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Green Chemistry

Transcript: 8 - Use safer solvents and reaction conditions - This means that there should be an effort to avoid using hazardous or toxic solvents 10 - Design for degradation - When a new product is designed, it should be kept in mind that they must eventually break down into a harmless substance. Green Chemisty References: These are the general principles that have to be followed when a new chemical product is made. Although it may seem impossible, Chemists are always trying to improve chemicals, making them less hazardous, and more environmentally friendly. this would be a good start to being green, as the reagents for catalysts can be re-used multiple times without any signs of loss of the catalyst. A catalyst is also quite useful, as it speeds up chemical reactions that may otherwise take a very long time to complete. Stoichiometric reagents can also speed up a reaction greatly, but to successfully speed up the reaction, it must be used in excess, and also, once it is used, it cannot be reused. 6 - Avoid using chemical derivatives - These derivative groups tend to produce more waste, and also use up more reagents 5 - Use catalysts, not stoichiometric reagents - Catalysts are not used up in a reaction and can be used many times; Stoichiometric reagents are used up in only one reaction. 7 - Maximise atom economy - There should be very little or few wasted atoms throughout chemical reactions A Closer look at principle #3 2 - Design safer chemicals and products - This allows chemicals to be used most effectively without being toxic or hazardous. 1 - Prevent waste - This means that the chemical processes used should stop waste, or at least minimise it, so that there is little waste that needs to be treated. By Niall Dunsmore The 12 Principles of Green Chemisrty Continued.... Green Chemistry helps in the way that it prevents potentially hazardous chemical substances from polluting the earth. If the earth continued to be polluted the way it was 30 years ago, we would be in serious danger of overpolluting the whole planet. There are many industries that use catalysts as a typical preference when making chemical solutions react faster. Some examples of these industries would be a catalyst called zeolites, which help in the petrochemical industry by literally breaking up large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller, and much more useful bits. These catalysts are claimed to be much more efficient than the previous stoichiometric reagents previously used for the same process. These catalysts are extremely efficient in each industry, as they: Do not create much (or even not at all) waste products; they are recyclable; they are much more efficient; they lead to lower costs, and they reduce the heat required for a chemical reaction, therefore helping another green principle to be satisfied. 11 - Analyse is real time to prevent pollution - This means that during a chemical reaction, there should be careful monitoring so that there are no accidental by-products produced during a reaction. 12 - Minimise the potential for accidents - This means that chemicals should be designed so that they do not acutally cause any bad accidents. 9 - Increase energy efficiency - This means that whenever an energy is required for a chemical reaction, those energy requirements should be minimal. This can range from heat energy to kinetic energy. 3 - Design less hazardous chemical synthesis - This means that when a chemical is synthesized, it should be made in a way that is not hazardous or toxic in any way 4 - Use renewable raw materials - This means that the materials used to construct the chemical should be recyclable or biodegradable All of the information and facts presented came from the course book or past encounters with information on green chemistry and catalysts. What is Green Chemistry? Green Chemistry is basically a way in which chemical products are designed and made, that results in a much more environmentally friendly way. This means that waste produced in large quantities is greatly reduced, so that the environment is not harmed. When designing something that will essentially be green, it should Ideally be: Products that are absolutely needed by the target society, and should not be made in a way that may damage the environment in some form; The use of fossil fuels should be replaced with more reliable, renewable energy sources; The good produced should either be recyclable or biodegradable (although this does not mean that it is an alright thing to litter these materials); And the wastes (if produced) should be recyclable or biodegradable. From this principle of using catalysts instead of stoichiometric reagents, it seems that

Chemistry Powerpoint

Transcript: Created by Jesus Valencia and Juan Estanislao for Mrs. Muldong Research Information and Bases Acids What are Acids and Bases? What are Acids and Bases? Acids Acids You can recognize acid in liquids by their tart, sour, or sharp taste. Many other acids are highly caustic and should not be put to the taste test. Strong Acids Strong Acids A Strong Acid is an acid that ionizes completely in a solvent. Examples of a Strong Acid are the following: Hydochloric Acid (HCL), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Hydriodic acid (HI), Nitric acid (HNO3), Sulfuric acid, (H2SO4), Perchloric acid (HCL04), Periodic acid (HL04). Weak Acids Weak Acids Weak Acids are acids that releases few hydrogen ions in a aqueous solution. Examples of Weak Acids are the following: Acetic acid (CH3COOH), Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), Hydroflouric acid (HF), Nitrous acid (HNO2), Sulfurous acid (H2SO3), Hypochlorous acid (HOCL), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Bases Bases Unlike acids, which are usually liquids or gases, many common bases are solids. Solutions of bases are slippery to the touch, but touching bases is an unsafe way to identify them. Strong Bases Strong Bases Strong Bases are bases that ionizes completely in a solvent. Examples for Strong Bases are the following: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Potassium hyrdroxide (KOH), Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, Barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), and Sodium Phosphate (Na3PO4). Weak Bases Weak Bases Weak Bases are bases that releases few hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions. Examples of Weak Bases are the following: Ammonia (NH3), Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3), Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3), Aniline (C6H5NH2), and Trimethylamine (CH3)3N). Acidity, Basicity, and pH Acidity, and Basicity, and pH Water is both an acid and a base. This means that a water molecule can either give or receive a proton. For example when their are a pair of water molecules ---> (H2OCL)+ (H2OCL)---> (H3O) (aq)+ (OH) (aq). A pair of water molecules are in equilibrium with two ions- a hyrdronium ion and a hydroxide ion- in a reaction known as the selfionization of water. Thus, even pure water contains ions. When the concentration of (H3O) goes up, the concentration of (OH) goes down, and vice versa. An equilibrium- a constant expression relates the concentration of species involved in an equilibrium. The relationship for the water equilibrium is simply (H3O+) + (OH-)= Keq. This equilibrium constant is called the self-ionization constant of water. Its so important that it has its own special symbol,Kw. The product of these two ion concentration is always constant. The concentration of hydroxide ions in a solution expresses its bascicity. pH determines how basic or acidic something is. When acidity and basicity are exactly balanced such that the numbers of the (H3O+) and (OH-) ions are equal, we say that the solution is neutral. For an example, pure water is neutral because it contains equal amounts of the two ions. Certain dyes known as indicators, turn different colors in solutions of diferent pH. Neutralization and Titrations Neutrailization and Titrations When a solution has a high (H3O+) concentration, it high enough to react with and dissolve metals. High concentrations of (H3O+) (aq) and (OH-) (aq) cannot co-exist. Most of these ions have reacted with each other in a process known as a neutralization reaction. When solutions of a strong acid and a strong base, having exactly equal amounts of (H2O+) (aq) and (OH-) (aq) ions are mixed, almost all of the hydronium and hydroxide ions react to form water. The reaction is described by the equation: (H3O+) (aq) + (OH-) (aq) ---> (2H20Cl). The game reaction happens regardless of the identities of the strong acid and strong base. After hydrochloric acid neutralizes a solution of sodium hydroxide, the only solutes remaining are (Na+) (aq) and (Cl-) (aq). When the water is evaporated, a small amount of sodium chloride crystals. If an acidic solution is added gradualy to a basic solution, at some point the neutralization reaction ends because the hydroxide ions becomes used up. This process is called equivalence point. The gradual addition of one solution to another to reach an equivalence point is called a Titration. The purpose of a titration is to determine the concentration of an acid or a base. Titrant is used to measure the volume of the alkaline solution. To find the concentration of the solution being titrated, you must of course, already have the concentration of the titrant. A solution whose concentration is already known is called a standard solution. All indicators have a transition cage. In this range the indicator is partly in its basic form. The instand at which the indicator changes color is the end point of the titration. If an appropriate indicator is chosen, the end point and the equivalence point wiil be the same. Equilibria of weak Acids and Bases Equilibira of weak acids and bases Formic acid is a typical Bronstec- lowry acid, able to donate a proton to a base, such as the acetate ion, CH3COO. The name

Chemistry Powerpoint

Transcript: More Stable - Ions are easily formed eactions LIGAND SUBSTITUTION - is a reaction in which one ligand in a complex ions is replaced by another ligand. The ligand that is replaced in most ligand substitution is water molecules. COMMON LIGANDS :OH - hydroxide (-1) :CN - cyanide (-1) :SCN - Thiocyanate (-1) :Cl - Chloride (-1) :NH3 - Ammonia (neutral) :OH2 - Water (neutral) First Reaction The water particles in the aqueous copper (II) ions dissociate and hydrogen gas is produced. A pale blue precipitate is formed Second Reaction The excess ammonia is acting as a ligand and kicks off four of the waters. A dark bue solution is formed. Concentrated hydrochloric is added to an aqueous solution containing cobalt (II) ions. Aqueous cobalt (II) ions are pale pink in colour and when hydrochloric acid it turns to a dark blue solution. The HCl replaces six water molecules in the complex ions are replaced by four chloride ions. The reaction is reversible and can be represent in a equilibrium equation. Definition: (Equilibrium) Left Ligand Substitution is the equilibrium constant for an equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone a ligand substitution. Stability Constant Aqueous Copper(II) ions and Hydrochloric Acid Right R Concentrated hydrochloric is added to an aqueous solution containing copper (II) ions. The solution starts off at pale blue solution, initially forms a green solution before finally turning yellow. The reaction exists in equilibrium and can be reversed by adding water to the yellow solution to return to its original colour blue. It turns green when there is equal concentrations of both aqueous copper(II) ions and concentrated HCl. High Stability constant Low Stability Constant Aqueous Cobalt(II) ions and Hydrochloric Acid LIGANDS SUBSTITUTION AND STABILITY CONSTANTS Explain what is meant by ligand substitute giving two examples that are accompanied by a color change and including equations in your answer. Aqueous Copper(II) ions and Ammonia

Chemistry Powerpoint

Transcript: Propane can exist as a liquid and a gas. In its most natural state, it is clear, odorless, colorless, and non-toxic. When it turns into a gas it becomes bubbly. Think of it this way, water is liquid and steam is water vapor. Fun Fact: *Propane is the 3rd most popular gas used in vehicle transportation* What its used for? Propane iiii Propane Explosions Looks Like? *Commercial odorant is added so it can be detected if it leaks from it's container* Propane mixed with butane is mainly used as vehicle fuel. Propane mixed with air can start a flame. Propane starts out as a liquid then turns into a gas when it is exposed to air which causes it to ignite. Propane undergoes combustion reactions in a similar fashion to other alkanes. In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide. *Propane is flammable when mixed with air (oxygen) and can be ignited* Where its found? How it got named? The risk with the gas comes at high levels of exposure where the propane has displaced enough oxygen to cause asphyxia. Asphyxia is where the body cannot acquire enough oxygen and could lead to death. In liquid form, the risk is that exposure will cause frostbite on your skin. Fun Fact: Propane is usually found mixed with natural gas and petroleum deposits in rocks deep underground. Propane is called a fossil fuel because it was formed millions of years ago from the remains of tiny sea animals and plants. Reactions Formula Propane is used as fuel for furnaces for heat, in cooking as an energy source for water heaters, laundry dryers, barbecues, portable stoves, and motor vehicles The "prop-" root found in "propane" and names of other compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from the origin "propionic acid" *Propane helps to reduce ozone depletion. It has the ability to replace chlorofluorocarbon & hydro fluorocarbon refrigerants* Effects: Chemical Compound: Who Discovered? Fun Fact: Fun Fact Propane wasn't discovered till 1912 when Dr. Walter Snelling was directing a series of experiments for the U.S. Bureau of Mines, he discovered that several evaporating gases could be changed into liquids and stored at moderate pressure. Dr. Snelling developed a way to "bottle" the wet (liquid) gas. One year later, the commercial propane industry began heating American homes.

Chemistry Powerpoint

Transcript: Chemical properties describe how things react Physical properties describe smell, sight, feeling etc Isotope: atoms of same element with a different number of neutrons Quantum Numbers Step 2: Start by energy level Ions: atom of an element with a charge Never use "mono" for first element in molecule The Periodic Table Polar and Polar mix Polar: when one side completely pulls Binary Salt Ionization Energy: amount of energy required to remove an electron Step 1: Identify how many electrons -One element after "H" -Add hydro- prefix -Ends in -ate, change ending to -ic N, L, Ml, Ms Ionic Bonds Step 1. Assume 100 grams Mixtures: -Homogenous: same throughout; consistent -Heterogenous: Different throughout; inconsistent Chemical and Physical Changes The Quantum Numbers Valence Shell: outer most shell of electron Protons: positive Electrons: negative Neutrons: neutral -When an ionic bond occurs, net charge should equal 0 J.J Thomson's experiment proved there was a negative charge within atom with help of the decotho ray experiment (I spelled "decotho" wrong) Rutherford discovered the the nucleus and protons with the gold-foil experiment Sub-atomic particles: protons, neutrons, electrons Core electrons: all electrons not in valence shell Non-polar: when everything pulls the same Steps Polyatomic Acid Dalton's Atomic Theory 1. All substances are made up of tiny particles called atoms 2. Nothing is smaller than an atom 3. Atoms of the same element are identical 4. Law of Conservation of Mass: matter cannot be neither created nor destroyed 5. Law of Constant Composition: all molecules of same compound are made of same ratio of element 2. Identify the anion and give its name, but change ending to -ide Ionic and Covalent Bonds Discoveries 5. Use mass of empirical formulas and given mole mass to identify molecular formula Use Latin prefixes Step 4. Simplify ratio by dividing by samllest number Electronegativity: attractedness of an atom to an electron; increases left to right on P.T Empirical Formulas: simplest ratio of elements in compounds Monoatomic Acid Hector Bocanegra Period 2 -Occurs with nonmetals and metals Non-polar and non-polar mix Atomic Radius: size of atom; distance from valence shell Types of Reactions -Occur when there is a large amount of difference in negativity Nonmetal + nonmetal Nomenclature -N: energy level -L: orbital -Ml: orientation -Ms: spin Covalent Bonds Sub-Atomic Particles History of Atom Polarity Electronegativity Molecular Formulas: the exact composition of a compound -Exist in nonmetal and nonmetal Solids -definite shape and definite volume Liquids -definite shape and indefinite volume Gas -indefinite shape and indefinite volume Empirical and Molecular Formulas Polar substances will always be uneven -Ends in -ite, change ending to -ous Step 2. Convert to moles Step 3. Write a ratio of elements -Octet Rule: valence shell should have 8 electrons Not all physical changes are permanent Color is a physical property; a CHANGE in color is a chemical 1. Identify the cation and give its full name Compounds and Molecules Acid Nomenclature Orbitals exist for every energy level, but only some exist on each energy level Electron Configuration - Made when ions are shared (electron) Synthesis- puts together Decomposition- separates Precipitation- combination of 2 liquids to a solid Single-Replacement- one swap Double-Replacement- two swaps Combustion- fire/explosion Redox- change in charge, one molecule steals an electron Nomenclature "Like dissolves Like" Element: cannot be broken down further a. If no charge is given, number of electrons=number of protons When element starts with vowel, drop "a" in prefix - In order to represent how covalent compounds are structured, we use a system called the Lewis Dot Structure Chemistry PowerPoint

Chemistry PowerPoint

Transcript: -Born/Death/Age Died/Nationality -Born 384 BC in Stageira, Chalcidice. And died 322 BC in Euboea at the age of 61 or 62.) -Aristotle was a Greek Philosopher and Polymath. -Contributions To Science -Aristotle proposed the fifth element of "Aether," which consists of celestial bodies and stars, along with the already established other four elements of: Earth, Water, Air, and Fire. -Aristotle defined motion as "The actuality of a potentiality as such." -Aristotle was one of the first people to make a way to classify living things. -Born/Died/Death Age/Nationality -Born 460 BC in Abdera, Thrace. Died 370 BC at the age of 90. -Democritus was an Ancient Greek Philosopher. -Contributions To Science -Came up with the Theory that everything is made up of "atoms" with Leucippus. -Proposed the earliest views on the shapes and connectivity of atoms. -Has a type of atom named after him. The Democritean atom. -The democritean atom is an inert solid that interacts with other atoms mechanically. Democritus Democritus Powerpoint By: Jear Bear (: Democrites & Aristotle Aristotle Aristotle -Interesting Life Facts!! -Aristotle wrote many books over the subjects of Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theater, Music, Logic, Rhetoric, Linguistics, Politics, Government, Ethics, Biology, and Zoology. -Taught Alexander The Great and was a student of Plato. -Interesting Life Facts -Most of his discoveries/contributions to science were with his mentor Leucippus. -Formulated the Atomic Theory for the world.

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