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Transcript: Pictures Discoveries in the Field of Parasitology Octodectescynotis are ear mites. More common in pets then humans. Ear mites can be transported to another person very easily. They multiply rapidly. They have come up with many cures for different types of parasites and created treatment for the non treatable parasitic infections. The most common studied parasites are Otodectescynotis, Ectoparasites, and Taenia. Benefits/Advantages of being a parasitologist WASHINGTON, July 17 (UPI) -- Electron microscope photograph of a parasite taken from the eye of a Greenland shark. rlw/G. Benz and J. Braswell UPI Post-Doctoral training is usually needed to be a parasitologist, but not all the time. If you were to go into this field it would probably be best to have this level of education. The topic is broad and diverse field with a variety of career options. Parasitologist study parasites and their relationship with their host environment as well. Parasitology "but they have likewise secured the permanent cooperation of the practitioner in problems of parasitology by presenting the clinical and pathological pictures of these parasitic infections." Which means they have made the jobs of parasitologist permanent. We will always need them. A Masters of Science in Biology offers the opportunity to research. Most hold a Ph.D or an M.D degree. The advantages of having a higher degree are numerous. Thank you for watching! Parasitology depends on what type of parasites you study, how much experience/education you have, and the amount of discoveries you've made. Moore, Janice. "Parasite." World Book Student. World Book, 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. Tyler, Seth. "Tapeworm." World Book Student. World Book, 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015. Most Common/Studied parasites Ectoparasites are things such as ticks, scabies, and lice. Scabies is Latin for 'to scratch'. They give you skin infections. Taenia is an infection with tapeworms. Salary range is dependent on experience. Entry level: $31,250 Average level: $51,020 Max level: $87,060 The intensive study of parasitic problems in new fields might limit jobs or make them abundant. They conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and improvement of human health, engage in clinical investigation, research, and development, or other related activities. "Making an Impact." What Should I Major In? This College Major Quiz Can Help. Web. 27 Apr. 2015. <>. "Novy touched upon the progress that had been made in our knowledge of protozen infections and their treatment... Trypanesomac Brucei had just been demonstrated and remained one of the outstanding discoveries of the decade." They are making discoveries very quickly with very little knowledge to begin with. Parasitologist study parasites wherever they occur and whether they are viruses, bacteria, worms, or insects. Parasites are organisms that use other species of plants and animals as hosts. To be a parasitologist you must have a Bachelor of Science degree. It is mandatory if you want to pursue this career. Education Requirements "Such accomplished facts as the eradication of yellow fever and minimization of malaria." Enough people are getting into the study of parasites, more discoveries are being made quicker. The treatment of roundworms and writing on newspaper is allowing other people to give input and maybe cure another infection. What it's like to be a parasitologist Bibliography

PowerPoint Game Templates

Transcript: Example of a Jeopardy Template By: Laken Feeser and Rachel Chapman When creating without a template... Example of a Deal or No Deal Template PowerPoint Game Templates There are free templates for games such as jeopardy, wheel of fortune, and cash cab that can be downloaded online. However, some templates may cost more money depending on the complexity of the game. Classroom Games that Make Test Review and Memorization Fun! (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from Fisher, S. (n.d.). Customize a PowerPoint Game for Your Class with These Free Templates. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from 1. Users will begin with a lot of slides all with the same basic graphic design. 2. The, decide and create a series of questions that are to be asked during the game. 3. By hyper linking certain answers to different slides, the game jumps from slide to slide while playing the game. 4. This kind of setup is normally seen as a simple quiz show game. Example of a Wheel of Fortune Template Games can be made in order to make a fun and easy way to learn. Popular game templates include: Family Feud Millionaire Jeopardy and other quiz shows. Quick video on template "Millionaire" PowerPoint Games Some games are easier to make compared to others If users are unsure whether or not downloading certain templates is safe, you can actually make your own game by just simply using PowerPoint. add logo here References Example of a Family Feud Template PowerPoint Games are a great way to introduce new concepts and ideas You can create a fun, competitive atmosphere with the use of different templates You can change and rearrange information to correlate with the topic or idea being discussed. Great with students, workers, family, etc. For example: With games like Jeopardy and Family Feud, players can pick practically any answers. The person who is running the game will have to have all of the answers in order to determine if players are correct or not. However, with a game like Who Wants to be a Millionaire, the players only have a choice between answers, A, B, C, or D. Therefore, when the player decides their answer, the person running the game clicks it, and the game will tell them whether they are right or wrong.


Transcript: Going crazy yet?!!! So here we go folks!! Malaria Weird?? Disgusted? HUGE group? DIVERSE!! Hemoflagellates: Leishmania Apocomplexa: Plasmodium metazoa=helminths=worms 4) What is a host? 5) Definitive Vs Intermediate 6) Vector? 7) Zonoosis? 8) infection vs infestation?? Disease Burden Is there any way to prevent it?! Trophozoite : sexually transmitted Frothy vaginal discharge Parasitology Ascaris what a complex life cycle!!!! cysts : infectious form Trophozoytes : invasive form main symptom is : Diarrhea Feco-oral transmission what do you THINK?! Transmitted by the female anopheles mosqueto Two hosts Endemic in tropical areas 4 subtypes All have clues on the blood smears 273 million people are infected!!! Soo..what are their complains !!?? Cases are found globally but the majority are in the tropical and poor counries how many are infected?! Malaria : 273 m, deaths 1.12m L. Filriasis : 120 m schistosoma : 200 m deaths 15,000 Roundworms : 2 B, deaths 200,000 a flarial nematode causes elephentiasis transmitted by mosqueto the major causitive agent of lymphatic filriasis Cestodes: Taenia Schistosoma a common worldwide infection mostly Asymptomatic Vague abdominal pain Dx is by seeing the proglotids and the eggs in the stool they can VERY VERY long What are they? How long have they been with us? are they all bad? Am I currently a host? ( WHAT!!) Why is it getting more attention NOW?? continue definitions Many forms and shapes !! Helminths Trematodes : flukes Luminal: Trichomonas Vector transmission : sandfly bite Reservoir : humans and rodents All types are intracellular Via ingesting the eggs more dangerous can develope in any organ can lead to Epilepsy Wucheria Bancrofti Taeniasis can reach up to 30cm eggs? adlt worm can live 1-2 yrs protozoas Cysticercosis flagellates: luminal and Hemo 1) What is a parasite? 2) What is a eukaryocyte? 3) Endoparasite Vs Ectoparasite All are Tapeworms human is both an intermediate and a primary host! which is more dangerous? 3 basic parts : A head (scolex) a neck ( produce proglottids) a body ( proglottids) hermaphroditic leaf shaped, flat hermaphrodtic except schistosoma very complicated life cycle, multiple hosts the first is the snail operculated egg contaminate water intestinal and vesicular types Reservoir exists Endemic in Egypt and Africa Transmission in the fresh water by skin penetration ( itching) Adult warm swims in the veins and ends in the vesicular or mesenteric vessels eggs causes liver enlargment ( intestinal) association with bladder CA in Egypt Intervention and prevention to parasites requires a " Mass Intervention Stratigies. for example : Improve Sanitation Vector Control Mass screening Prophylactic drug administration So lets talk about key definitions Protozoas: Entamoeba Nematodes : Roundworms there are many types Unsegmented bodies male and females Various routes of infection Either transmitted by eggs ( Ascaris) or Larvea ( Filarial worms) MC Helminth worldwide and the largest roundworm is Ascaris


Transcript: Blastocystis Hominis Submitted by: Cheena Panganiban BS Biology IV-A Submitted to: Ms. Jenina Tongol •The classic form found in human stools is the cyst, which varies tremendously in size from 6 to 40 μm. • . The thick-walled cyst present in the stools • is believed to be responsible for external transmission, possibly by the fecal-oral route through ingestion of contaminated water or food • . The cysts infect epithelial cells of the digestive tract and multiply asexually ( , ). • Vacuolar forms of the parasite give origin to multi vacuolar •and ameboid forms. The multi-vacuolar develops into a pre-cyst •that gives origin to a thin-walled cyst , thought to be responsible for autoinfection. •The ameboid form gives origin to a pre-cyst , which develops into thick-walled cyst by schizogony . • Then thick-walled cyst is excreted in feces . GRANULAR FORM • Transmission is thought to be through fecal-oral route, much that like of other better known GI protozoa •Stool (fecal) exam •Endoscopy •Blood tests •Scans CYST FORM Classification •Blastocystis has various morphological forms. •Four commonly described forms are the vacuolar (otherwise known as central body), granular, amoeboid, and cyst forms. •. The appearance of the organism is largely dependent upon environmental conditions as it is extremely sensitive to oxygen. AMOEBOID FORM • Somewhat morphologically similar to the vacuolar forms except that distinct granules are observed in the central vacuole and / or cytoplasm. • 4 and 15 micrometers in diameter • Within the central vacuole, these granules appear in different forms too. -Metabolic granules play a role in chemical processes that are necessary for the maintenance of life in the organism. -Reproductive granules were involved in the development of progeny cells. •It has also been suggested that the granules may be an indication that the cell is dying. •This is a very rare form with irregularly shaped cells from 2.6 to 7.8 micrometers in diameter. •Pseudopodia are often attached. •A large central vacuole may or may not be present. •It has also been suggested that the granules may be an indication that the cell is dying. •Are produced only in cultures taken from symptomatic individuals. •This method could be used for diagnosing symptomatic infection. Causes • Many types of protozoa get into the intestinal tract through oral-fecal contact, such as occurs when a person doesn't wash his or her hands thoroughly after using the toilet before preparing food. •places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. •worldwide in distribution, it is more common in less developed nations and may prefer tropical and sub-tropical climates Signs and Symptoms Morphology Public health and Prevention strategies Epidemiology Disease • Typical cell form of Blastocystis seen in culture and is often used for the identification of the organism. • Greatly in size, with diameters ranging between 2 µm and 200 µm. • The vacuolar form is otherwise known as central body form because it has a large central vacuole surrounded by a thin band of peripheral cytoplasm which contains other organelles. • asymptomatic individuals producing exclusively vacuolar forms. • The function of the vacuole is still unclear, however, it has been suggested that, like for many eukaryotic cells, it is for storage purposes. •is a genus of single-celled protozoan parasites •Blastocystis group of Stramenopiles – a vast array of organisms including brown algae, water molds, and diatoms. (also called Heterokonts) •living in the gastrointestinal tracts •A commensal which can become a pathogen •. It exhibits morphologic polymorphism consisting of a development cycle Test and Diagnosis Life cycle •A hard, resistive form between 6 and 40 micrometers in diameter. • A thick wall encapsulates the structure which includes many vacuoles and 1 or 2 nuclei. •has helped in the advancement of understanding the way the infection is transmitted •Generally smaller in size and has a thick multilayered cyst wall. •It lacks a central vacuole and few nuclei, multiple vacuoles •the most resistant form of this parasite and is able to survive in harsh conditions because of its thick multilayered cyst wall •Show its ability to withstand acidic gastric juices. Besides, the cysts did not lyse when placed in distilled water and could survive well at room temperature for up to 19 days, indicating its strong resistance. •The disease caused by Blastocystis Hominis, is referred to simply as Blastocystosis. •The original description of Blastocystis was as a yeast due to its yeast-like, This was then contradicted, it was reclassified as under subphylum Sporozoa, based on some distinctive protistan features of the Blastocystis cell, such as the presence of nuclei, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and mitochondrion-like organelles •. An analysis of gene sequences was performed in 1996, which placed it into the group Stramenopiles and remains enigmatic History of


Transcript: Parasitology Nematodes Nematodes Strongylida ancylostomatoidea, strongyloidea and trichostrongyloidea usually have a direct life cycle and typical strongylid eggs(oval and thin shelled) metastrongyloidea has an indirect life cycle and the eggs are different typically L3 is infective stage, but in metastrongyloidea the L3 is inside the host males have a bursa Strongylida Ancylostomatoidea (hookworms) Ancylostomatoidea reside in the small intestine adults and L4 have a large buccal capsule adults are blood feeders which can cause anemia eggs are thin shelled and oval L3 is infective transmission: per os percutaneous paratenic transmammary young animals are more susceptible Ancylostoma Caninum southern hookworm affects dogs in warmer climates transmammary infection is very common PPP: 2-3 weeks L3 are ingested and migrate through lungs to small intestine where they develop to adult L3 can also travel to muscle and becomed arrested from egg to L3 in 1 week peracute hookworm dz (50-100) in pups occurs prior to end of PPP and can be fatal anemia and bloody diarrhea chronic dz often has no CS, maybe poor hair coat TX- pregnant bitches can be treated during pregnancy zoonotic mouthparts for cutting Ancylostoma caninum (model) Ancylostoma Tubaeforme cats 3 pairs of teeth mild anemia and diarrhea mildly zoonotic NO TRANSMAMMRARY Ancylostoma tubaeforme Ancylostoma braziliense dogs and cats 1 pair of teeth occasional diarrhea VERY ZOONOTIC cutaneous larval migrans no transmammary Ancylostoma braziliense Uncinaria Stenocephala dogs, foxes and cats 2 cutting plates egg is slightly larger (80x40um) cool climates anemia, diarrhea, interdigitial dermatitis Uncinaria stenocephala Strongyloidea most have a direct life cycle w/L3 as infective stage thin shelled oval egg w/morula found in feces large thick bodied adults Strongyloidea Ancylostoma braziliense dogs and cats 1 pair of teeth occasional diarrhea VERY ZOONOTIC cutaneous larval migrans no transmammary Stephanuridae Ancylostoma braziliense Syngamidae dogs and cats 1 pair of teeth occasional diarrhea VERY ZOONOTIC cutaneous larval migrans no transmammary Ancylostoma braziliense dogs and cats 1 pair of teeth occasional diarrhea VERY ZOONOTIC cutaneous larval migrans no transmammary Chabertidae Strongylidae typical strongylid egg direct life cycle adults in large intestine Strongylidae Large Strongyles Large strongyles equid species adults are plug feeders resulting in anemia S vulgaris larvae(L4) are more pathogenic than adults migrate to arterial vessels and cause a thrombus, colic PPP-6 months Strongylus edentatus no teeth PPP-11 months larvae migrate to the liver fever, anorexia, constipation and reddish urine Strongylus equinis larvae migrate to liver and can cause hemorrhagic tracts PPP-9 month Cyathostomins Cyathostomins (small strongyles) most impt equine parasite larvae are more pathogenic than adults L3 enters large intestine wall and after 1-2 months molts to L4 which emerges from the lumen to become an adult L4 to adult causes damage to mucosal lining colitis protein losing enteropathy hypoalbuminemia, wt loss DIARRHEA L3/L4 can become arrested north-arrest in the winter and eggs counts increase in the spring south-arrest in the summer and egg counts increase in the winter mare is the origin of infection for the foal if eggs in foal <6months = coprophagia Diplidium Caninum Trichoctrongyloidea aka flea tapeworm host: dogs and cats IH: flea and louse Zoonotic (only by ingestion of flea) PPP: 3 weeks Cysticercoid larvae looks like a piece of rice or seed double genital pores adult is up to 50cm eggs: egg packets with 25-30 eggs tapeworm and flea develop together Non pathogenic but may cause discomfort (scooting) Treat IH and env. when I dip, you flea, we pack Diplidium Caninum Metastrongyloidea aka flea tapeworm host: dogs and cats IH: flea and louse Zoonotic (only by ingestion of flea) PPP: 3 weeks Cysticercoid larvae looks like a piece of rice or seed double genital pores adult is up to 50cm eggs: egg packets with 25-30 eggs tapeworm and flea develop together Non pathogenic but may cause discomfort (scooting) Treat IH and env. when I dip, you flea, we pack hypothesis Ascaridida Rhabditida Enolplida Oxyurida Spirurida Trematodes Platyhelminthes Trematodes dorso ventrally flattened oral and ventral suckers for attachment usually hermaphroditic incomplete GIG usually indirect life cycle with snails as IH adults are unsegmented larvae stages: miracidium->cercaria->metacercaria miracidium: free swimming ciliated; infectious for aquatic snails cercaria: free swimming tad pole like; infectious for IH of DH in absence of 2nd DH Metacercaria: encysted resting stage that can be free or in an IH Eggs are large and oval and usually have an operculum Fecal sedimentation is most common dx method Digenea require an intermediate host Digenea Canine/Feline as final host Paragonimus Kellicotti aka Lung fluke Intermediate hosts 1st- snails 2nd - cray fish adult is reddish brown and

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