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Immune System

Transcript: The Immune System........ Immunity Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive (active), and passive B cells and T cells are the main types of lymphocytes. B cells work chiefly by secreting substances called antibodies into the body’s fluids. Antibodies ambush foreign antigens circulating in the bloodstream •Immunoglobulin G, or IgG, is a kind of antibody that works efficiently to coat microbes, speeding their uptake by other cells in the immune system. •IgM is very effective at killing bacteria. •IgA concentrates in body fluids—tears, saliva, and the secretions of the respiratory and digestive tracts—guarding the entrances to the body. •IgE, whose natural job probably is to protect against parasitic infections, is responsible for the symptoms of allergy. •IgD remains attached to B cells and plays a key role in initiating early B cell responses. Helper T cells, or Th cells, coordinate immune responses by communicating with other cells. Some stimulate nearby B cells to produce antibodies, others call in microbe-gobbling cells called phagocytes, and still others activate other T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)—also called killer T cells—perform a different function. These cells directly attack other cells carrying certain foreign or abnormal molecules on their surfaces. CTLs are especially useful for attacking viruses because viruses often hide from other parts of the immune system while they grow inside infected cells. CTLs recognize small fragments of these viruses peeking out from the cell membrane and launch an attack to kill the infected cell. Each B cell is programmed to make one specific antibody. For example, one B cell will make an antibody that blocks a virus that causes the common cold, while another produces an antibody that attacks a bacterium that causes pneumonia. Unlike B cells, T cells do not recognize free-floating antigens. Rather, their surfaces contain specialized antibody-like receptors that see fragments of antigens on the surfaces of infected or cancerous cells. T cells contribute to immune defenses in two major ways: Some direct and regulate immune responses, whereas others directly attack infected or cancerous cells.

Immune System

Transcript: The Immune System's function is to protect the body from infections and illnesses. The Immune system works to identify pathogens and killer t-cells, which harm the body, and eliminate them from our system through an immune response. It mainly tries to stop the spread of antigens The skin blocks dangerous foregin substances(antigens) from entering the bodies immune system it's also a non-specific response. If the skin receives a cut which may enable bacteria from entering the body a macrophage appers disabeling foregin substances from entering the body, causing the skin to act as a shield to the Immune System The non-specific defenses, such as skin and mucous membranes, prevent microorganisms from entering the body. The specific defenses are activited when microorganisms evade the non-specific functions and body. Immunity is the bodies ability to counteract specific foregin organisms that make antigen. Vaccinations are shots which have antibiotics that protect the Immune system. Both work to protect the body from an inflammatory response or a deadly disease In an allergic response the immune system overreacts to an antigen. Causing the body to attack itself- which does the body more harm than good. Often resulting in extermely painful fevers or an autoimmune disease. Two kinds of lymphocytes( a leukocyte that has a large spherical nucleus that is surronded by a thin layer of nongranular cytoplasm) operate in the specific immune response. T&B lymphocytes are assigned to migrate throughout the system to attack a specific antigen and stop an interferon CELLS THAT CHEW UP INVADING ORGANISMS What Helps Our Body Fight Antigens CELLS THAT ALLOW THE BODY TO REMEMBER AND RECOGNIZE PAST INVADERS AND HELP THE BODY DESTROY THEM MATURED IN THE BONE MARROW AND ARE THE BODIES MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM, SEEKING OUT THIER TARGETS AND SENDING DEFENCES TO LOCK ONTO THEM PRODUCE ANTIBODIES WHICH HELP THE BODY FIGHT AGANIST ANTIGENS B Lymphocytes MATURED IN THE THYMUS GLAND AND ACT AS SOLIDERS UNDER B-CELLS, THIER JOB IS TO DESTROY THE INVADERS THE B-CELLS(INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM) HAS RECOGNIZE HELPER T CELLS HELP DESTROY ANTIGENS KILLER T-CELLS INFECT IMMUNE SYSTEM T Lymphocytes Lymphocytes Phagocytes Both Effect Immune System Greatly A major immune disorder that is effecting people greatly is: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease that slowly and steadily destroys the immune system. It is caused by HIV, a virus that wipes out certain types of lymphocytes called T-helper cells. Without T-helper cells, the immune system is unable to defend the body against normally harmless organisms which could be wiped out by an antihistamine, this can cause life-threatening infections in people who have AIDS. Newborns can get HIV infection from their mothers while in the uterus, during the birth process, or during breastfeeding. People can get HIV infection by having unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person or from sharing contaminated needles for drugs, steroids, or tattoos. During its rise the only known few to get HIV/AIDS were homosexuals but now the trend continues higher due to unprotected sex. Medical advances in the field of Immunology are increasing since awernces of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Leukemia, Asthma, Diabetes etc. are larger than before.There are still no cures for many of Immune realted diseases, researchers need to find a way to stop killer-T cells and support Helper- T cells The Immune System The antigen, antibody reaction is the combination of an antigen with its antibody

immune system

Transcript: B Cells: produce antibodies against bacteria, virus and tumor cells. Antibodies are defined as 'specialized proteins that specifically recognize and bind to one particular protein'. This binding of the foreign body signals other cells to kill or engulf the unwanted substance. Granulocytes: Also known as polymorph nuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are composed of three different cell types; neutrophils, eosinophil and basophils. They basically engulf the foreign body and use their enzymes to degrade them. Macrophages: These scavenger cells also known as antigen presenting cells (APC) pick up the invader and ingest them. Macrophages then present them to the T cells and B cells, thus initiating an immune response. the parts of the immune system •Laughter is the best medicine. This is not just an old saying but laughter induces a proactive immune response that leads to a healthy body. parts of the immune system Bone Marrow: The bone marrow is the production house for B cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, immature thymocytes, red blood cells and platelets. 1. The first layer is the skin and mucous membranes, which acts as a physical barrier. 2. The second layer is the “innate immune system,” a broad-acting, short-term, non-specific immune response to pathogens such as bacteria or viruses. Microbes that evade the innate system encounter a third layer of protection 3. A powerful mechanism called the adaptive immune response. Here populations of white blood cells known as lymphocytes –B cells and T cells – mount a powerful, highly specific attack on specific pathogens. Lymph Nodes: These immunologic filters of the body fluids are found all over the body. The antigens are filtered through the lymph nodes and the macrophages and dendritic cells capture these antigens and present them to the T and B cells, thus evoking a full-fledged immune response.Bone Marrow: The bone marrow is the production house for B cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, immature thymocytes, red blood cells and platelets. Thymus: This is where immature thymocytes migrate and are produced as mature T cells. Spleen: The spleen is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood corpuscles. The spleen produces large amounts of antibodies to fight against antigens and it is a graveyard for old red blood corpuscles. Natural Killer Cells: they kill tumors, like melanomas, lymphomas, viral-infected cells like herpes and cytomegalovirus infected cells. These killer cells act without consulting the lymph nodes unlike the T killer cells. Dendritic Cells: These cells are more efficient than the macrophages as the antigen presenting cells. They capture the antigens and bring it to lymphoid organs initiating an immune response. parts of the immune system Everyone's immune system is different. Some people never seem to get infections, whereas others seem to be sick all the time. As people get older, they usually become immune to more germs as the immune system comes into contact with more and more of them. That's why adults and teens tend to get fewer colds than kids — their bodies have learned to recognize and immediately attack many of the viruses that cause colds. facts you might want to know by: Mikayla Lewis The immune system When antigens (foreign substances that invade the body) are detected, several types of cells work together to recognize them and respond. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce antibodies, specialized proteins that lock onto specific antigens .Once produced; these antibodies continue to exist in a person's body, so that if the same antigen is presented to the immune system so they will not get the disease again. •Lymph nodes, the most important defense mechanisms of the body are not found in the feet! the three layers The most important part of the immune system is probably either the white blood cells or leukocytes. The leukocytes are the actual cells that remember previous germs and attack them. Some specialized leukocytes are B-cells, which find germs, and T-cells, which are sent by the B-cells to kill germs. T-Cells: The T cells are divided into the T helper cells or CD4+ T cells and the T killer/suppressor cells or CD4+ T cells. The T helper cells are used to potentiate immune responses by secreting specialized factors that activate the white blood cells to ward off a possible infection. The T suppressor cells are directly involved in killing the tumor cells, viral infected cells and parasites. The human immune system consists of specialized cells that work together to protect the body from bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, and also fight the growth of tumor cells. Many important organs are in the immune system. The bone marrow produces the cells of the immune system, including the T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, leukocytes and dendritic cells. The thymus is where T cells mature. The spleen filters the blood and captures the foreign invaders

Immune System

Transcript: The Immune and Lymphatic System! part of body that defends against disease can be either specific-only certain agents or non-specific-defend against any harmful agent Organs involved: lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, Peyer's patch, and spleen, bone marrow lymph nodes are small aggregations of tissues interspersed throughout the lymphatic system tonsils contain many lymphocytes. They filter out potentially harmful bacteria that may enter the body via the nose and mouth Peyer's patches are lymphatic tissues which perform this same function in the digestive system Mechanical Barriers-first line of defense Chemical Barriers-wash away invaders your sweat contains lysozome enzymes that digest bacterial cell walls Phagocytosis-white blood cells ability to destroy toxins macrophages: irregularly shaped Neutrophils: leukocytes kill by phagocytosis release chemicals that kill neighboring bacteria Natural killer cells-distinguish cells with abnormal membranes Inflammation-get rid of irritation Fever-stimulates phagocytes, raises metabolism, and lowers ability for multiplication Immune response- 1796-Edward Jenner key concepts: antigen-molecule that provokes specific immune response antigenic determinant sites-parts of antigen that form different responses antibodies- proteins produced by antigens humoral immunity- proteins secreted into body fluids cell-mediated immunity-T cells-directly attack cells active immunity-being exposed to pathogen passive immunity-obtaining antibodies from another individual Initiating Immune Response: major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-glycoproteins produced by groups of genes genes encoding MHC proteins-highly polymorphic self-versus-nonself recognition: antigen-presenting cells-viral antigens are processed and moved to surface of plasma membrane interleukin-1 two-part immune system evolved around the time of jawed fishes appeared. before then, immune defense based on mobile phagocytic cells Lymphatic System removes excess tissue fluids absorbing proteins from fluids and returns it to the blood contains capillaries and lymphatic vessels Finis! skin, mucus membranes recognizes viruses and bacteria ingesting them through phagocytosis selective process: inborn which are inherited factors acquired which develop through lifetime acts as chemical alarm signal in small intestine and appendix B cells respond to these part of body that defends against diseases MHC proteins serve as self markers--->distinguish its cells from foreign cells large MHC proteins human leukocyte antigens (HLA) kill microbes by: vaccination-injecting a harmless microbe to confer resistance Lines of Defense: tumor cells large, have several parts that stimulate different responses tears, perspiration, saliva As the lymph filters through the lymph nodes, foreign cells of microorganisms are detected and overpowered. converts info into hormones---> activate immune system

Immune System

Transcript: The Immune System many outer (epithelial) surfaces secrete a mucus lining that protects against harmful substances including pathogens reaction takes minutes for innate system and days for adaptive system “the natural protection that is our main defense against infectious disease” adapted form of protection that changes with exposure to pathogens (adaptive immune system); takes days By: Nicholas O'Farrell, Julia Hafer, Simone King, and Elizabeth Cruz physical boundary between the organism and pathogens (not considered part of immune system) antibodies from B cells respond to epitopes on antigen exteriors primary body of response to get rid of pathogens differs in invertebrates vs. vertebrates vertebrates have adaptive immunity makes use of B cells and T cells (lymphocytes --> certain varieties of white blood cells) lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow but some move to the thymus, where they grow into T cells; those that stay in the bone marrow mature into B cells third type stays in blood; part of innate immunity In Invertebrates: Barrier Defenses: epithelial tissues prevent entry of pathogens and produce mucus (fluid that entraps microbes and other particles and creates inhospitable environment to pathogens) B Cells T Cells in mammals, the two main types of phagocytic cells are neutrophils (attracted by signals from infected tissues and destroy pathogens) and macrophages (larger cells that migrate throughout body) T cells respond to epitopes on antigen bits on the surface of host cells bits are bonded with MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules antigen: triggers B cell or T cell response cell bonds to antigen (usually large protein or polysaccharide on exterior of pathogen) with an antigen receptor protein specific enough to bind to subcategories of antigens (ex.: certain bacterial species) 100,000 antigen receptors on each B or T cell Physical Boundary Three Layers of Protection: part of antigen that binds to receptor = epitope for example, sometimes a group of amino acids every B or T cell is specific for a particular epitope exoskeleton (physical boundary) = first line of defense hemocytes travel throughout body in hemolymph (circulatory fluid) and carry out phagocytosis (consumption and digestion of harmful substances) trigger production of substances that destroy pathogens and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (inactivate or kill fungi and bacteria) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/PBNeutrophil.jpg/120px-PBNeutrophil.jpg Immune System Basics natural inherent methods of self-protection from pathogens (innate immune system); takes minutes proteins of the complement system as well as certain peptides and interferons (proteins that assist with innate defense by disrupting viral infections) help protect against microbes bodily injury or pathogen invasion cause inflammatory response (collective term for various changes and processes caused by "signaling molecules" one of these signaling molecules = histamine (kept in mast cell vesicles in connective tissue) example of response: vascular changes that permit the greater flow of fluid/phagocytes into bodily tissues there are ways for pathogens to escape attack from innate immune system: some bacteria are protected by a capsule (obscures its identity); others are unaffected by lysosomes Cellular Innate Defenses: other internal cavities have conditions that hinder the development of pathogens (ex.: stomach acid kills bacteria/viruses) Innate Immune System In Vertebrates:

immune system

Transcript: malaria How does malaria affect UK travellers?Between 1990 - 2009, every year approximately 1,800 British travellers return home with malaria.1 The UK is one of the biggest importers of malaria in Europe. The number of trips made abroad by UK residents was 5.90 million in October 2008. How dangerous is malaria? The most severe form of malaria (plasmodium falciparum) accounted for 79% of cases amongst British travellers in 2009. Malaria is a preventable infection but can be fatal if left untreated - an average of nine people die each year from malaria in the UK. Malaria is transmitted by an infected mosquito. It only takes one bite from an infected mosquito to contract malaria. How can I protect myself? You are at risk when travelling to malarious areas if you do not take precautions to prevent yourself from being bitten and also if you do not take antimalarials. You should ideally seek advice from a healthcare professional eight weeks before you travel but can still seek advice at the last minute. Some advice/protection is better than none. There are different forms of antimalarials available - the appropriate health care professional (GP, practice nurse, pharmacist or travel clinic) will be able to advise on the most suitable one for you. Wherever you go, enjoy yourself, but make sure you are malaria aware. alopecia Alopecia means loss of hair from the head or body, sometimes to the extent of baldness. Although alopecia can be due to aesthetic depilation of body hair, it is usually involuntary. One example is androgenic alopecia. Alopecia can also be caused by compulsive pulling of hair (trichotillomania). It can also be the consequence of voluntary hairstyling routines such as ponytails or braids, or due to hair relaxer solutions, and hot hair irons. In some cases, alopecia is due to underlying medical conditions, such as iron deficiency.[1] Generally, patchy hair loss signifies alopecia areata. Alopecia areata typically presents with sudden hair loss causing patches to appear on the scalp or other areas of the body. If left untreated, or if the disease does not respond to treatment, complete baldness can result in the affected area, or alopecia totalis. When the entire body suffers from complete hair loss, it is alopecia universalis. It is similar to effects that occur with chemotherapy.[2] vaccinations Cancer types •Anal cancer •Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) •Bladder cancer •Bone cancer •Bone cancer, secondary •Bowel cancer •Brain tumours •Brain tumours, secondary •Breast cancer in women •Breast cancer in men •Breast cancer, secondary •Colon and rectal cancer •Cervical cancer •Children's cancers •Endocrine tumours •Eye cancer (ocular melanoma) •Fallopian tube cancer •Gall bladder cancer •Head & neck cancer •Kaposi's sarcoma •Kidney cancer •Larynx cancer •Leukaemia •Leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic •Leukaemia, acute myeloid •Leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic •Leukaemia, chronic myeloid •Liver cancer •Liver cancer, secondary •Lung cancer •Lung cancer, secondary •Lymph node cancer, secondary •Lymphoma •Lymphoma, Hodgkin •Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin •Melanoma •Mesothelioma •Myeloma •Neuroendocrine tumours •Ovarian cancer •Oesophageal (gullet) cancer •Pancreatic cancer •Penis cancer •Prostate cancer •Pseudomyxoma peritonei •Skin cancer •Small bowel cancer •Soft tissue sarcomas •Spinal cord tumours •Stomach cancer •Testicular cancer •Thymus cancer •Thyroid cancer •Trachea (windpipe) cancer •Unknown primary cancer •Vagina cancer •Vulva cancer •Womb (endometrial) cancer 5 facts about cancer 1. There are more than 100 types of cancers; any part of the body can be affected. 2. In 2004, 7.4 million people died of cancer - 13% of all deaths worldwide 3. More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries. 4. Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill men are (in order of frequency): lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophagus. 5. Worldwide, the 5 most common types of cancer that kill women are (in the order of frequency): breast, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical. protecton against disease white blood cell army ready for war bacteria army not ready for war Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) Two doses recommended for all travelers born after 1956, if not previously given Tetanus-diphtheria Revaccination recommended every 10 years Influenza Recommended for all travelers from November through April vaccinations boosts the speed of which your body creates antibodies.

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