Transcript: Digestion The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract. the digestive tract is made up of the large intestine and the small intestine. When the food is digested the organs absorb the nutrients and turn it in to energy. "Stomach cancers are classified according to the type of tissue where they originate. The most common type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the stomach and accounts for 90% to 95% of all stomach cancers. Other forms of stomach cancer include lymphomas, which involve the lymphatic system and sarcomas, which involve the connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, or blood vessels)". The stomach has five layers. As cancer grows deeper into the layers, the prediction for the patient gets worse. Starting from the inside, the innermost layer is called the mucosa. Next is a supporting layer called the submucosa which is surrounded by the muscularis, a layer of muscle that moves and mixes the stomach contents. The next two layers, the subserosa and the serosa (the outermost) layer, act as wrapping for the stomach. Stomach cancer usually starts in the mucosa (adenocarcinoma). http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/ THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BY: Daniel and Austin Some more facts about stomach cancer How does the digestive system work. Refrences HOPE YOU ENJOYED http://www.webmd.com/cancer/stomach-gastric-cancer http://www.idph.state.il.us/cancer/factsheets/stomach.htm How do you get stomach cancer
Transcript: Brainstorm How do we make healthier food accessible to people from the lower income groups? "Mind Mapping" Method Student evaluations so that professors know how they can better serve their needs Gather overflow food from Farmers themselves Provide access to Foodlink distribution center If students decide to leave with a Masters instead of a Ph.D, they should not be penalized Strong alumni connections so that students can get direct guidance from one of their own Develop a formal Plan of Study for the Ph.D Team building exercises between prof. and students International Students Association helps with visa and other immigration requirements Increase access to Food Stamps (CalFresh) Every student is given a mentor (different from advisor), specifically for career guidance Get nutritional information to low income areas - educate them Confidence building and personality development workshops are conducted with students Every student doesn't need to choose a subject of focus for the 1st year Publish a catalog of practical applications of each course Increase access to shelters, food banks and resources Regular planning meetings with advisor so that student can confide in them Mock interviews conducted with industry reps to advise students Distribute excess food from Farmers Markets to shelters Option of switching your advisor if he doesn't fulfill your requirements Students are encouraged to write an essay of their career ambitions - forces them to think! Make healthy food accessible to homeless Consult with the Career Counseling Dept Provide travel vouchers to food sources - Food Banks, Shelters Students should start job hunting a yea before they graduate Provide a means to access Veterans Admin, a challenge for homeless vets Resume writing and interviewing skills workshops during hiring season Orientation for students to teach industry trends
Transcript: Food and Digestion(Healthy Eating) Section 3.2 Zach Desacia 7-2 My prezi is about Healhty Eating. In my prezi I cover from The Food Pyramid to Food Labels. I covered almost every thing in the pryamid food labels. The Food Guide Pyramid Grains: (6 to 11 servings) Grains include bread, crereal, rice, pasta group. They are rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Vegetables: (3 to 5 servings) Vegetables are low fat. They are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Fruits: (2 to 4 servings) Fruits are rich in carbohydrates, fibers, vitamins, and water. Dairy: (2 to 3 servings) The dairy group contains milk, yogurt, and cheese. the dairy is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Meat: (2 to 3 servings) The meat group contains meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group. These foods are high in protein. They supply vitemans and minerals. But they are high in fat and sould be eating rarely. Oils: (use rarely) The oils group contain soft drinks, candy, ice cream, mayonnaise, and other foods with few valuable nutrients. These high in calories. Food Lables Food lables are made to tell the nurtitional facts of the prouduct. The FDA(Food and Drug Administration) makes the laws of what should be on the food lables. Serving Size Serving size is the number that tells you how many servings in the container. The FDA has four standard serving sizes for all foods. Calories from Fat The calories give you energy and some are from fat. No more than 30% of calories from fat. The way fyou find out then percent of fat in calories you have to divide the fat in calories by the total number of calories, then multiply what you get by 100%. Daily Values The percent daily value indicates the nutritional content fits into a persons daily diet. The amount of calories you consume every day depends on your age,size, and level of activity. An active teenager requrie 2,500 calories every day or more. Ingredients Ingredents are always at the bottom of the box. The ingredents have to be included so if someone is allergic to a certain substance in the product the consumer must be informed. The list in forms you that if a artificial subtance that people would like to know. Using Food Labels You can use food labels to help make healthy food choices. Food labels allow you to check a single food product or compare the nutritional value of two food products. Questions 1. Why is checking the ingredents important? 2. Why is the grain group the most important? 3. Why would people want to know the serving size is? Answers 1. So if someone is allergic to a substance in the product. 2. The grain group is the most important beause it gives you the most energy. 3. They would like to eat the right serving size so they dont over eat.
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Saliva, the enzyme produced is salivary amylase, the site of production is the salivary glands, and the site of the activity is the mouth. the pH is 6.5-7.5, the substrate used is starch, and the products made is maltose. pancreatic juice enters the duodenum via the pancreatic duct, over a liter of alkaline pancreatic juice is secreted everyday. The fluid contains several enzymes that are produced by the secretory cells in the acini of the pancreas. Trypsin and chymotrypsin salivary glands and pancreas. Youtube clip Structure of the digestive system. digestion is the process in which large molecules are hydrolyzed enzymes to produce smaller molecules that can be absorbed and assimilated. Digestion Digestive enzyme Endopeptidase enzymes Digestion pancreatic juice, the enzyme produced is trypsin, the site of production is the sensory cells of the pancreas (acini), and the site of activity is the duodenum. The pH is 7.0, and the substrate is proteins/polypeptides and the products produced is short polypeptides. Glands of the digestive system Pancreatic juice They carry out the protein digestion, which started in the stomach, by cutting long chains of amino acids into shorter ones. Exopeptidase enzyme They complete protein digestion by removing the terminal (end) amino acid from the chains salivary glands produce saliva at the rate of about 1 to 1.5 liters per day. It is produced constantly, but more is produced when we see, smell,taste food. saliva mainly contains water 99.5%, but 0.5% contains some mineral salts, salivary amylase, mucin and lysozyme. The starch splitting up enzyme in saliva is salivary amylase, this beings the chemical breakdown process. Digestion Digestive enzyme
Transcript: DIGESTION Mouth & the buccal cavity: teeth: chew food and breaks down large pieces of food into smaller pieces --> increase surface area to volume ratio of food --> amylase in saliva can act on it more efficiently. salivary glands: secrete saliva tongue: help to mix food with saliva Oesophagus: a narrow muscular tube has 2 sets of muscles: longitudinal muscle - outside of the gut circular muscles - inside of the gut produce rhythmic, wave-like contractions of the gut walls (peristalsis) --> helps to push food (bolus) down into stomach muscles are antagonistic muscles when circular muscle contracts, the longitudinal muscles relax --> gut becomes narrower and longer --> food is pushed forward when longitudinal muscles contract, circular muscles relax --> gut becomes wider and shorter --> allow food to enter Pharynx: have a flap-like tissue (epiglottis) --> prevent food from going down the trachea Stomach: has pits that secrete gastric juice for the digestion of food Small intestine: consists of duodenum, jejunum & ileum walls contain glands that secrete digestive enzymes walls of small intestine also adapted to absorb digested food and water Pancreas: produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes also secrete insulin & glucagon --> control the concentration of blood glucose in the blood & carbohydrate metabolism Liver: secretes bile (contains bile salts & bile pigments) bile does not contain enzymes --> cannot digest food, but speed up the digestion of fats bile pigments are waste products --> removed with faeces --> gives faeces the colour. stored temporarily in the gall bladder Large intestine: consists of rectum - faeces stored temporarily in rectum --> expelled through the anus colon - absorb water & mineral salts from undigested food material no digestion occurs here DIGESTION PROCESS In the mouth: food stimulate salivary glands to secrete saliva mucin in saliva help soften food saliva contains salivary amylase --> digest starch to maltose pH of saliva=7 -->amylase active at this pH tongue rolls food into boli --> swallowed & passed down into oesophagus In the stomach: presence of food stimulate gastric glands to secrete gastric juice into stomach peristalsis in stomach walls churns & breaks up food --> mixes food with gastric juice gastric juice - a dilute solution of HCl (pH=2) stops action of salivary enzymes --> too acidic --> denature changes inactive forms of pepsinogen and prorennin into pepsin & rennin respectively provides a slightly acidic site of gastric enzymes to work (they work better in acidic medium) kills harmful bacteria in food pepsin & rennin (both are protease) act on proteins pepsin digest protein into polypeptides or peptones rennin curdles milk proteins by converting the soluble protein caesinogen into insoluble caesin --> remain long enough in stomach to be digested by pepsin partly digested food becomes liquefied chyme --> passes into the duodenum In the small intestine: chyme stimulates: intestinal glands to secrete intestinal juice --> contain enzymes enterokinase, erepsin, maltase, sucrase, lactase & intestinal lipase the pancreas secrete pancreatic juice --> contain pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase & trypsinogen gall bladder to release bile --> bile DOES NOT contain enzymes all 3 fluids are alkaline neutralize acidic chyme provide a suitable alkaline medium for the action of pancreatic and intestinal enzymes Carbohydrate digestion: (starch, lactose, sucrose, etc) starch digested by pancreatic amylase into maltose --> digested by maltase into glucose lactose digested by lactase into glucose & galactose sucrose digested by sucrase into glucose & fractose Protein digestion (digested by protease) inactive trypsinogen converted into active trypsin by intestinal enterokinase undigested protein which enter the small intestine are digested by trypsin into polypeptides polypeptides further digested into amino acids by erepsin in the intestinal juice --> amino acids can be absorbed Fat digestion: bile secreted in the liver emulsify fats lower the surface tension of fats --> fats break into tiny fat droplets --> form an emulsion increases the surface area to volume ratio of the fats fats are digested by lipase into fatty acids & glycerol ABSORPTION Adaptation for absorption: inner walls of the small intestines have many folds --> increase surface area inner walls also lined with numerous minute finger-like projections called villi --> further increase the surface area for absorption villi have many microvilli --> increase surface area villi have thin membranes (one cell thick) --> allow more efficient absorption of digested food substances small intestine long enough --> provide enough time for absorption the intestinal walls & villi have many capillaries to carry the absorbed food substances away. each villus has a lacteal (lymphatic capillary) surrounded by blood capillaries lymphatic capillaries transport fats blood capillaries transport sugars & amino acids Absorption
Transcript: Organs of the Digestive System mouth salivary glands Esoughogus Welcome to the journey of the digestive tract you will become a cheese sandwhich and go on this amazing journey Here we go Here in the mouth you are chewed and sprayed with spit from the salivary gland. you are now swalloed You are now in the esoghogous It is the pathway into the stomach Right this way sir You are now floating in digestive acids that are breaking you down into seperate proteins and vitamins This is the entrance to the small intestines You are now just a protein floating through the system. This is ne of the Many entrances to the blood stream To start the ride hop on the red blood cell o O You are being transported with oxygen, water and other proteins and being distributed to cells Think of red blood cells as your bodys UPS You are now being used to fuel the cell The cell has now used all it can out of you. You are now waste. the red blood cell has taken you to the waste plant. Get ready for a ride You just got flushed 1 What is lactose-intolerance, and what does it mean for your diet if you have it? Why are there new food pyramids and why are the different for different kinds of people? Start a food and exercise diary on Livestrong.com or a free calorie counter app on your phone or ipod. Are you getting enough nutrients and exercise? Your conclusion here... This Digital Notebook Belongs To... 5 liver (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr What are some good dessert recipes for diabetic diets? Conclusion 2 Extend and Enrich Just to list them How do you read nutrition labels on foods? What are the important things to look for? 4 What is a "Paleo" diet, and why do people think it so good for you? 6 Pick something of interest to you, with regard to nutrition, diet, or exercise. Explore this topic in as much depth as you are interested in. Report your findings in a creative way (maybe an infographic??). Here are some ideas to get you started... (delete when ready). What is the difference between vegan and vegetarian? What DO vegetarians eat??? 3 6 Classes of Nutrients oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo Classes of Nutrients Nutrients and Digestion Welcome to the stomach Please reflect on this project and your own learning. Have you met the goals of this unit? Do your feel your work has been Advanced, Proficient, Partially Proficient? Why? How will you benefit from what you have learned about nutrition and digestion in your day to day life? Do you have new questions for further study? Welcome to the small intestines oooooooooooooooooooooooooooo What is a gluten-free diet, and why is it suddenly so popular? organs of the digestive system
Transcript: Enzymatic Digestion in the Small Intestine Rhythmic waves of contractions by smooth muscles in the wall of the canal that push food along the tract Ring-like waves, sphincters, close off the tube like a drawstring and regulate the passage of materials between the chambers of the canal Enzymatic Digestion in the Stomach Enzymatic Digestion in the Liver Peristalsis Where most of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food and macromolecules as well as the absorption of nutrients into the blood occurs The first 25 cm of the small intestine is called the duodenum The pancreas produces bicarbonate, which acts as a buffer and offsets the acidic chyme from the stomach The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder until needed Bile does not contain digestive enzymes, but instead has bile salts, which act as detergents that help digest and absorb fats Bile is secreted into the duodenum as needed The jejunum and ileum focus on the absorption of nutrients and water Digestion In The Mouth Major function: recover water that has entered the alimentary canal as the solvent of the various digestive juices (absorbs what small intestine doesn't) Connected to small intestine by a T-shaped junction, where a sphincter controls the movement of material One arm of the T is called the cecum Compared to other animals, humans have small cecum and a finger-like extension, called the appendix Waste is called feces, which becomes more solid as it moves along the colon It generally takes 12-24 hours for the material to travel through the whole organ If the colon is irritated, less water will be reabsorbed, called diarrhea; opposed to constipation, where feces moves too slowly and excess water is absorbed The large intestine contains many harmless bacteria Feces are transported out of the body through the rectum, where it is stored until it can be eliminated Few nutrients are absorbed in the stomach and large intestine; most occurs in the small intestine (which has the surface area of a tennis court!) This large surface area greatly increases the rate of nutrient absorption Villi are finger-like projections on the folds in the small intestine that contain microscopic appendages called microvilli Inside the core of each villus are capillaries and a small vessel of the lymphatic system called lacteal Only 2 layers of epithelial cells separate nutrients in the lumen of the intestine from the bloodstream Gastric juice also has pepsin, which begins the hydrolysis of proteins Low pH denatures proteins and food, allowing pepsin to reach the peptide bonds When pepsin is secreted, it is in its inactive form called pepsinogen Parietal cells secrete HCl, which converts the pepsinogen to pepsin, by exposing its active site [Acid and pepsinogen do not mix] The Large Intestine: The Colon Defense Against Self Digestion Oral Cavity: The mouth of an animal Salivary Glands: Exocrine glands associated with the oral cavity. The secretions of salivary glands contain substances to lubricate good, adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and begin the process of chemical digestion. Bolus: When the tongue helps the food take the shape of a ball after tasting it and manipulating it during chewing. During swallowing, the tongue pushed a bolus to the back of the oral cavity and into the pharynx. Pharynx: The region of our throat. It’s a junction that opens to both the esophagus and the windpipe (trachea) Epiglottis: A cartilaginous flap that blocks the opening of our windpipe (glottis). This mechanism ensures that a bolus is guided into the entrance of the esophagus. Esophagus: Conducts food from the pharynx down to the stomach by peristalsis. The muscles at the very top of the esophagus are striated so the act of swallowing begins voluntarily but then the involuntary waves of the contraction by smooth muscles in the rest of the esophagus take over. Absorption of Nutrients Very elastic wall so it can stretch to accommodate 2 liters of food and fluid Secretes gastric juice, a digestive fluid. Gastric juice is secreted by epithelium lining along the stomach wall The stomach mixes the secreted fluid with the food by churning the smooth muscles Hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice has a pH of 2 (acidic enough to dissolve iron nails) As the bolus is mixed with the enzyme action, it becomes a nutrient-rich solution called acid chyme The opening from the stomach to the small intestine is called the pyloric sphincter, which helps regulate the passage of chyme into the intestine ¡Digestion!
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