Transcript: - a genus of tapeworms that includes some important parasites of livestock and are responsible for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans - a ribbon-like body composed of a series of segments called proglottids; hence the name Taenia Taenia sp. Examples Ectoparasites - aka tapeworms - long flat ribbon-like bodies with a single anterior holdfast organ (scolex) and numerous segments - do not have a gut and all nutrients are taken up through the tegument - do not have a body cavity (acoelomate) and are flattened to facilitate perfusion to all tissues. - Segments exhibit slow body flexion produced by longitudinal and transverse muscles. All tapeworms are hermaphroditic and each segment contains both male and female organs. - the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans - contaminated water is the most common mechanism of transmission - Balantidium coli is the only species pathogenic to humans - a genus of amoebae, one of the most common protozoa in soil, and frequently found in fresh water and other habitats - able to form metabolically inactive cysts which are resistant to fluctuations in temperature and pH levels. It is also resistant to attack by the host immune system and facilitate the recurrence of infection Schistosoma sp. Arachnids: - 2 body parts (prosoma or cephalothorax and opisthosoma or abdomen). - cephalothorax has 8 legs arranged in 4 bilateral pairs and arachnids do not have wings or antennae. -Important parasitic assemblages include the ticks and mites which bite into tissues and feed off host fluids. Key terms Balantidium sp. Ascaris sp. Trematode Helminths - small arachnids in the order Parasitiformes that living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians - aka roundworms - long thin unsegmented tube-like bodies with anterior mouths and longitudinal digestive tracts - have a fluid-filled internal body cavity (pseudocoelum) which acts as a hydrostatic skeleton providing rigidity (so-called ‘tubes under pressure’) - use longitudinal muscles to produce a sideways thrashing motion. - adult worms form separate sexes with well-developed reproductive systems. - comes from the Ancient Greek words parasitus which literally means "feeding beside" and logos that means "the study of" - a multidisciplinary subject covering many topics including morphology, taxonomy, biology, behaviour, life-cycles, pathogenesis, epidemiology, ecology, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, as well as the diagnosis, immunology and treatment of infections. - generally Helminths and Protozoans - includes worms and flukes - a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "small intestinal roundworms" - One species, Ascaris lumbricoides, affects humans and causes the disease ascariasis Adult: cylindrical shape, creamy white or pinkish in color Male: average 15–30 cm and is more slender than female Female: average 20–35 cm in length - generally Arthropods - includes insects and arachnids Ticks Parasitology Parasite- an organism that lives in another organism Host- the organism in which the parasite feed upon Types of Parasites: Obligate- can't live w/o the host Facultative- can live w/o the host Three major classifications: Protozoans- single-cell organisms that can't be seen by the naked eye Helminths- multicellular organisms called worms Arthropods- organisms with "jointed arms" Introduction to Parasitology - common name for members of over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera - 3 human disease agents - aka flukes - have small flat leaf-like bodies with oral and ventral suckers and a blind sac-like gut - do not have a body cavity (acoelomate) and are dorsoventrally flattened with bilateral symmetry - exhibit elaborate gliding or creeping motion over substrates using compact 3-D arrays of muscles. Most species are hermaphroditic (individuals with male and female reproductive systems) although some blood flukes form separate male and female adults. Insects: - 3 distinct body parts (the head, thorax and abdomen) - head has 2 antennae - thorax has 6 legs arranged in 3 bilateral pairs. Many insect species also have 2 pairs of wings attached to the thorax. - Parasitic insect species include fleas, flies and lice which actively feed on host tissues and fluids at some stage in their life-cycles. - parasitic flatworms responsible for a highly significant group of infections in humans termed schistosomiasis - Schistosomiasis is considered by the World Health Organization as the second most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease, after malaria Giardia sp. Protozoans Acanthamoeba sp. Endoparasites Cestodes - eukaryotic organisms (with a membrane-bound nucleus) which exist as structurally and functionally independent individual cells (including those species which are gregarious or form colonies) - microscopic organisms, only a few grow to a size large enough to be visible to the naked eye Nematodes - a genus of anaerobic flagellated
Transcript: New Knowledge Before the case, trematodiasis can also have a systemic involvement such endocardial hematoma, seizures, etc. Topic Old Knowledge It is known that the usual presentation of trematodiasis affects only the primary site of infection Topic Impact of the study Topic Food Safety Improvements in food handling guidelines must be implemented in all public food establishment. Food inspections must be done to ensure strict compliance. Topic Health Education Topic LGU can implement health teachings on communities with high cases of food-borne diseases to help them understand the disease and prevent them. Health sectors can add the health teachings to the school curriculum for children to understand the bad effects of consumption to freshwaster fishes. Improvements in approach to food borne diseases in health centers and small clinic To diagnose patients with early symptoms of parasitic infection in the community. To provide proper management and prevent further complications. Topic
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Majority of people infected with D. fragilis can be asymptomatic Parasitology Feces Diarrhea Fatigue Nausea Abdominal pain Vomiting Flatulence Note Mode of Infection No cyst of this parasite have been identified Despite its name, Dientamoeba fragilis is not ameba but a flagellate May be treated with tetracycline or iodoquinol In children metronidazole is often used Case Study #5 Presented BY Treatment Physical characteristics Prime suspect Note Symtoms CPT Hughes took his three-year old- boy to the hospital with symptoms of diarrhea and abdominal cramping. The patient was one of several children in his day care presenting with diarrhea. Stool specimens were collected in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 10% formalin. Wash your hands with soap and warm water after using the toilet, after changing diapers, and before preparing or eating food. Teach children the importance of washing hands to prevent infection. Preventative measures Specimen of coice Scenerio The fecal-oral route Poor hygiene Ingestion of the pinworm eggs (IE Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides) May contain one or more nuclei but it's more common to see two No external flagella so the motility may be sluggish The trophozoite measures 8 to15 micrometers Each nucleus may consist of three to five karyosome Does retain certain ameoba movements by pseudopods with serrated edges PO3 (FMF) Lugo, SPC Lopez, SN Olivera, SN Presgrove, SN Lewis
Transcript: Relation btween two organisms are living togther sience that deals with parasities symbiotic association parasities symbiosis commensalism :- donates interaction that is beneficial to one organism but no effect on other significance of studing human parasities organisms obtain food & shelter by living on or within another against ( host ) mutalism :- special form of commensalion in which both organismderive some benefit parasitism :- one organism benefits at expense of other organism(host) parasitology
Transcript: roundworms? tapeworms? hookworms? whipworms? coccidia? flukes? heartworm? Embrace The Poo CAPC-Bayer Study Part 2 Testing method Are you smart? "If it is worth doing, it is worth doing RIGHT!" Scan the entire slide, 1 (one) egg is a positive result! Saturated Sheathers Solution 454g sugar 355mls distilled H20 6mls Formaldehyde NOTE: Can't pour this down the drain!!! 74% of pet owners WANT their vet to supply more info about parasites. 90% of pet owners want to be notified if there is a high incidence of parasites in their area. 89% of pet owners are more likely to book an appointment based on that risk. GROSS exam Parasitology ....... the Musical Julie Jones RVT Size Matters Consistency color blood/mucous adult worms/segments 1. Prepare your solutions properly! 2. Read your samples at the proper time! 3. Scan slide entirely! 4. Document and report immediately! A Word on Sugar Prove it! Solutions Testing Everything Comes Down to Poo You learned it.....you should use it! Toxocara cati Dipylidium caninum Trichuris vulpis Isopora felis Registeredveterinarytechnician extraodinaris 1. Direct smear 2. Direct smear with stain 3. Simple flotation 4. Centrifuge/flotation 5. Squash prep 6. Baerman technique 7. ELISA Dressed up like a good 'ol cub scout trooper...... Don't forget your handy pooper scooper!!! SUPER DOOPER!!!! Scanning qualitative vrs quantitative Ignite your spark! Have some fun with it! 1. 1 gram of formed feces. 2. FRESH! 3. Timing. 4. Document. Sample Collection RU Too Cool for Stool? Scrape it, scrub it Scrub it, scrape it Sometimes bag, and often save it You always win! Cleaning out the pen. You can wear your Sunday best, but it will be a stinky mess. Were in the coup Cleaning up the poop. Taxonomy
Transcript: Parasitology Eight's company By Josh Beck and Peter Bradley, University of California, Los Angeles Eight intracellular Toxoplasma gondii parasites are shown replicating by a process called endodyogeny where two new daughter parasites are assembled inside each intact mother. The definitive host of these parasites is the cat, but they infect many warm-blooded animals, including humans. While toxoplasmosis is typically a minor disease, T. gondii can cause severe central nervous system disorders of immunocompromised individuals - such as those with AIDS, organ transplants, and lymphoma - as well as birth defects to congenitally infected neonates. Eating undercooked meat or ingesting food or water contaminated with cat feces are the most common routes of infection for humans. Image: The stain shows markers for a cortical membrane system that label both mother and daughter parasites (red) or daughters only (green). DNA is shown in blue. Fluorescence microscopy with 100X oil immersion objective was used to obtain image. Trich-ed out cows By Marlene Benchimol and Victor do Valle Midlej, Santa Ursula University Trichomonas foetus is a single-celled protozoan that infects the bovine reproductive tract and the intestinal tract of cats. Cows are infected by bulls that harbor the parasite on their foreskin. The resultant infection of cows can result in infertility, pyometra, and embryonic death and abortion. Image: Scanning electron micrograph of T. foetus (green) with a bovine culture of oviduct cells (pink) where adhesion of the parasites to host cells is seen. The parasites maintain their pear shape and are firmly adhered to the host cells.
Transcript: Blastocystis Hominis Submitted by: Cheena Panganiban BS Biology IV-A Submitted to: Ms. Jenina Tongol •The classic form found in human stools is the cyst, which varies tremendously in size from 6 to 40 μm. • . The thick-walled cyst present in the stools • is believed to be responsible for external transmission, possibly by the fecal-oral route through ingestion of contaminated water or food • . The cysts infect epithelial cells of the digestive tract and multiply asexually ( , ). • Vacuolar forms of the parasite give origin to multi vacuolar •and ameboid forms. The multi-vacuolar develops into a pre-cyst •that gives origin to a thin-walled cyst , thought to be responsible for autoinfection. •The ameboid form gives origin to a pre-cyst , which develops into thick-walled cyst by schizogony . • Then thick-walled cyst is excreted in feces . GRANULAR FORM • Transmission is thought to be through fecal-oral route, much that like of other better known GI protozoa •Stool (fecal) exam •Endoscopy •Blood tests •Scans CYST FORM Classification •Blastocystis has various morphological forms. •Four commonly described forms are the vacuolar (otherwise known as central body), granular, amoeboid, and cyst forms. •. The appearance of the organism is largely dependent upon environmental conditions as it is extremely sensitive to oxygen. AMOEBOID FORM • Somewhat morphologically similar to the vacuolar forms except that distinct granules are observed in the central vacuole and / or cytoplasm. • 4 and 15 micrometers in diameter • Within the central vacuole, these granules appear in different forms too. -Metabolic granules play a role in chemical processes that are necessary for the maintenance of life in the organism. -Reproductive granules were involved in the development of progeny cells. •It has also been suggested that the granules may be an indication that the cell is dying. •This is a very rare form with irregularly shaped cells from 2.6 to 7.8 micrometers in diameter. •Pseudopodia are often attached. •A large central vacuole may or may not be present. •It has also been suggested that the granules may be an indication that the cell is dying. •Are produced only in cultures taken from symptomatic individuals. •This method could be used for diagnosing symptomatic infection. Causes • Many types of protozoa get into the intestinal tract through oral-fecal contact, such as occurs when a person doesn't wash his or her hands thoroughly after using the toilet before preparing food. •places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. •worldwide in distribution, it is more common in less developed nations and may prefer tropical and sub-tropical climates Signs and Symptoms Morphology Public health and Prevention strategies Epidemiology Disease • Typical cell form of Blastocystis seen in culture and is often used for the identification of the organism. • Greatly in size, with diameters ranging between 2 µm and 200 µm. • The vacuolar form is otherwise known as central body form because it has a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin band of peripheral cytoplasm which contains other organelles. • asymptomatic individuals producing exclusively vacuolar forms. • The function of the vacuole is still unclear, however, it has been suggested that, like for many eukaryotic cells, it is for storage purposes. •is a genus of single-celled protozoan parasites •Blastocystis group of Stramenopiles – a vast array of organisms including brown algae, water molds, and diatoms. (also called Heterokonts) •living in the gastrointestinal tracts •A commensal which can become a pathogen •. It exhibits morphologic polymorphism consisting of a development cycle Test and Diagnosis Life cycle •A hard, resistive form between 6 and 40 micrometers in diameter. • A thick wall encapsulates the structure which includes many vacuoles and 1 or 2 nuclei. •has helped in the advancement of understanding the way the infection is transmitted •Generally smaller in size and has a thick multilayered cyst wall. •It lacks a central vacuole and few nuclei, multiple vacuoles •the most resistant form of this parasite and is able to survive in harsh conditions because of its thick multilayered cyst wall •Show its ability to withstand acidic gastric juices. Besides, the cysts did not lyse when placed in distilled water and could survive well at room temperature for up to 19 days, indicating its strong resistance. •The disease caused by Blastocystis Hominis, is referred to simply as Blastocystosis. •The original description of Blastocystis was as a yeast due to its yeast-like, This was then contradicted, it was reclassified as under subphylum Sporozoa, based on some distinctive protistan features of the Blastocystis cell, such as the presence of nuclei, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondrion-like organelles •. An analysis of gene sequences was performed in 1996, which placed it into the group Stramenopiles and remains enigmatic History of
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