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Epipedobates Tricolor

Transcript: The Poison Size: 2-3 cm Diet - small arthropods, including insects like fruit flies and ants. A high majority is of Pumiliotoxin-containing ants (1). Location - Forests of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru (2). Life Cycle - Eggs hatch and the male frog brings the tadpoles to the water where they grow into adult frogs. Family Tree - Animalia Chordata Amphibians Anura (Frogs) Dendrobatidae (Poisonous Frogs) Epipedobates Tricolor Defensive Weapon - The phantasmal poison frog secretes an alkaloid from its skin. The frog accumulates the alkaloids from the many ants that it eats. It will only produce its poison if fed the right ants in captivity. Frogs that are captured maintain poison levels for years (1). The poison is called epibatidine, named in honor of the frog. If an organism brushes the frog, the poison will be absorbed in through the skin. The LD50 of epibatidine is .4 µg, which is 200x more potent than morphine 1. Saporito, R., Garraffo, H. M., Donnelly, M., Edwards, A., Longino, J., & Daly, J. (2004, May 5). Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs. Retrieved from 2. Poison frogs: Dendrobatidae - phantasmal poison frog (epipedobates tricolor). (n.d.). Retrieved from 1. Strong, S. (1998, May 1). Altering chemistry: Epibatidine a novel alkaloid. Retrieved from This means that .4 µg is enough to kill 50% of a population (3). Natural History Histrionicotoxin is very similar to epibatidine Phantasmal Poison Frog 1. Daly, J., Secunda, S., Garraffo, H., Spande, T., Wisnieski, A., & Cover, J. (1994, June 6). An uptake system for dietary alkaloids in poison frogs (dendrobatidae). Retrieved from 2. Strong, S. (1998, May 1). Altering chemistry: Epibatidine a novel alkaloid. Retrieved from 3. Louissaint, P. (2008, September 18). Epibatidine: Nature’s pain reliever. Retrieved from Mode of Action (2) (1) Lets learn about this little fella. Epibatidine binds to a neuronal nicotinic receptors in the brain. This desensitizes the receptor from receiving any of the natural ligand, acetyl choline (1). This effectively shuts down the muscle control system and paralyzes the victim, leading to die of asphyxiation. Accidental poisonings of humans are treatable by putting them on a ventilator until the effects of the poison wear off. There is no medical uses of epibatidine, but a compound that was synthesized from it called ABT - 594 is being tested for a pain relieving medicine (1). Epipedobates Tricolor

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