Transcript: Origins The Supreme Court started with the Judiciary Act of 1789. It was created to interpret laws and make sure no one broke them and got away with it. The act said that there would be a Supreme Court made up of one Chief Justice and some Associate Justices. The number of Associate Justices changed from time to time until it was finally decided in 1869 that there would be nine. The first Chief Justice was John Jay from New York. The first Associate Justices were: John Rutledge, William Cushing, James Wilson, John Blair, and James Iredell. The first case the Supreme Court had wasn't until 1792 because until then the specifics on powers were still being decided. 1930 In 1930, the Supreme Court said that U.S. Steel, a really big company, big enough to be a monopoly, didn't break the anti-trust laws since it did have competition, though only a little. 1935 In 1935, the Supreme Court shut down the National Recovery Administration, saying that it was unconstitutional. 1937 Then, in 1937, the Supreme Court called the National Labor Relations Board unconstitutional and shut it down. Also in 1937, Roosevelt tried to make the Supreme Court bigger and fill it with liberals so he could progress the New Deal faster. Impact on Citizens The Supreme Court didn't really have much of an impact on the people. It did stop some of the programs of the New Deal, but not a lot. It shut down the NRA and the NLRB, which slowed the progression of fair business practices, but that didn't stop the New Deal nor did it make the depression much worse or better. All it did was slow down the New Deal, but it didn't stop it. Present-Day Impact The Supreme Court is still the most powerful court in the U.S. Anything that it says goes, and its judgment is final and not to be questioned once it is made. Whenever there is a highly disputed topic, the Supreme Court always makes the final decision. If there is a case to close for other all other courts to call, it goes to the Supreme Court. That is the Supreme Court's role in our lives today. Scources http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa081400a.htm http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/connections_n2/great_depression.html The Supreme Court Impact on the Great Depression
Transcript: The cases were combined because they all sought desegregation of schools as the remedy of grossly inadequate conditions in segregated black schools Amber Fiedler Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. impact the U.S The vote on Brown v. Board of Education was unanimous, meaning that all nine justices voted the same way. The ruling in the case was written by Earl Warren, who was Chief Justice. The Court bears much of the blame for this. The justices of the mid-1950s came of age at a time when judges routinely struck down federal child labor laws and other progressive legislation, citing dubious theories of the Constitution. Judges Brown v. board of education 1954 Holding major argument Background on brown v board of education Chief Justice Warren delivered the court's opinion, stating that "segregated schools are not equal and cannot be made equal, and hence they are deprived of the equal protection of the laws." This ruling in favor of integration was one of the most significant strides America has taken in favor of civil liberties. Dissenting Harry Briggs was one of twenty plaintiffs who were charging that R.W. Elliott, as president of the Clarendon County School Board, violated their right to equal protection under the fourteenth amendment by upholding the county's segregated education law argument Supreme court powerpoint I think the brown v board of education is the most important case in the u.s because it helped people realize that even if the kids are not white or not black they can still go to school together. Pictures brown v board of education
Transcript: __Supreme Court__ Case is filed and done with. 1.www.supremecourt.gov 2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Court_of_the_United_States 3.http://www.answers.com/topic/supreme-court-of-the-united-states 4.http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts/UnderstandingtheFederalCourts/SupremeCourt.aspx This case is about the supreme court telling the states that the constitution does not apply to any african slaves or decendents. 1803 (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr 1. 1803, Marbory VS. Madison The highest court in the USA Holds cheif justace and 8 assosiated justices. Results In the end madison would have to deliver the commision to Marbury. #1. What are some of the main duties of the supreme court? A: The main duties are to interpet the law and constitution. #2. How does someone become a member of the supreme court? A: The president picks you out then the senate decides yes or no. #3. What does the chief of justice do? A: He/she is the speaker for the judical branch. Ranking member of supreme court wich has no special powers. Is head of the federal court systom. #4. How do they make desicions? A: The president makes the big final decision. #5. What are three big major cases that the supreme court has had? A: 1803 Marbory VS. Madiso, 1819 Mculloch VS. Maryland, 1857 Scott VS. Sandford This case was about how Thomas Jeffersons secratary failed to deliver a document and was sued for it. Resources Audio 1819 (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr STOP! Case #2 (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Double click to crop it if necessary Audio In the end they still dont know what to say about it they just know that it was wrong and shouldnt have happened. 1857 2. 1819, Malloch VS. Maryland By: Research Fun Facts! 3. 1857, Scott VS. Sanford Maryland decided to change a branch in the government. But they didnt like that so the supreme court got involved. Faith Wortherly Otayja Crayton Case #3 Questions Case #1 (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Their calender has special color like red for argument day, blue for no argument day, green conference day, and if its circled then its a holiday. In the end the states were told that they cannot change federal government Cases
Transcript: CITIZENS UNITED V. FEC ARGUED MARCH 24, 2009 REARGUED SEPTEMBER 9, 2009 DECIDED JANUARY 21, 2010 RON PAUL AD http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2008/2008_08_205 WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW PUBLIC REACTION SOLICITOR GENERAL ELANA KAGAN FILED IN THE REARGUMENT TWO ORAL ARGUMENT PRESENTATIONS ON BEHALF OF SENATORS 54 AMICUS BRIEFS 4 FOR NEITHER PARTY 34 FOR CITIZENS UNITED 16 FOR FEC 10 SECOND AD RULING 2010 POLL SHOWED 85% OF AMERICANS OPPOSED THE RULING MONEY POURING INTO POLITICS IN 2012 BALLOT INITIATIVES TO REVERSE THE RULING HAD THE CHANCE TO REVISIT, STRUCK DOWN MONTANA LAW 30 SECOND AD IN 2008, CITIZENS UNITED FILED FOR AN INJUNCTION AGAINST THE FEC CLAIMING THAT BCRA DID NOT APPLY TO THEIR FILM "HILLARY: THE MOVIE" THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DENIED THE INJUNCTION BCRA ALLOWS FOR DIRECT APPEAL TO THE SUPREME COURT AMICUS BRIEFS COURT REVERSED, AFFIRMED, AND REMANDED STEVENS DISSENT POINTED OUT 5 MAIN FLAWS CLEARLY A CONSERVATIVE RULING BACKGROUND OF THE CASE ORAL ARGUMENT AGAINST OBAMA CITIZENS UNITED CLAIMED BCRA VIOLATED THE CONSTITUTION CASE WAS REARGUED PARTIES WERE ASKED TO ADDRESS WHETHER THE COURT SHOULD OVERRULE EITHER OR BOTH AUSTIN AND McCONNELL EXPENDITURE V. CONTRIBUTION HISTORY OF FEDERAL REGULATION ON CAMPAIGN FINANCES BCRA PRECEDENT AUSTIN AND McCONNELL AGAINST ROMNEY
Transcript: About the Supreme Court •Highest court for all legal issues in Canada since 1949 •Decides on Constitutional issues •Acts as the final court for appealing criminal cases •Has become increasingly important since the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms was included in the Canadian Constitution in 1982 •The Members of the Supreme Court •Consists of nine members •All are appointed by the Governor General, under the advice of the Prime Minister •Three members are from Quebec •Three members are from Ontario •One member is from the Maritime provinces •The final two members are from Western Canada Constitutional amendment •The court makes decisions based on precedent and no one can alter the final decision of the Supreme court unless it passes an constitutional amendment •The amending formula: at least seven provinces, which represent at least 50% of the Canadian population, have to approve the amendment •The Supreme court considers three questions when deciding on an appeal: -Did the government or one of its agencies restrict a right or freedom? -Is the right of freedom protected by the Charter? -Was the restriction reasonable under the limits of section 1 (guarantee of rights and freedoms) Fin!!! The Supreme Court, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and Charter Appeals
Transcript: The Supreme Court: United States v. Jones Held that the Fourth Amendment protects a person’s “reasonable expectation of privacy,” A petitioner would be entitled to the suppression of evidence violate of the Fourth Amendment where the Government unlawfully overheard conversations of the petitioner himself, or where the conversations occurred on his premises, whether or not he was present or participated therein. The court ruled that Armstrong had no expectation of privacy in his movements when traveling on public streets and that, because tracking Armstrong consisted primarily of visual surveillance upon such routes, this surveillance did not violate his Fourth Amendment rights. Supreme Court held that the use of the beeper to conduct surveillance on Karo and his accomplices constituted an unlawful search and seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment The court announces its final decision in "opinions of the Court" which states their reasoning. "The Court’s reasoning in this case is very similar to that in the Court’s early decisions involving wiretapping and electronic eavesdropping" Jones has been accused of drug trafficking. States that the officers did not have the right to put a GPS on his car for 28 days, it goes against the Fourth Amendment. The arguments are then presented by each side Nowadays, Judges give only brief summaries of the decision and their opinions. Sometimes, when judges are unusually unhappy with an opinion, judges read portions of their dissenting opinions from the bench. Copies of the Court's opinions are immediately made available to reporters and the public and published in the official United States Supreme Court Reports There has been controversy over what judges consider to be impeding on our fourth amendment right. Chief Judge Alex Kozinski of the federal appeals court in San Francisco wrote that “1984 may have come a bit later than predicted, but it’s here at last". Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis of the Federal District Court in Brooklyn turned down a government request for 113 days of location data from cellphone towers, citing “Orwellian intrusion” So the case was sent to Supreme Court. US v. Jones Majority voted to hear the case. Began November 8, 2011 Justice Alito - the Amendment should be understood as prohibiting “every unjustifiable intrusion by the government upon the privacy of the individual.” Granting Appeals Explaining the Decision Holding the Oral Argument Writing the Opinion Katz v. United States Alderman v. United States United States v. Knotts United States v. Karo Alone, the Nine justices state their opinions and reasoning, and then come up with a decision based on majority. Meeting in Conference Both sides of the case prepare arguments which may relate to previous cases: Briefing The Case http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/11pdf/10-1259.pdf Reviewing Appeals Justice Sotomayor - "the Government obtains information by physically intruding on a constitutionally protected area.” Using a GPS goes against the Fourth Amendment It was a reasonable search In the case of Katz v. United States, it was said that the Fourth Amendment protects a person’s“reasonable expectation of privacy” Case of Knotts v. United States, “‘[a] person traveling in an automobile on public thoroughfares has no reasonable expectation of privacy in his movements from one place to another.’ ” The Fourth Amendment protects the “right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures.” The government's physical intrusion on an "effect" for the purpose of attaining information constitutes a "search". This type of encroachment on an area enumerated in the Amendment would have been considered a search within the meaning of the Amendment at the time it was adopted. Final Outcome: 5 to 4 vote that it went against the Fourth Amendment Releasing the Opinion Rule of Four At least four of the nine justices have to vote in favor of the case for it to be heard "The Court concludes, the installation and use of the GPS device constituted a search."
Transcript: Verdict Issue: Question being asked to the supreme court for it to decide Does the first amendment protect a public school students right to free speech even though it could be vulgar in nature Arguements Of Each Side: How did they not violate their rights? Matthew Fraser Matthew Fraser contended that the suspension violated his First Amendment rights b/c his speech caused no disruption of school activities within the meaning of Tinker. Amendment 1: Speech, Press, and Assembly Arguements of Each Side:How was their rights violated? Erliscia Jones, Amira Grice, Symone Holliday Bethel High School The decsion narowed the Tinker rule and clarified the right of schools to place limits on lewd, obsence, or offensive speech 7 votes for Bethel High School , 2 votes against The court found that it was appropriate for the school to prohibit the use o vulgar and offensive language Background At a school assembly of approximately 600 high school students, Matthew Fraser made a speech nominating a student for elective ofice. In his speech, Fraser used what some observers believed was a graphic sexual metaphor to promote the candidancy of his friend. As a part of the disciplinary code, Bethel High School enforced a rule prohibiting conduct which "substantially interferes with the educational process.... including the use of obscene, profane language or gestures."Fraser was suspended from school for two days. Bethel School District #403 vs. Fraser (1986) Importance The supreme court found that Fraser use of vulgar and offensive language in a political speech is not protected by the first amendment of free speech because it contradicted the values of he public school system, so they had the right to punish Fraser.
Transcript: American Insurance Association v. Garamendi In 1999 the California legislature enacted the Holocaust Victim Insurance Relief Act (HVIRA) in an attempt to facilitate Holocaust-era insurance claims by California residents. The Act required all insurance companies doing business in California that sold policies to people in Europe between 1920 and 1945 to make public all of those policies, including the names of policy owners and the status of the policies. A group of insurance companies and a trade organization sued, saying that only the federal government, with its jurisdiction over commerce and foreign affairs, had the right to enact such legislation. They also said the law violated the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the U.S. Constitution because the companies, if they failed to comply, could lose their insurance licenses. The District Court ruled for the insurance companies; the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals reversed. Everson v Board of Education A New Jersey law allowed reimbursements of money to parents who sent their children to school on buses operated by the public transportation system. Children who attended Catholic schools also qualified for this transportation subsidy. 1946 Did the New Jersey statute violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment as made applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment? No. A divided Court held that the law did not violate the Constitution. After detailing the history and importance of the Establishment Clause, Justice Black argued that services like bussing and police and fire protection for parochial schools are "separate and so indisputably marked off from the religious function" that for the state to provide them would not violate the First Amendment. The law did not pay money to parochial schools, nor did it support them directly in anyway. It was simply a law enacted as a "general program" to assist parents of all religions with getting their children to school. Question Conclusion Did California's passage of the HVIRA interfere with the federal government's sovereignty over foreign affairs established by Article I of the Constitution? Facts of the Case Question Facts of the Case Legal provision: Article 2, Section 1: Executive Power Yes (5-4) California's HVIRA interferes with the president's ability to conduct the nation's foreign policy and is therefore preempted. They decided that it was not within the state's power to deal with foreign relations, and there was actually a concflict with HVIRA and the presiden'ts foreign policy. Conclusion
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