Transcript: Diseases Caused by Parasites A parasite is an organism that spend most of its life feeding of another organism. What's very interesting about this monsters is that they are incredibly adaptable to any change. It's no wonder parasites extremely outnumber us. The study of parasites In one branch of biology or medicine concerned with the study of parasitic organisms is called Parasitology. In other words, the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. Malaria Malaria is the most common heard parasitic disease which kills hundreds of millions of people in third world countries. Originating from Africa, spreading into South America where many people got infected during the construction of the Panama Canal. How to prevent parasidiocal diseases - Vaccines - Personal Hygiene - Anti-biotics - Avoid obviously contaminated areas Treatment The two main treatments are surgery and medicines Filarial Worms Filarial worms, which are found primarily in tropical regions of Asia, are threadlike worms that live in the blood and lymph vessels of birds and mammals such as humans. They are transmitted from one primary host to another through biting insects, especially mosquitoes. In severe infections, large numbers of filarial worms may block the passage of fluids within the lymph vessels. This causes elephantiasis, a condition in which an affected part of the body swells enormously. Fortunately, extreme cases of elephantiasis are now rare. Eye Worms Eye worms are closely related to the filarial worms that cause elephantiasis. They are found in Africa and affect both humans and baboons. Eye worms live in and burrow through the tissues just below the skin of their host. In their travels, the worms occasionally move across the surface of the eye- hence the name eye worm. Tapeworms Members of the class Cestoda are long, flat, parasitic worms that live a very simple life. (They have a head called a scolex (SKOH-leks) on which there are several suckers and a ring of hooks. These structures attach to the intestinal walls of humans and other animals. Inside the intestine, these worms are surrounded with food that their primary host has already digested for them. The worms absorb this food through their body walls, allowing them to grow to impressive sizes- adult human tapeworms have been seen over 18 meters long! Tapeworms almost never kill their hosts, but they do use up a lot of food. For this reason, hosts may lose weight and become weak. Behind the scolex of the tapeworm is a narrow neck region that is contstantly dividing to form the many proglottids (proh-GLAH-tihds), or sections, that make up most of the body of the tapeworm. Proglottids contain little more than male and female reproductive organs. Sperm produced by the testes, or male reproductive organs, can fertilize eggs in the proglottids of other tapeworms or of the same individual. Fertilized tapeworm eggs are released when mature proglottides break off the posterior end of the tapeworm and burst open. A mature proglottide may rupture either in the host's intestine or after it has been passed out of the host's body with feces. A single proglottide may contain over 100,000 eggs, and a single worm can produce more than half a billion eggs each year! If food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs is consumed by cows, pigs, fishes, or other intermediate hosts, the eggs enter the intermediate host and they hatch into larvae. These larvae grow for a time and then burrow into the muscle tissue of the intermediate host and form a dormant protective stage called a cyst. If a human eats raw or incompletely cooked meat containing these cysts, the larvae become active within the human host. Once inside the intestine of the new host, they latch onto the intestinal wall and grow into adult worms. Parasitic Flatworms Parasitic flatworms feed on blood, tissue fluids, or pieces of cells inside the bodies of their hosts. Some of these animals have a pharynx that pumps food into a pair of dead-end intestinal sacs where the food is digested, but in many parasitic flatworms the digestive tract is simpler than in free-living forms. For example, tapeworms, a common type of parasitic flatworm, has no digestive tract at all instead, they live inside the intestines of their hosts and feed by latching onto the intestinal wall with hooks and/or suckers and absorbing the food that passes by- food that has already been broken down by the host's digestive enzymes. Flatworms lack any kind of specialized circulatory or respiratory system. Because they are so flat, they can depend on diffusion to transport oxygen and nutrients to their tissues. And they can get rid of carbon dioxide and most other metabolic wastes by allowing them to diffuse out through their body walls. Parasitic flatworms also often do not have much of a nervous system. As you can imagine, there is not much need for a nervous system in an organism that mainly hangs onto an intestinal wall and absorbs food! In
Transcript: Ancylostoma duodenale Necator americanus Morphology Epidemiology THE END THANK YOU an organism that exhibits both parasitic and non-parasitic modes of living Proper waste disposal Intestinal secretions, including mucus Male adult worm measures 15-20 cm in length. Female adult worm measures 20-40 cm in length. NEMATODES NATURAL Plasmodium spp. Step 6 Not all parasites will float; therefore, you need to examine both the surface film and the sediment before indicating the concentration examination is negative. Second, the organisms must not be left in contact with the high specific gravity zinc sulfate for too long or protozoa will tend to become distorted, so the timing of the examination is more critical. Also, the specific gravity of the fluid will need to be checked periodically. Infective stage and mode of infection Consistency The normal light or dark brown is due to the reductio of bilirubin and other bile constituents Enterobius vermicularis host that harbors a parasite in the adult stage or where the parasite undergoes a sexual method of reproduction Warm stools are best for detecting ova and parasites. Do not refrigerate for ova and parasites CONCENTRATION TECHNIQUES NOTE • By direct infection from a patient (Fecal-oral route). • Autoinfection: the eggs are infective as soon as they are passed by the female worm. If the hands of the patient get contaminated with these eggs, he/she will infect him/herself again and again. • Aerosol inhalation from contaminated sheets and dust. Infection is by ingestion of eggs containing larvae with contaminated raw vegetables. Leucocytes that migrate from bloodstream Never place a stool in an incubator Formol-saline Ether Sedimentation Only a small amount of stool is needed; the size of a walnut. from mother to infant Propionibacterium acnes Large numbers of bacteria that make up to one-third of total solids harbors the larval stages of the parasite or an asexual cycle of development takes place Routes of Transmission Pour the stool onto a double layer of wetted gauze taking special care to include any blood or mucous in the specimen. parasites that live inside the body of their host Strongyloides stercoralis Reduction of the source of infection Humans SPECIMEN COLLECTION most common avenue of entrance. (food/ water transmission) two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other. AVENUES OF INVASION lice Leukocytes (Pus Cells) a science of studying parasitism and a discipline dealing with the biology of parasites, ecology of parasitism with emphasis on parasite-host and parasite-environment interactions. Morphology Morphology Adult Parasites Label all stools specimen with patient’s name, date and reason for testing. PREVENTION AND CONTROL Ingested eggs hatch in the duodenum. The larvae penetrate the intestinal wall and circulate in the blood. From the heart they migrate to the lungs, ascend to the trachea, descend to the esophagus and finally reach the small intestine to become adult. The female pass immature eggs which pass to the soil and mature in 2 weeks. Infective stage and modes of infection More than 650 million people and infected worldwide mainly tropics Transmission is faecal-oral it may normally be present in stool in small amounts. In an abnormal amount, it is readily visible as small white areas and is usually indicative of intestinal irritation Soil transmission Morphology Protective clothing that would prevent vectors from resting in the surface of the body and inoculate pathogens during their blood meal Congenital transmission PARATENIC Do not use a stool that has been passed into the toilet bowl or that has been contaminated with barium or other X-Ray medium Intestinal nematodes Epidemiology ACCIDENTAL vectors of certain parasitic diseases direct contact or indirect contact with patients or infected animals Male: The male measures 8 cm in length. The posterior end is broadened into a membraneous copulatory bursa, which is provided with two long spicules fused distally. Female: The female measures 10 cm in length. The posterior end is straight Step 5 STOOL ANALYSIS INFECTIOUS DISEASES Entamoeba hystolica Infection Infective stage and methods of infection Sanitary control of drinking water and food often, helminths are observed in stool specimens. The most common is the round worm, Ascaris lumbricoides, which is quite large Reservoir host : animals that harbor the same species of parasites as man, the parasites in animals sometimes can be transmitted into human Feces consist of food remnants, various products of digestion, non-pathogenic organisms, and possibly pathogenic organisms. The direct observation of the fecal specimen may detect a pathogenic process that will not be detected by any other method. ticks 1. Intestinal nematodes with tissue stage Infective Stage Odor bloodsucking insects containing infective parasites bite the skin and inject parasites into human blood.
Transcript: -Parasitologists make about $30,000-$90,000 annually -Average salary varies based on geography -California: $95,121 -Illinois: $77,364 Related Careers Possible Scenarios Parasitology -http://www.aboutbioscience.org/careers/parasitologist -http://education-portal.com/articles/Parasitologist_Job_Description_Salary_and_Career_Outlook.html -http://www.mymajors.com/career/parasitologist/skills/ -http://www.diseasesdatabase.com/ddb7740.htm -http://www.diseasesdatabase.com/ddb13400.htm What They Do Salary -Critical thinking skills for clinical investigation -Complex problem solving to identify parasites -Detail oriented to distinguish between species Skills Required A parasitologist studies parasites and the relationship between them, their host, and their environment. -Parasitologists perform research on diseases such as: -Malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) -moderate to severe shivering -high fever -African Sleeping Sickness (T. brucei) -cranial swelling -insomnia Education By: Aman Thakur and Kegan Wong Employers -Veterinary clinics -Hospitals -Research labs -Forestry services -Focus on biology, chemistry, entymology -Don't overspecialize in one field -Most hold Ph.D. or M.D. degree -Minimum is Bachelors Degree -Microbiology -Immunology -Virologist -Zoologist -Environmental Scientist Sources
Transcript: Special skill needs- Good writing, speaking skills, Mathematics, computer skills Parasite in frogs eye Tapeworms do not have a digestive tract Types of Parasites Must take biology and chemistry classes in high school Masters degree and continue in school to potentially earn a Doctorates degree Coursework: Biochemistry, Zoology, and Aquatic Biology Conduct research in many fields because parasites comes in many different forms and are found in many different places. University of Pennsylvania (Total Enrollment- 21,853) Oklahoma State University (Total Enrollment-18,676) Tulane University of Louisiana (Total Enrollment 11,652) Some parasitic pathogens are transmitted through sexual contact and constitute evidence of crime, especially in cases of child molestation. Trichomonas Naegleria Malaria Giardia Lambia Tuberculosis Spirochete Entamoeba Histolytica Balantinium Coli Salary ranges: $30,000 - $90,000/year Job Description Naegleria/Protozoa Bed Bugs Schools/Colleges Parasitology Janasia Foreman, Charnay Brown What is a Parasitologist? Educational Requirements Malaria/ Mosquitoes Interesting Facts
Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... http://www.edtechnetwork.com/powerpoint.html https://www.thebalance.com/free-family-feud-powerpoint-templates-1358184 Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://people.uncw.edu/ertzbergerj/msgames.htm Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.thebalance.com/free-powerpoint-games-for-teachers-1358169 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Wheel-of-Riches-PowerPoint-Template-Plays-Just-Like-Wheel-of-Fortune-383606 Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. http://www.free-power-point-templates.com/deal-powerpoint-template/ Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.
Transcript: Responsibilities of being a parasitologist is reasearching how parasites attack human beings and animals. Also how their transmitted from host to host. advantages of being a parasitologist is getting to learn interesting things everyday. Some disadvantages of being a parasitologist is not getting paid very much. Salary If you want to become a parasitologist you must have field, and lab experience. Health Care benifits include maternity care, eye examinations, dental care, and preventive care. Responsibilities Parasitologist To be a parasitologist you must have a Masters degree. Most parasitologist have a Ph.D or M.D. degree, parasitologist who have a M.S. degree continue towards a doctoral degree. The entry level salary is 31,250 and the average salary of a parasitologist 51,000 dollars annually. Salary's range from 30,000 to 80,000. Salary can range extensively based on experience. Requirements Parasitology Parasitology involves working in a lab and rearsearching about different parasites that live inside the human body. Parasitology Disadvantages and Advantages Benefits
Transcript: Scenario: SPC Penn emigrated from Azerbaijan five years previous and is now a U.S. Soldier. He presented to his health care provider with abdominal pain. A CT scan revealed multiple pancreatic cysts. The patient noted that he was diagnosed with pancreatic cysts while still living in Azerbaijan. The cysts were aspirated and the fluid was sent to Pathology for histological work-up. Trophozoites: -measures 10-60 micrometers -cytoplasm is finely granular and may contain inclusions -single nucleus, peripheral nuclear chromatin which is usually evenly distributed in a beadlike arrangement with small compact karysome Physical Characteristics Preventive Measures Cyst: -measures 10-20 micrometers -mature cyst contains 4 nuclei, immature may contain less then 4 -presence of evenly distributed nuclear chromatin is important in the identification -karysome is tiny and centrally located with evenly distributed peripheral nuclear chromatin -elongated chromatiodal bars have blunt, smooth, rounded ends -glycogen vacuoles may be present in immature cyst, but disappear as cyst mature Slides made from aspirate, stained with trichrome. Proper sanitation and hygiene Filtering or purifying drinking water Proper washing of fruits and vegetables Caution when traveling to endemic areas SPC King SPC Mahato PFC Lundquist PFC Malicoate PFC Kruzhkov PV2 Kitlica PV2 Johnson PV2 Krupp HN Lytal Organism Identification The form seen in the slide is assumedly the ova form of the parasite. Differentiating characteristics: Entamoeba, unlike all other genus of amoeba, posses peripheral nuclear chromatin asseen in the slide. This particular organism shows cyst ovum that fit within the common range associated with E. histolytica. The presence of elongated chromatoidal bars having blunt, smooth, rounded ends (though not seen in this slide) are also common identifying marks for E. histolytica. Symptoms Slides Intestinal infection: Usually nitroimidazole derivatives, followed by an agent (such as paromomycin or diloxanide furoate) Liver abscess: drugs like metronidazole and chloroquine Asymptomatic patients: treated by paromomycin use of iodoquinol and iodochlorhydroxyquin not recommended Diloxanide furoate can also be used by mildly symptomatic persons Entamoeba histolytica Organism Identification Mode of Infection Public services: adequate sewage disposal and clean water supply Education about proper food handling and sanitation Health regulations: monitoring of food handlers/vendors, and prevention of cockroaches and flies around food. Micro Case Study Usually acquired by ingestion of cysts Cysts in contaminated water or food Transmission can also be sexual between male homosexuals Asymptomatic carriers can also transmit the disease Incubation time varies per individual A CASE STUDY #4 If the parasite invades the lining of your intestine, it can produce amebic dysentery. Amebic dysentery is a more dangerous form of the disease with frequent watery and bloody stools and severe stomach cramping. If the parasite enters your bloodstream, it can end up in your liver, heart, lungs, brain, or other organs, where it causes tissue destruction and abscesses. The liver is a frequent destination for the parasite. Symptoms of amebic liver disease include fever and tenderness in the upper-right part of your torso. B Treatment Physical Characteristics Preventive Measures
Transcript: Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica Fasciola gigantica Schistosoma haematobium Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Cestoda Order: Cyclophyllidea Family: Taeniidae Genus: Taenia Species: T. saginata Diagnostic stage: Diagnosis done by stool examination is difficult when adult worms are not present because the eggs are hard to distinguish from C.sinensis The middle host is : Pirenlla conica The second middle host is : Mugil cephalus , Tilapia sp. And Gambsia . Infective stage is : Metacercariae Description: found in and in the large intestine Infective stage: cercariea. medical examination Host animal:Biomphlaria Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Order: Diplostomida Family: Schistosomatidae Genus: Schistosoma Species: S. mansoni Schistosoma mansoni Taenia saginata diseases:Katayama fever, hepatic perisinusoidal egg granulomas found in the superior mesenteric veins draining the small intestine. Infective stage: cercariea. medical examination Taenia solium Taenia saginata Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Order: Plagiorchiida Family: Fasciolidae Genus: Fasciola Species: F. gigantica Liver flukes are found world-wide, especially in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and S. Africa. Basically they inhabit any region where mammals and snails are found. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Cestoda Order: Cyclophyllidea Family: Taeniidae Genus: Taenia Species: T. solium Taenia solium Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Subclass: Digenea Order: Opisthorchiida Family: Heterophyidae Genus: Heterophyes Species: H. heterophyes Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Order: Plagiorchiida Family: Fasciolidae Genus: Fasciola Species: F. hepatica Schistosoma haematobium Heterophyes Heterophyes: Taenia Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes Class: Trematoda Order: Diplostomida Family: Schistosomatidae Genus: Schistosoma Species: S. haematobium Parasitology Schistosoma mansoni:
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