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Heredity PowerPoint

Transcript: Heretity PowerPoint By.Maria Ruiz How organisms are cloned How organisms are cloned Cloning Cloning Cloning is A clone is a genetically identical copy of an organism, and it may be naturally occurring or created in the lab. Through the process of asexual reproduction, organisms such as bacteria create offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. Modern genetic technology can also be used to create clones. There are three types of cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is essentially recombinant DNA technology, where a piece of foreign DNA is inserted into a vector, which can be copied by a host cell. Therapeutic cloning involves the production of patient-matched stem cells for disease treatment. Here we focus on reproductive cloning of organisms. Animal Cloning Animal Cloning Animal cloning is a little different. Cloning is a method of producing two or more genetically identical organisms by asexual reproduction. This means that there is only one parent cell, from which all the genetic information will come. Thus, the DNA sequence of cloned organisms is exactly the same as that of the parent cell. In nature, cloning occurs when identical twins, triplets, and so on are born or when a cutting from a plant is used to generate another plant. It also occurs in organisms that reproduce by asexual reproduction, such as bacteria and yeast. Recently, laboratory experiments have generated animal clones using a variety of different parent cell types. Ethical issues behind cloning Ethical issues behind cloning The key ethical issue with therapeutic cloning is the moral status of the cloned embryo, which is created solely for destruction. Issue #1 Issue #1 The ethical issues with reproductive cloning include genetic damage to the clone, health risks to the mother, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life. Issue #2 Issue #2 by a new technique that had never before been fully successful in mammals. The technique involved transplanting the genetic material of an adult sheep, apparently obtained from a well-differentiated somatic cell, into an egg from which the nucleus had been removed. Issue #3 Issue #3 Cloned human embryos have been produced, but there are no reliable reports that any have been implanted in a woman’s uterus, let alone developed to birth. Cloning to birth has come to be called "reproductive cloning", where as cloning embryos so that their stem cells may be extracted for possible research or therapeutic use has come to be called "therapeutic cloning". Issue #4 Issue #4 Researchers are going a step further by trying to create generalized donor cells. In mice, scientists have been able to obtain stem cells, which are undifferentiated and have the potential to develop into any kind of tissue. Scientists believe this can be done with humans as well. This would allow scientists to create cells that could replace ones damaged by an illness Issue #5 Issue #5 Do i support cloning? I do not support cloning because there are a lot of issues in cloning such as damage to the clone, health risks that the mother has to take, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life. Do i support cloning?


Transcript: Heredity: What is it? Heredity: The process through which traits are passed from parent to offspring. Traits What are they? What do they tell us? Is there more than one kind? Traits are your characteristics! You are a unique individual Characteristics (eye color, basketball skills, height, blood type, etc.) about you are called traits There are two kinds of traits: Inherited Traits & Acquired Traits Acquired Traits Traits that you have and learn through your environment. Example: soccer skills, a baby bird learning to fly, talking, etc. An Acquired Trait is a trait you pick up during your lifetime—it’s something you LEARN. Examples of acquired traits are: playing the piano well, playing a sport, learning to read or even learning to snap your fingers. Can you think of some more acquired traits? Let's draw a T-chart in our Sci Notebooks. On one side label it acquired (learned) traits; label the other side label it inherited traits. In your teams, come up with a list of acquired traits that are learned through the environment you are in; then we will share as a class. So what's the difference between 'acquired' and 'inherited traits? Acquired traits you learned during your lifetime. Just because you’re good at playing video games doesn’t mean your kids will be—they’ll have to learn just like you did! From our checklist: the qualities you have learned are your acquired traits. :) Inherited traits you got from your parents. You can pass them on to your own kids. Let's talk some more about inherited traits... Received from your biological parents Heredity = passing of genes from parents to offspring Examples: natural eye color, hair color, height, blood type Inherited Traits are on your DNA! What Makes You You? What Makes Me Me? Where are traits located? DNA DNA is like a zipper. They are contained on Chromosomes. Chromosomes are short rod-shaped structures of DNA. Humans have 46 chromosomes per cell, but that differs per species. You get 23 from your mom, and 23 from your dad! (Textbook p. 126-127) When "unzipped", DNA looks like it has rungs like a ladder. Each short segment of DNA is known as a gene! One chromosome can have hundreds of genes on it. There are many more traits than chromosomes, because information in one chromosome can determine many traits. You do not just get traits from your mom or just your dad...You get a mixture of traits from both! :) Sometimes, you may have a trait that you do not see in your mom or dad. How can this be? Let's refer to our textbook to read about Dominant and Recessive Traits. Dominant traits are traits that would win in a challenge... On each chromosome, you will have a pair of traits . Each trait can be dominant or recessive. Dominant traits are represented by capital letters, and recessive traits are represented by lower case letters. If you have a dominant trait, even if you only have one of the two being dominant...You will have that dominant form of the gene. You may show a gene form that is recessive if and only if both genes in the pair are recessive (lower case letters). Let's watch a brainpop to learn more: Today's Journey SPI 0507.4.1 Recognize that information is passed from parent to offspring during reproduction. 0507.4.1 Explain how genetic information is transmitted from parents to offspring. Acquired Traits CANNOT pass on acquired traits to offspring NOT in DNA/genes! Example: Your kids won’t be born with a missing arm if you cut off your arm first! KWL Inherited Traits Developed during life (not born with it) Examples Things you learned (riding a bike, reading, writing) Things that happened to you (short hair, cut-off finger) Acquired Traits Stop with You!


Transcript: Heredity What do you notice about the parent and its offspring? Have you ever heard someone say, "You have your mother's eyes!" Or maybe, "You have your dad's nose!" When people say these things, they are refering to your heredity. Goal! Understand what heredity is and what sorts of traits are inherited Trait - a characteristic, like hair type height, eye color Offspring - babies, children, young Mini-Lab Directions In pairs, you will receive a bag with 6 cards in it, 3 blue and 3 pink. You have one pink trait for hair type, eye color, and height; you have one blue trait for hair type, eye color, and height. Make an offspring using ONE of each category and record the traits on your table. Make another offspring with different traits, and record those traits on the table. How many different offspring can you make? Record all of the different offspring on the table. Whisper Everyone should write down the offspring You have 7 minutes. If you finish early raise your hand. When the timer goes off, return to your seat and keep your paper with you. How many different offspring did you find? Think about it. Let everyone have time to think. Raise your hand to answer. *Recap* Summarize to someone beside you: What is heredity? What kinds of traits can be passed to offspring? How do some traits help some species survive? Be ready to give your summary! Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Independently complete your writing assignment. Turn in your complete packet to SCIENCE. When you're through, read or work on your academic vocabulary. What trait is helping this moth survive?

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