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Ant Odometer

Transcript: Experimental situation and procedures At the field site near Maharès, Tunisia (34°30'N, 19°29'E), large and viable nests of Cataglyphis fortis Forel 1902 (Wehner, 1983) were selected for experiments. The experimental season lasted from the middle of June to the start of September in 2004 and 2005. The ants were trained to walk a distance of 10 m in a linear alloy channel from their nest entrance to a feeder established due south (Fig. 1). The channel was 7 cm wide and the walls 7 cm high, such that the ants experienced a strip-like view of the sky of about 45° to almost 60°, depending on the height of the ant's eyes above ground and its actual position on the channel floor, to read the skylight pattern and compass information. To provide traction for walking, the channel floor was coated with fine grey sand. This sand coating reliably prevented slipping of the ants, as judged from high-speed video recordings (see Fig. 3). This held in particular after removal of the ants' tarsi, and the traction devices associated with them, in the course of the operation procedures below. Grain size of the sand ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm, to minimise visual orientation cues such as optic flow. The channel walls were painted with matt grey varnish to provide a featureless environment, and avoid distracting reflections. Summary Experimental situation and procedures At the field site near Maharès, Tunisia (34°30'N, 19°29'E), large and viable nests of Cataglyphis fortis Forel 1902 (Wehner, 1983) were selected for experiments. The experimental season lasted from the middle of June to the start of September in 2004 and 2005. The ants were trained to walk a distance of 10 m in a linear alloy channel from their nest entrance to a feeder established due south (Fig. 1). The channel was 7 cm wide and the walls 7 cm high, such that the ants experienced a strip-like view of the sky of about 45° to almost 60°, depending on the height of the ant's eyes above ground and its actual position on the channel floor, to read the skylight pattern and compass information. To provide traction for walking, the channel floor was coated with fine grey sand. This sand coating reliably prevented slipping of the ants, as judged from high-speed video recordings (see Fig. 3). This held in particular after removal of the ants' tarsi, and the traction devices associated with them, in the course of the operation procedures below. Grain size of the sand ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm, to minimise visual orientation cues such as optic flow. The channel walls were painted with matt grey varnish to provide a featureless environment, and avoid distracting reflections. Experimental situation and procedures At the field site near Maharès, Tunisia (34°30'N, 19°29'E), large and viable nests of Cataglyphis fortis Forel 1902 (Wehner, 1983) were selected for experiments. The experimental season lasted from the middle of June to the start of September in 2004 and 2005. The ants were trained to walk a distance of 10 m in a linear alloy channel from their nest entrance to a feeder established due south (Fig. 1). The channel was 7 cm wide and the walls 7 cm high, such that the ants experienced a strip-like view of the sky of about 45° to almost 60°, depending on the height of the ant's eyes above ground and its actual position on the channel floor, to read the skylight pattern and compass information. To provide traction for walking, the channel floor was coated with fine grey sand. This sand coating reliably prevented slipping of the ants, as judged from high-speed video recordings (see Fig. 3). This held in particular after removal of the ants' tarsi, and the traction devices associated with them, in the course of the operation procedures below. Grain size of the sand ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 mm, to minimise visual orientation cues such as optic flow. The channel walls were painted with matt grey varnish to provide a featureless environment, and avoid distracting reflections. PubMed.gov The Journal Of Experimental Biology Google.com Statistical tests Only nonparametric tests were used to compare experimental groups in the field experiments, according to the sample sizes of N=25 in each group. In Test 1 and Test 2 the groups that had received different treatments (stilts, normal, stumps I and stumps II) consisted of different sets of animals and thus are independent, which allowed us to use a Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks to compare them. For pair-wise multiple comparison of the treatment groups Dunn's method was used. From the high-speed film analysis, linear correlations of the distributions of walking parameters were calculated for each treatment group. Correlation coefficients, regression coefficients and axis intercepts were tested with student's t-test (for difference from 0, and for differences against each other). Statistical methods are described in detail in Sokal and Rohlf (Sokal and Rohlf, 1995). Double click anywhere & add an idea Desert ants, Cataglyphis,

ODOMETER

Transcript: Background Although Ben Franklin's idea of the odometer has almost no negative effects, sometimes manufacturers can make mistakes and cause problems later down the road. In today's world there are people that committ oddometer fraud, another negative effect. Inspiration Negative Effects of the Odometer "Benjamin Franklin's Inventions." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. Fuller, John. "Top 10 Ben Franklin Inventions." HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. "Odometer - The Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary." Odometer The Benjamin Franklin Tercentenary. Web. 16 Nov. 2015. The odometer made measuring distance much more precise. It also made surveying roads and routes more accurate. Because distance was the most accurate it has ever been, a universal unit of measurement was put into place. Past Benefits of the Odometer Positive Effects of the Odometer Present Benefits Franklin's version of the odometer allowed for one to register how far of a distance was travelled. This was based on soley on the wheel of the car or carriage. In the past, it was difficult to determine how far one travelled. The odometer originally had simply allowed for a person to discover how far they travelled. Works Cited The odometer does not only make us aware of how many miles are on our car. It allows us to know when to change our oil. The odometer gives us an easy way to estimate distance. The odometer is the tool in cars, or carriages before cars were invented, that is used to measure distance Franklin first used an odometer in 1775, when he attached it to his carriage to measure the mileage of postal routes. Holding the role of postmaster, Franklin became inspired by his curiosity to know the distance of his commutes between Philadelphia and Boston. Consequently, this led to the creation of his version of the odometer. The Odometer

Odometer

Transcript: Significance Computerized Odometer Mechanical Odometer The significance of the odometer is that if the Ancient Greeks didn't invent this invention we might not of had odometers which we use for measuring the kilometers a veichle has travelled. One of the most widely used instruments in present day, odometers measures the distance travelled by a vehicle such as bicycle or any other automobile. Even though, the modern odometers are digital, not so long ago they were more mechanical, slowly evolving into electro-mechanical with the rise of technology. Mechanical odometers are turned by a flexible cable made from a tightly wound spring. The cable usually spins inside a protective metal tube with a rubber housing. On a bicycle, a little wheel rolling against the bike wheel turns the cable, and the gear ratio on the odometer has to be calibrated to the size of this small wheel.On a car, a gear engages the output shaft of the transmission, turning the cable. How an odometer works Odometer Odometer Step 1 - A vehicle's odometer is a measuring device used to inform the driver on the number of miles a particular vehicle has been driving, this meter is directly related to the speedometer. Step 2 - Collectively the speedometer and odometer gather data from the vehicle BCM which produces a signal that is then recorded by the odometer. A vehicle speed sensor or VSS is located inside or bolted to the transmission and senses the speed of rotation of the final drive gear.The odometer is equipped with a trip meter call a trip odometer that allows the user to check the mileage of any particular distance separate from the main odometer. The odometer can also be reset. If you make a trip to the bike shop, you most likely won't find any cable-driven odometers or speedometers. Instead, you will find bicycle computers. Bicycles with computers like these have a magnet attached to one of the wheels and a pickup attached to the frame. Once per revolution of the wheel, the magnet passes by the pickup, generating a voltage in the pickup Thank you!

powerpoint template

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