (219a) 3) Socrates would be no better than the sophists who cannot acknowledge the ways in which they are ignorant, and thus, risk self-deception. Advantages Advantages to my account: -Fits with the well-known picture of a Socrates who: 1) proclaims his own ignorance. 2) critiques the Sophists for i. both not acknowledging what they do not know ii. exchanging money for wisdom -Makes explicit the way Plato critiques the customs of his time -Throws into question a vision of Socrates as someone who consistently denies bodily urges -Makes clear that the container model is supposed to function in opposition to the image of pregnancy and birth. Accounts of “Plato’s Appropriation of Reproduction” run these two images together.

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Transcript: The History of India As large, stable ships came into use, mariners increasingly entrusted their crafts and cargos to the reasonably predictable monsoons and sailed directly across the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. 1398 A.D. to 1515 A.D. Ships of Ancient India Fine cotton textiles came into high demand throughout the trading world of the Indian Ocean basin, so Indian artisans built thriving local industries around the production of high-quality cotton textiles that influenced the structure of the Indian economy and enabled consumers to important different goods from regions that specialized in the production of other commodities. Khemer Empire Chola Kingdom expansion in SE Asia opened markets for Indian merchants and producers Place Angkor Wat 851 A.D. Temple to the hindu god Vishnu. 500-1000s A.D. Because India stood in the middle of the Indian Ocean basin, it was a natural site for emporia and warehouses. Merchants coming from east Africa or Persia exchanged their cargos at Cambay, Calicut or Quilon for goods to take back with the winter monsoon. 500-1000s A.D. 500-1000 A.D. India as a Trade Area 500-1000 A.D. Conquerers spread Islam to the northwestern city of Sind, while merchants from nearby brought Islam to north and south India. Place Region A Timeline Place Creation of Sikhism 500-1000s A.D. A tomb built under Shah Jahan’s command when his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, died giving birth to their 14th child. It is known for its symmetrical beauty, and its architecture greatly mimics that of the Byzantinian style. 500-1000s A.D. Powerful local kings of Southeast Asia charged merchants high fees to use their ports or pass through their waterways. Islam is Spread to India India Industries Portuguese Conquerors Caitlin Byoun, Julia Jeong, Oren Mor, & William Villalobos Human-Environmental Interaction Recording Devices In 1398 Tamerlane conquered Delhi. Alfonso de albuquerque seized the western Indian port of Goa in 1510, and occupied the port of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula. In 1515, he captured Muslim city of Hormuz. 500-1000s A.D. 1653 A.D. During the Mughal dynasty, the thinker Nanak created Sikhism, a mixture between Muslim and Hinduism. This religion remains a primary part of India's culture to this day. Mariners recognized the rhythms of the monsoons, and over time, they built larger ships, which enabled them to leave the coasts behind and ply the blue waters of the Indian Ocean. The Chola Kingdom Expansion Early 1100s Indians used oral accounts called “itihas” to record past events, were accurate but didn’t emphasize dates. Strategies of Mariners Region 711 A.D. The Khemer empire ruled form what is now the boundaries of modern Cambodia and southward along the Mekong River. Taj Mahal 1400s Waterway Taxes Movement End of Medieval India 18th Century Qutb Minar Early 1200s A.D. Minaret built by the sultans of Delhi. This monument stands at a height of 240 feet, impressive for such a structure that has survived to this day. End of the Gupta Dynasty 400 A.D. to the mid 600's A.D. The Huns rampaged across Asia and attacked northern India. The Gupta Dynasty disappeared during the 600s. During the rule of the Rajputs in India, Buddhism began to fade away as simply an idea taken out of Hinduism. Buddha was believed to be a reincarnation of Vishnu. 800s A.D. Shore temple Rajputs Rule Northern India Relief carving from the Buddhist temple at Borobodur in Java depicts a typical southeast Asian ship. Descent of the Ganges Temple located at Mahabalipuram, south of Madras 600s A.D. 700s A.D. Carved reliefs from the 7th century at the temple Mamallapuram, celebrates the Ganges river as a gift from Shiva and other gods 800s A.D. 14th Century Demographic Surge in India The demographic surge encouraged the concentration of people in cities.. Most ports and trading centers, specifically, had populations well over one hundred thousand. Cities in southern India grew rapidly, as a result of the increasing agricultural poductivity in the region. Monsoons in India Throughout the entire era of Medieval India, monsoons would come and go periodically, affecteing the schedules of marine transportationas well as agriculture. Medieval India (perpetual event) Start of Medieval India 300s A.D. Islam in Southern India is Renounced 1336 A.D. The kingdom of Vijayanagar reverts the southern portion of India from Muslim influence back into Hinduism. Carving at Borobodur Location Movement Movement Location Movement Movement Movement Place Human-Environmental Interaction Movement Location Region Place Place Region

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