Transcript: Kelp Kauai monitoring station London Convention 1972 The Blue Planet: An introduction to the earth system science. -Brian J. Skinner, Barbara W. Murck Recognized as a level 7 International Nuclear Event Half-life Radioactive isotopes NOT naturally occurring in the Ocean Habitats and organisms affected Radioactive isotope iodine 131 in giant kelp beds off Laguna Beach CA Keep a positive outlook because there are currently no known solutions http://www.technologyreview.com/computing/37164/page1/ http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2012/03/16/radiation-plume-hits-hawaii-fukushima-nuclear-meltdown-97231/ Bioaccumulation of iodine 131 -sea urchins, crustaceans and other organisms that eat kelp irobot Radiation released into the atmosphere is one tenth of Chernobyl Disaster http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/node/1944 9.0 seismic earthquake on March 11 Caused massive tsunami that reached 130 ft and destroyed thousands of buildings and homes. -Japanese Authorities declared the plant to be stable Re tested on the 20th 75,000 Iodine 131 8 days Cesium-134 1 hour Cesium 137 30 years http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/node/1944 plankton Possible solutions Carried across the Pacific into the sea by rain yale graph http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf79.html Irobot team was sent to train Japanese defense personnel March 19th- Radioactive material collected in rainwater at Berkeley campus 5.61 Bq per liter Iodine 131 7.1 Bq per liter Iodine 131 0.26 Bq per liter Cesium 137 THE GRASS IS ALWAYS GREENER Located in Northeastern Japan This data is obtained by continuously releasing particles at the site during the 2 months following the earthquake and then by tracing the path of these particles. "THIS IS NOT A REPRESENTATION OF THE RADIOACTIVE PLUME CONCENTRATION." It is simply a model to track free floating material within the sea surface currents. - Since we do not know exactly how much contaminated water and at what concentration was released into the ocean, it is impossible to estimate the extent and dilution of the plume http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf79.html Nuclear Waste Ocean Radioactivity Collected Data - UC Berkeley background Video The Silent Deep, Tony Koslow 1 becquerel = 1 disintegration per second Lagrangian Particles Dispersal Method TEPCO Study http://environmentalresearchweb.org/cws/article/yournews/49205 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_Daiichi_nuclear_disaster temperature gamma radiation explosive gases and vapors toxic chemicals Elevated levels of radioactivity found in a range of organisms sessile suspension feeders (Anemones) deposit feeders (Starfish and Sea Cucumbers) mobile feeders (Grenadier Fish and Crustaceans) Bring awareness to our generation so that we can take better action when these problems become apparent. They are the ones that have to deal with the side effects. Get rid of currupt politicians. Increase education in decision making process. Hazards largest nuclear scare since Chernobyl -140 kBq of radioactive cesium-134 per cubic centimeter -150 kBq of radioactive cesium-137 per cubic centimeter -11 kBq per cubic centimeter of iodine-131 http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T120317003393.htm http://e360.yale.edu/feature/radioactivity_in_the_ocean_diluted_but_far_from_harmless/2391/ http://www.inquisitr.com/217928/fukushima-nuclear-plant-radiation-found-in-california-kelp/ -Even though it will take decades to decontaminate the area. 1946-1972 Packbot was equipped with sensors that indicate and send back data in real time. Negative effects One week following the earthquake, Irobot sent 4 robots to assist the clean up efforts at Fukashima. Current Status Six Reactors- only 3 operational at the time and experienced full meltdown. During the meltdown several nuclear explosions occurred destroying the infrastructure December 16 2011 1 kBq = kiloBecquerel -> 10 or 10,000 Bq th materials dont naturally occur in ocean th Past and Current Status of the Problem Books Fukushima Government ordered sea water to be used to cool reactors. -This ruined the reactors entirely... 2nd video http://hawaiinewsdaily.com/2011/06/hawaii-monitoring-stations-detect-spike-in-fukushima-radiation/ WORK CITED http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=-6oQAyunXqk BUT... significant amounts of radiation has entered the Ground Water and the Ocean
Transcript: Nuclear Power Nuclear Power is a useful source of energy. It is radioactive. It is created by fission or fusion. About 20% of nuclear power is used in the U.S. with about 100 nuclear power plants. Should nuclear power be the main source for energy? Nuclear power leaves the less impact on the environment compared to oil, gas and coal and is easy to access. But, the effects from a nuclear explosion are devastating and nuclear waste can last for thousands of years. The future of nuclear power is uncertain but it will very likely continue. They might even find a way to create nuclear fusion. So the debate is still going on. Trivia Time! Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Power is a radioactive source of energy created by fission or fusion ~Three Mile Island is located in Pennsylvania ~The Accident happened on March 28, 1979 ~The meltdown let out a lot of radiation On March 11, 2011 a earth quake hit Japan. 3 power plants exploded and 7 reactors had a meltdown. The people who lived near the reactors had to leave there homes. ~ The cooling system was filled with hydrogen gas. How will it affect our future? How will it affect our future Cons of Nuclear Power: ~Very radioactive ~Can explode ~Can melt down ~Nuclear reactors produce nuclear waste In order for a nuclear reactor to create energy, it is necessary for nuclear fission to take place. Uranium is used as the fuel for the reaction as it is radioactive. The uranium atom absorbs a neutron and splits into two equal parts and energy is created. Fission and Fusion Thank you for your attention! Fission is where a neutron goes into a atom, and the atom splits apart into more atoms. So now more neutrons go into the other atoms creating a chain reaction. Fusion is where two atoms, tritium and deuterium fuse together to make an atom of helium. The atom of helium is made because helium has two protons and two neutrons. Deuterium has two particles, one proton and one neutron. Tritium has three particles, one proton and two neutrons when they collide, the extra neutron shoots out and creates energy. Pros and Cons questions? Chernobyl Japan Three Mile Island What is Nuclear Power? Pros of Nuclear Power: ~Takes less resource for the same amount of energy ~Easy to access and use ~Less pollution created Chernobyl is located in Ukraine. On April 26, 1986 a nuclear reactor exploded in Chernobyl, Ukraine.
Transcript: The Future of Nuclear Power Disadvantages to Nuclear Power In nuclear power plants, neutrons collide with uranium atoms, splitting them. This split releases neutrons from the uranium that in turn collide with other atoms, causing a chain reaction. This chain reaction is controlled with "control rods" that absorb neutrons. Fission releases energy that heats water to about 520 degrees F in the core of the plant. This hot water is then used to spin turbines that are connected to generators, which produce electricity. Because a strong commitment is needed to replace the lost capacity with energy efficiency and clean renewable generators, the US needs to find a place to store the wastes of the Uranium without putting the nation at risk. There has been talk of storing the waste at Yucca Mountain which will provide basically a storage room for the waste until it is gone. Nuclear energy will play a prominent role in our nations energy future because right now nuclear energy is 20% of our energy in the United States. We have learned from the mistakes in Japan and Chernobyl which will only help us improve the saftey at the nuclear power plants. The main advantage this type of power has over other methods is that it is a clean way to produce energy as it does not result in the emission of any of the poisonous gases like carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide. One of the main benefits of nuclear power is that it is an extremely reliable source of power because most nuclear reactors have a life cycle of 40 years which can be easily extended further for 20 more years. The source of nuclear power is uranium and this is available in abundance in the crust of the Earth with major deposits being uncovered in Canada and Australia. Therefore since the source of nuclear power is readily available now and also for centuries to come, this form of power is virtually inexhaustible. How Nuclear Power Works Benefits of nuclear power High-level radioactive waste is very dangerous. It lasts for tens of thousands of years before decaying to safe levels. It is highly radioactive and is a major barrier to the expansion of nuclear power. Nuclear fuels are, physically, even rarer than fossil fuels. Fossil fuels at least are made on Earth, albeit over millions of years. Heavy elements like Uranium are only made as stars die, in supernovas. Our solar system actually formed from the remains of another star, at which point heavier elements were made. Essentially, once they're gone, they are well and truly gone. Nuclear Power The Chernobyl accident is the most serious accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Because of a basic human error of a combination of basic engineering deficiencies in the reactor and faulty actions of the operators. Because of this human error, 600000 people have been treated emergency, containment, cleaning, and recovery operations. This is a very specific reason of why nuclear power is dangerous, because one simple error can effect the world.
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Transcript: Nuclear power Wilson Kelly Uranium This is a picture of uranium The bad Uranium is poisonous and it is used for all kinds of things. Its mainly used for energy. It has been used for killing people, like in world war 2 when Hiroshima was bombed. The bomb was radioactive. which was made with uranium. About uranium Why it is be bad If you breathe in uranium which makes nuclear power, it can make you sick and die. If say a nuclear power plant had exploded it could burn your skin and destroy your lungs by breathing it in. Why its bad Topic Why its also good
Transcript: Produces hazardous waste Emits radiation in case of a destructive accident Use Nuclear Power as an alternative until other forms of renewable energy are developed well enough to be used commercially. Countries Using Nuclear Energy 1919 Marie Curie discovers radiation comes from atoms. World War II First application of nuclear power as weapons. Fission Public Opinion on Nuclear Power Takes long to plan and build Japan March 11, 2011. Earthquake triggers tsunami. Destroys power and cooling system. Three reactor core meltdowns. Now in "Cold Shutdown Condition". Uranium-235 nuclei split Chernobyl Uses fresh water 1938 Commercial Nuclear Power Two German scientists produce first reaction. Discover uranium use for weapons. Fukushima Nuclear Energy How It Works Ukraine 1986 Flawed reactor design and human error caused explosion. Released radiation. Now broken reactor is being encased. 1896 What works for France does not seem to work for the rest of the world. No direct greenhouse gas emissions during generation Non-renewable Design of nuclear power reactors for energy after World War II. Accidents Yes or No? Supplies new jobs Supplies itself with own electricity Cheap Pressurized Water Reactor Boiling Water Reactor Reactor Fuel needs to be mined Poses a national to global security risk Ernest Rutherford shoots particles at atomic nuclei. Con Invention Over 440 reactors. More than 30 different countries. Three Mile Island Pensylvania, USA 1979 Cooling failure caused partial meltdown. Failed to display that valve did not close. 1945 Supplies total of 14 % of world's electricity U.S. - 19 % France - 75 % Other European countries and Japan - around 20 to 30 % Pro
Transcript: Fissionable Fuel Two isotopes typically used Uranium-235 Plutonium-239 Fission Reactions Slow moving neutron absorbed by isotope Unstable isotope splits into 2 isotopes of unequal mass Self Sustaining Fission As atoms split, free neutrons released Neutrons act upon remaining fuel Reactions regulated by control rods (cadmium/boron) Nuclear Reactors Power plant decomissioning Average life 35-40 years Small fuel loads 35 tons U-235 will supply 1000 MW of power for a year 1 kg U-235 = 3000 tons coal = 14000 barrels oil = 80,000,000,000 Btus Fission Reactions 1939 - Fission discovered. 1942 - First self sustaining fission reaction. 1960s – Nuclear energy viewed as cheap alternative to coal and oil. 1970s – Concerns over nuclear energy grow. 1979 – Incident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. April, 1986 – Chernobyl Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Advantages & Disadvantages Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Radioactive waste storage Yucca Mountain, Nevada Nuclear Energy
Transcript: NUCLEAR POWER! How is nuclear power produced? Nuclear power is produced by controlled nuclear reactions. Nuclear power provides about 6% of the world's energy and 13%-–14% of the world's electricity. This is a photo of an nuclear power plant Should you worry about nuclear power? I think the answer is as long as things are being done properly, you don't need to worry too much. The thing that does worry most people is the small amount of high-level nuclear waste from power stations. Although there's not much of it, it's very, very dangerous and they have no way to deal with it apart from bury it and wait for a few thousand years. Nuclear power plants save thousands of lives every year in the United States. This is because nuclear plants replace many coal plants, which emit tiny particulates into the atmosphere. These particulates are believed to kill thousands of Americans each year. Nuclear plants emit no particulates. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power2.htm 17% of the world's electricity came from 442 nuclear power plants in 1996. Nuclear energy accounted for 77% of France's electricity, 52% of Sweden's, and 22% of the United States'. http://www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm http://www.wikipedia.org/ Inside the Power Plant http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~azadini/group/website/ Facts about Nuclear Power http://wins.engr.wisc.edu/VillainOrVictim/facts/main.html Nuclear power is controversial and there is an ongoing debate about the use of nuclear energy View video on Less radiation is given off by a nuclear power plant than a coal-burning plant. Sources
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