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Transcript: *The job of the speedometer is to indicate the speed of your car in miles per hour, kilometers per hour or both. TWO TYPES: 1) Mechanical In a mechanical speedometer, a rotating cable is attached to a set of gears in the automobile's transmission. This cable is directly attached to a permanent magnet in the speedometer assembly, which spins at a rate proportional to the speed of the vehicle. As the magnet rotates, it manipulates an aluminum ring, pulling it in the same direction as the revolving magnetic field; the ring's movement, however, is counteracted by a spiral spring. Attached to the aluminum ring is the pointer, which indicates the speed of the vehicle by marking the balance between these two forces. As the vehicle slows, the magnetic force on the aluminum ring lessens, and the spring pulls the speedometer's pointer back to zero. 2) Electronic Electronic speedometers are almost universally present in late-model cars. In this type of gauge, a pulse generator (or tach generator) installed in the transmission measures the vehicle's speed. It communicates this via electric or magnetic pulse signals, which are either translated into an electronic read-out or used to manipulate a traditional magnetic gauge assembly. Calibration All speedometers must be calibrated to make sure the torque created by the magnetic field accurately reflects the speed of the car. Calibration must take into account several factors: Ratios of the gears in the drive cable The final drive ratio in the differential and the diameter of the tires. Speedometer Calibration Calibration is the process of determining the true value of spaces in any graduated instrument. It is an especially vital process in the manufacture of speedometers because driver safety is reliant on an accurate readout. In a mechanical gauge, magnetic forces produce the torque that deflects the indicator needle. When calibrating this type of gauge, an electromagnet is used to adjust the strength of the permanent magnet mounted in the speedometer until the needle matches the input from the rotating cable. When calibrating an electronic gauge, adjustments are made when calibration factors are written into the memory of the meter. The system can then refigure the balance between input from the transmission and output of the needle. New automated systems for calibrating both mechanical and electronic speedometers are now available, saving an immense number of the man-hours usually required for this process. Calibration must take into account several factors, including the ratios of the gears in the drive cable, the final drive ratio in the differential and the diameter of the tires. All of these factors affect the overall speed of the vehicle. Take tire size, for example. When an axle makes one complete turn, the tire it's connected to makes one complete revolution. But a tire with a larger diameter will travel farther than a wheel with a smaller diameter. That's because the distance a tire covers in one revolution is equal to its circumference. So a tire with a diameter of 20 inches will cover about 62.8 inches of ground in one revolution. A tire with a diameter of 30 inches will cover more ground -- about 94.2 inches. No speedometer can be 100 percent accurate. In fact, most manufacturers build speedometers so they fall within a fairly narrow tolerance range, no more than 1 percent to 5 percent too slow or too fast. As long as a car is maintained at factory specs, its speedometer should continue to register vehicle speed within this range. But, if a car is modified, its speedometer may need to be recalibrated. Changing tire size is one of the most common things car owners do that can affect speedometer accuracy. That’s because larger tires cover more ground in one complete revolution. Consider the example below. Your car comes with factory-installed tires that are 21.8 inches in diameter. That means the circumference of each tire is 68.5 inches. Now let’s say you want to replace the stock tires with new tires that are 24.6 inches in diameter. Each new tire has a circumference of 77.3 inches, which means it travels almost 10 inches farther with each complete revolution. This has a tremendous affect on your speedometer, which will now indicate a speed that is too slow by almost 13 percent. When your speedometer reads 60 miles per hour, your car will actually be traveling 67.7 miles per hour! Speedometer Detection Limit Detection Limit is the smallest you can measure. When the speedometer is at 0 mph, the car is still going slow but doesn't detect it. Suppliers: Taizhou Yongchang Fittings Factory Of Motorcycle Dongguan Zhengyang Electronic Mechanical Ltd. Shanghai Betung Auto Parts Co., Ltd. The Future of Speedometers One of the big disadvantages of an instrument cluster is its location. A driver must look down to see the dials, which means his eyes are off the road for at least one second. In that one second, the car travels about 46 feet if it's moving at 30 miles per


Transcript: Use and History In modern cars electronic speedometers are becoming more common. These speedometers use a speed sensor rather than a gear to determine the speed of the output shaft. Since this system works through programming already it is easier to create a cruise control setting for it. Mechanical speedometers can be inaccurate on poor road conditions, often when accuracy is required a GPS system is used. By tracking the exact position over time, a GPS speedometer is Significantly more accurate than a traditional mechanical or electric one. Other types: How it works. The name is self explanatory. A speedometer is a device that measures the instantaneous speed of a vehicle. Originally invented in 1902 by Otto Schulze and came optional on early cars. As speed limits were implemented it became more and more important to be aware of the speed you are traveling at making it more and more common to have speedometers standard Now days every kind of transportation has a speedometer and everyone of them works differently. However the original and most common type is a mechanical speedometer, used in most cars on the roads today. Next the rotating motion to the reading on speedometer dial. This is done with with a metal drum that is very close but not in contact with the magnet. As the rotations of the magnet get quicker the attraction of the drum towards it moving the needle of the dial. The needle is also connected to a hair spring that resists as the needle rotates. The moment the force of the drum and spring are equal is when the needle stops moving to give a reading of the speed of the output shaft How A Car Works. (2017). How Speedometers Work. Retrieved March 9, 2017 from Paul Fears. (April 15, 2016). The History of The Speedometer. Retrieved March 10, 2017 from Speedometers: how it works A mechanical speedometer operates through a drive cable connected to the output shaft of the transmission. Inside the gearbox is a pinion gear which rotates with the output shaft and is connected to the drive cable. The drive cable, or the speedometer cable, from the transmission goes to the speedometer itself. Here the cable connects to a magnet that spins following the exact speed and direction as the output shaft. References by Jabrail Salat As long as there are speed limits speedometers will be an important part of society. But how important are speed limits? On a small urban road speed limits have proven useful, giving those who believe they are Schumacher a reason to slow down. But on highways a speedometer can often serve as a distraction when driving. Even with cruise control people always want to be sure of the speed they are traveling at to avoid a ticket. The autobahn is a good example of speed limits not being necessary on all roads. More time looking at the speedometer means less time looking at the road. So speedometers are not necessarily an affective safety precaution. importance in society


Transcript: speedometer how the speedometer works GPS devices are positional speedometers, based on how far the receiver has moved since the last measurement. Its speed calculations are not subject to the same sources of error as the vehicle's speedometer (wheel size, transmission/drive ratios). Instead, the GPS's positional accuracy, and therefore the accuracy of its calculated speed, is dependent on the satellite signal quality at the time. Speed calculations will be more accurate at higher speeds, when the ratio of positional error to positional change is lower. The GPS software may also use a moving average calculation to reduce error. Some GPS devices do not take into account the vertical position of the car so will under report the speed by the road's gradient. video on speedometer As with any emerging technology, the first speedometers were expensive and available only as options. It wasn't until 1910 that automobile manufacturers began to include the speedometer as standard equipment. One of the first speedometer suppliers was Otto Schulze Autometer (OSA), a legacy company of Siemens VDO Automotive AG, one of the leading developers of modern instrument clusters. The first OSA speedometer was built in 1923 and its basic design didn't change significantly for 60 years. In this article, we're going to look at the history of speedometers, how they work and what the future may hold for speedometer design. about the Gps bibliography The dashboard instrument cluster in your car organizes a variety of sensors and gauges, including the oil pressure gauge, coolant temperature gauge, fuel level gauge, tachometer and more. But the most prominent gauge -- and perhaps the most important, at least in terms of how many times you look at it while you're driving -- is the speedometer. The job of the speedometer is to indicate the speed of your car in miles per hour, kilometers per hour or both. Even in late-model cars, it's an analog device that uses a needle to point to a specific speed, which the driver reads as a number printed on a dial. introdution speedometer or a speed meter is a gauge that measures and displays the instantaneous speed of a land vehicle. Now universally fitted to motor vehicles, they started to be available as options in the 1900s, and as standard equipment from about 1910 onwards. [1Speedometers for other vehicles have specific names and use other means of sensing speed. For a boat, this is a pit log. For an aircraft, this is an airspeed indicator. Inventor Nikola Tesla received the first patent for a type of speedometer that was based on a rotating shaft-speed indicator in 1916. But Arthur P. Warner, the original founder of the many incarnations of Warner Electric, claims the rights to the first invention of a speedometer for the automobile. history of the speedometer bibliography wikepidipa www. google images www.‎ Speedometer by samar sondhi 9b introdution what is the speedometer A cars speedometer measures the rate at which the wheels spin, which is correlated to (using an assumed diameter for the tires) a speed over the ground in miles per hour or kilometers per hour. The speedometer only gives direction as "forward" therefore does not truly represent velocity, which is a combination of speed and direction. A common feature of many speedometers (all that I have ever heard of) is an odometer, which measures total distance traveled, a good indication of the wear on the vehicle. pictures on speedometer

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