Transcript: Fungi Dylan Mark Kendy Maddy is in a traditonal taxonomic system, a kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that get food by breaking down organic matter and absorbing the nutrients, reproduce by means of spores, and have no means of movements Some types of fungi are... Saprophytes -Important scavengers in ecosystems. -Along with bacteria, fungi are important in recycling Carbon, Nitrogen, and essential mineral nutrients - Use non-living organic material. Parasites -Use organic material from living organisms harming them in some way. - Range of hosts: From single celled diatoms to fungi to plants to animals to humans Mutualists - Fungi that have a mutualistically beneficial relationship with other living organisms. -Mycorrhize: associations of fungi with plants roots -Lichens: associationd of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria Characteristics Like plants: _ They grow on soil -They have a cell wall Unlike plants: -They do not go through photosynthesis, getting the energy from dead organisms. -They do not have chloroplasts How are fungi beneficial? -Used for medicine like pencillin. -Also used for pest control -Mushrooms, either grown or some in the wild, are edible Reproduction Sexual ALL sexual fungi cycles consist of... A) Plasmogomy- Cell fusion B) karyogamy- Nuclear fusion C) Meiosis Asexual -Most common asexual reproduction is by spores (a general term for dissemination and resting structures in fungi. - All, or most, of these features are used for identifying the genera and species -Fungal spores exhibit a wide variability in color, surface sculpturing, size, shape, number of cells, cell arrangement Fungi
Transcript: Fungi By Spencer Guilmain Cell Structure Tiny Unicellular Yeast. Large Multicellular Fungi. Reproducting 2 Types Asexal Cells at the tips of the hyphae divide to forms spores. The spores grow into fungi that are genetically identical to the parent. Or Sexal The hyphae of the two fungi grow together and genetic material is exchange. Obtaining Food They are heterotrophs they do not take food. They grow into a food source Digestive chemicals ooze from the hyphae into the food now they can eat it. They are in the club, sac and the zygote fungi. The End Classification
Transcript: FUNGI (Fungus) Any of a group of unicellular, multicellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, etc. How does it exchange gases for energy? Most wastes being water soluble simply diffuse from the hyphae into the environment Nutritionally they are heterotrophic, they digest food outside the body and absorb it. Many are saprophytes (living off of dead material), or parasites (living off of a live host) and some are mutualistic (living with another organism and helping it out). -There were no fossils of fungi dating back more than 10,000 years until a scientist recently found a mushroom encased in tree sap that is many millions of years old! -You can make beautiful colors by boiling wild mushrooms and dipping cloth in the resulting broth. -Some mushrooms produce compounds that fight cancer! -In the United States, there are about 5,000 types of mushrooms. Of these, about 100 are responsible for most of the cases of mushroom poisoning. Specific Cladogram Interesting Facts How does it acquire energy? Fungi reproduce by releasing large numbers of microscopic spores. (Spores are haploid single cells with thick cell walls that function as the dispersal stage in the reproduction of fungi). When conditions are favorable they can germinate and grow into new fungi. Most fungi produce spores asexually by mitosis at the tips of specialized hyphae from which they come are haploid. By producing sexually the haploid hyphae from different mycelia fuse together and combine their genetic material eventually they undergo meiosis. Diverse Forms of Fungi How does it move? Mushroom Camouflage, they adapt to the structure of their environment. Trichoderma How does it reproduce? No, since fungi are plants, they do not have brains or a nervous system. Mushroom Most fungi are filamentous—cylindrical cells are attached end-to-end to form a hypha. *Hypha- the thread-like filament produced by a fungus. Zygotes: Mold that grows on fungi. Mostly terrestrial and live in soil or on decaying plant and animal material. Sac Fungi: They produce their spores, called ascospores, in special pods or sac-like structures called asci. Club Fungi: mostly the fungi that is sold in stores. They are named for their club shape and spore-producing structure. They are also main decomposers of wood and other plant material. Fungi can be found in many different environments. Fungi will grow on almost anything. Fungi can be found outside in forests, gardens and even in your own backyard. Fungi thrive in moist, tropical environments, but they can live in many different types of environments. They don't contain chlorophyll to produce their own food, so they absorb minerals, sugar, and water from where they live. Hyphae Giant Mushroom Cladogram How does it move materials within? Where do Fungi Grow? What are some of its survival strategies & adaptations? How does it get rid of waste materials? Fungi are basically static. But they can spread either by forming reproductive spores that are carried on wind and rain or by growing and extending their hyphae, hyphae are chains of fungus cells. Fungi can not move by themselves. Exchange of gases is done by simple diffusion (passive transport) of gases through the outer membrane. By decomposing, During the process of decomposing matter, fungi returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. When decomposing a compound, you are performing a chemical reaction that breaks down the compound into its component parts. After a compound is decomposed, it no longer contains the same chemical properties as it did before. Where does it live? Does it have a “brain”? What is the basic body plan of fungi?
Transcript: Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. have no known sexual state, lost the ability to reproduce sexually "Dyeing 101: The Chemistry of Fibers â Soy, Milk, Chitin, Etc." The Roving Gnome RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. Ganoderma lucidum have sexual spores that are borne externally on a club-shaped structure. •Ascomycota Zygomycota-common molds Telegraph Media Group Limited , . Fairy Rings . 2012. RHS Advisory TeamWeb. 9 Dec 2012. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/gardeningadvice/6194037/What-to-do-about-fairy-rings-and-lawn-mushrooms.html>. "Science at FMNH -- Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Fungi." TheFeildMuseum, 26 2011. web. 9 Dec 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch? Description of DIfferent Phyla "Ganoderma Tsugae." Messiah College. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. <http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Ganoderma%20tsugae.htm>. "Ganoderma Lucidum." Reishi Mushroom References. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. FUNGI Work Cited "Mycology â All You Need to Know." Mycology All You Need to Know. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2012. HOW MUSHROOMS CAN SAVE THE WORLD Sexually: •Haploid cells that have a single set of chromosomes, contain genetic material ZYGOSPORE: produces haploid spores that are genetically unique Four major phyla of Fungi based on the method of producing sexual spores Introduction/summary spores: Ganoderma lucidumWhen fungi grows Ganoderma lucidummost of it is undGanoderma lucidumerground with onlganoderma applanatumy a tiny bit of it bganoderma applanatumeing, the part you see above ground. It is interesting to know that fungi are more closely related to animals and humans then plants. They are a heterotrophic organism just like us, because almost all of them need to get oxygen from the environment. They are also decomposers because they recycle the nutrients for plants. Most are multicellular, and they move cytoplasm from one cell to another through the cell wall. Fungi is at risk because the symbiotic relationship they have with plants can be ruined because of climate change and pollution destroying them. Eukaryotic (a more complex cell type and the cell contains hereditary material and has a nucleus surrounded by membrane) Cell walls contain chitin (a chemical present in this type of organism made up of a hydrolysis reaction combined with carbohydrates and nitrogen) this acts as a vital and protective component of the exoskeleton Multicellular (more than one type of cell is present within) , except for yeast Heterotrophic an organism that relies on organic materials or other organisms for food, to live and grow Main body composed of hyphae (an element of the mycelium which is any vegative component of the fungus such as the leaf or stem) Sexual and asexual reproduction (meaning the way it reproduces may or may not involve the gametes) •Basidiomycota Reproduction: Ganoderma Applanatum Ex: "Fungi Imperfecti" Conrad, Jim. "The Many Kinds of Fungi." The Backyard Nature. N.p., 15 2011. Web. 9 Dec 2012. Asexually: FUNGI Ex: Club Fungi lackwell, Meredith, Rytas Vilgalys, Timothy Y. James, and John W. Taylor. 2012. Fungi. Eumycota: mushrooms, sac fungi, yeast, molds, rusts, smuts, etc.. Version 30 January 2012. http://tolweb.org/Fungi/2377/2012.01.30 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/ complex difference in lifestyle and genetic makeup environmental conditions trigger leads to dispersion of spores Reproductive Methods EX: Common Molds Ganoderma Tsugae asexual with flagellated spores and display a posterior flagella (a tail like structure). They are the primitive fungi and are mostly aquatic 2 different sexes + or - haploids fuse together to make diploid now 2 sets of chromosomes one from one parent increases genetic diversity fungi can adapt to environment changes now Characteristics Of Fungi BY: Diana, Sam, Jess, Megan, Sara :) Work Cited Nomenclature of Sample Organisms Work Cited Ex: Chyrids REDNECK fungus among us . 2010. Web. 9 Dec 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eT-NXPRRFA>. "Ganoderma Applanatum." Messiah College. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Dec. 2012. <http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/poroid%20fungi/species%20pages/Ganoderma%20applanatum.htm>. Work Cited Sexual reproduction involving the formation of a zygospore. N.d. Sinauer Associates, WH FreemanWeb. 9 Dec 2012 •Chytridiomycota largest group of fungi. Sexual spores borne internally in a sac called an ascus, but can also be external. Found in freshwater, marine, etc. piece of hyphae breaks off or it will release spores reproodutcive cells are tough spores can produce hyphae or yeast can withstand long periods of freexing or dry conditions. Mostly , living in soil or on decaying animal and plant material as they act as decomposers. Fungi is one of the most interesting kingdoms, and that is exactly why we chose to do our presentation on it. An interesting fact is that our province Ontario is the mushroom capital of Canada. Fungi usually grow in a ring pattern
Transcript: Living things are organized for study into large, basic groups called kingdoms. Fungi were listed in the Plant Kingdom for many years. Then scientists learned that fungi show a closer relation to animals, but are unique and separate life forms. Fungi are now placed in their own Kingdom fungi, Bibliography Fungi v fungi Fungi and fungi mean different things. The lower case 'fungi' is a general word that refers to organisms that all look and act the same, but are not all related. This group is artificial and includes moulds, yeasts, mushrooms, slime moulds, and water moulds. On the other hand, 'Fungi', with a capital 'F', refers to the evolutionary group Which includes most of the best known 'fungi': moulds, yeasts, and mushrooms, but not slime moulds or water moulds. Because all of these organisms superficially resemble each other and all do similar things, they were They were placed in the same kingdom within the lower plants, including mosses, liverworts, and ferns, for a very long time. Fungi can be found in just about any habitat, from sea water to freshwater, in soil, on plants and animals, on human skin and they can even growing on the bread you eat! Kingdom Fungi are Not Plants Not closely related to plants. Unicellular or multicellular Absorb food: secrete enzymes to digest complex molecules Propagate by spores Asexual or sexual reproduction Haploid Can be multinucleated http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/fungi.html http://herbarium.usu.edu/fungi/funfacts/kingfact.htm http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/fungi/about http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Fungus http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-225968/fungus http://www.answers.com/Q/Do_fungus_have_skeleton www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/fungi/habitats.htm http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Myxomycota/Introduction.htm http://www.wou.edu/~guralnl/101Fungi.pdf Special Features Achlorophyllous: Fungi cannot make their own food like plants. They are heterotrophs which means they have to rely on other organisms for their carbon source. Fungi can be found in just about any habitat, from sea water to freshwater, in soil, on plants and animals, on human skin and they can even growing on the bread you eat! Amber & Angel The Kingdom Fungi are decomposers they break down dead organisms, and they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. They also gain nutrients from living and dead organisms that they grow on. They suck up simple dissolved nutrients, for examples sugars, through their cell walls. Fungi are a diverse kingdom, with members from the familiar mushrooms you eat to brewer's yeasts, the mould that grows on rotting fruit and the infection that causes athlete's foot. Fungi are found in every habitat, although they play a bigger role in land ecosystems than in water ones. Habitat How it Gains Energy Fungi
Transcript: Summarise briefly the ecology and epidemiology of infectious fungi James Gutsell survives in environment (pigeons, eucalyptus) cutaneous Cell membrane chronic lung disease primary vs. opportunisitic Mycoses Cell wall rhinitis (infections) inhibit 1,3- glucan synthase Cryptococcus no living tissue no cellular response asthma pyrimidine analogue, inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis FUNGAL DISEASE host response to biproducts any questions? LEARNING OBJECTIVES FROM MCD traumatic inplantation Aspergillus Allergies (due to spores) systemic Later: hepatic and renal failure major risk factors: neutropenia, transplants (esp lung and HSCT), leukaemia, AIDS Define "superficial mycoses" and "deep mycoses", with examples lack chloroplasts normal host Azoles List the major groups of pathogenic fungi and their growth forms dermatitis cavitatory lung disease Fungal characteristics cell walls comprising glucans and chitin Increasing due to; Cutaneous Mycoses asthma Early: breathing problems, D&V, dehydration Cryptococcus spores examples; black and white piedra pityriasis versicolor Tinea nigra ABPA eat keratin contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles More ICU admissions Candida DNA/RNA synthesis Echinocandins (ergosterol cf cholesterol) Candida Polyenes Aspergillus Mycotoxicoses new Ab/Ag asssays - glucan, mannan etc aspergilloma range of disease dependent on host response gut surgery, chemo and catheters Indwelling lines/devices Fungal disease multicellular filamentous fungi (not yeast!) HIV/AIDS dermatophytes / keratinophilic fungi Aspergillus Histoplasma, Blastomyces etc ABPA chronic necrotising aspergillosis Describe briefly the main classes of antifungal agents Take a swab/blood/CSF Culture it Microscopy PCR Caspofungin nothing! chronic skin and subcut infection tinea... Anything ending in 'zole'... Ketoconazole Itraconazole Fluconazole Voriconazole immunocompromise inflammation Outline the main differences between fungi and bacteria some are dimorphic (yeast or hyphae) Thank you, E.g. penicillin and aphlatoxin Diagnosis cell membrane contains ergosterol versatile with respect to environment diverse morphology Systemic Mycoses Allergies Mycotoxicoses (poisoning) Mycoses (infections) spore dispersal superficial C. albicans = opportunistic commensal RARE Amphoteracin B Nystatin Sporotrichosis Chromoblastomycosis Mycetoma most lethal infection in AIDS (meningitis) Others! immunocompromise Subcutaneous Mycoses Anti-fungals Flucytosine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis Mycotoxin: "secondary metabolites of moulds that exert toxic effects on animals and humans" Superfical Mycoses superficial, mucosal and systemic infection C. neoformans = encapsulated yeast (other species too) very high mortality (epecially in sub-Saharan Africa) Organ/haem transplants A. fumigatus = 90% disease skin or nail shafts increasing severity capitis = head pedis = foot corporis = body cruris = groin unguium = nail
Transcript: huddle Mrs. Rossi huddle to crowd together crowd huddle separate
Transcript: Fungi Traits by Aaron Levreault Obtain Food Heterotrophs Absorb food through hyphae Grows hephae to food source Digestive chemicals ooze from hephae Chemicles breack food down to be absorbed Some feed on dead orginisms Some are parasytes that break down the chemicles in orginisms Cell Structure Range from size From tiny unicelluar yeast To large multicellular fingi Hyphae thread like tube that make the bodies of multi cellular fungi some are continuing threads of cytoplasym cantaining nuclei What fungi look like depend on Hyphae Fungi Reproduction Asexually Reproduction without a mate Sexually Reproduction with a mate Classification 3 Major groups of fungi Club, Sac and Zygote Classified by apperance of reproductive structures Additional Groups Include water species that produce spores THE END
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